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【本文】   “We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This structure has novel features which are of considerable biological interest.” This is how James Watson and Francis Crick announced in 1956 that they had worked out the structure of the “molecule of life”. Many scientists regard it as the most important scientific discovery of the 20th century.   The DNA molecule is like a ladder that has been twisted into a spiral like a corkscrew. Four base molecules are spread along the legs of the ladder: A (adenine), T(thymine), C(cytosine), and G(guanine). The rungs of the ladder are bonds linking the four base molecules on the ladder legs. A is always linked with T and C is always linked with G. The DNA molecule reproduces itself by unwinding the two legs of the ladder. Each leg then combines with a new leg and two identical molecules are formed. This is how living organisms are able to reproduce. Each cell in our body is about one millionth of a meter in diameter, but contains about two meters of DNA.   Every living organism, plant or animal, is determined by its DNA and the way the four base molecules are arranged. The arrangement of those four base molecules determines whether the organism is, for example, a plant or an animal, a mosquito, an elephant or a human being. And each individual within a species has its own DNA, which determines whether that individual has straight or curly hair, or fair or dark skin.   Scientists are now using DNA to study our history. In the 19th century, anthropologists found fossil remains of what they thought were early human beings. They called them “Neanderthal man” after the valley in which their remains were first found. It was thought that they were our ancestors and that we had evolve from them. However, comparisons of Neanderthal DNA with DNA of modern humans showed that while we do have an ancestor in common, we developed from this common ancestor separately. We now know that the Neanderthal line of development split from the human one about 500,000 years ago. Neanderthals and humans are different species just as chimpanzees and humans are different species. DNA studies show that all modern humans descended from one woman who lived about 200,000 years ago.   In the movie Jurassic Park, scientists bring extinct dinosaurs back to life. They use dinosaur DNA taken from preserved mosquitoes that fed on dinosaur blood. This may no longer be science fiction. The first successful extraction of DNA from an extinct animal was done in 1984. The quagga was an African animal very closely related to the zebra, with very similar DNA. The quagga used to be common in Africa, but became extinct in 1887. In 1984 scientists at The University of California extracted quagga DNA from a skin preserved in a museum. The South African Museum has set up a program to clone the quagga using zebras as host mothers. Scientists at the Australian Museum in Sydney have isolated the DNA of a Tasmanian Tiger, which became extinct in 1936, aiming to bring it back as well. The problem with bringing dinosaurs back is that they have been extinct for 65 million years. It is unlikely that any dinosaur DNA has survived. 問題のURLはこちらです。http://detail.chiebukuro.yahoo.co.jp/qa/question_detail.php?qid=1027265645 この問題の自分の答えがd.a.b.c.d.a.になりました。 答え合わせよろしくお願いします。


  • 英語
  • 回答数2
  • ありがとう数3


  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.2

私もあなたと同じ答えになりましたことを確認します。 これは私の興味のある分野なので、自慢ではありませんが、問題を先に読んで解答したところ、偶然にも全部正解でした。 DNAの構造を発見したWatsonとCrickの両氏がノーベル賞を受賞したことはきいていました。 特に2)の問題に関しては個々の細胞の中にあるDNAの長さをつなぐと、人間の体全体の何十兆個かの細胞で月までとどくと言う事を、先に聞いておりました。 なお脊髄動物で最初にクローンに成功したのは、英国の羊のDollyだったと記憶してます。


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  • 回答No.1
  • lola_
  • ベストアンサー率26% (4/15)

私も同じ答えになりましたよ! DNAは採れたけど、クローンはまだ実現してませんよね。



  • 次の英語の問題の答え合わせをお願いします。(※専門用語があります。)

    本文を読み,パラグラフの( )の中に1つ単語を埋めなさい。 パラグラフは次のURLに書いてあります。 http://detail.chiebukuro.yahoo.co.jp/qa/question_detail.php?qid=1028273415 【本文】   An epidemic occurs when a disease spreads through a population because its members have no natural immunity to it. Since people started living in cities about 10,000 years ago, our history is one of constant war between humans and diseases. Early cities had poor food and water supplies and poor sanitation systems, so diseases were common. Cholera used to kill many people in Europe but has now almost disappeared there because of improved sanitation. Cholera epidemics still cause many deaths in underdeveloped countries.  In the 14th century an epidemic known as the “Black Death” killed 40 million people in Europe. It arrived in Europe on fleas living on rats that came with traders from China. Europeans caused many epidemics as they settled new parts of the world. Spanish explorers introduced smallpox into South America in the 16th century, killing off half the Aztec population. Measles, introduced into Fiji in the 19th century, killed off 40 percent of the population.  A pandemic is an epidemic that occurs worldwide. An influenza pandemic at the end of the First World War caused 20 million deaths. Most experts believe that another influenza pandemic is inevitable at some time in the future. Some people feared that the outbreak of SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) that arose in China in 2003 was that pandemic, but a major campaign to isolate infected people and those they had come into contact with was effective. By June 2003 the disease had been brought under control, although some cases were reported in 2004. During the SARS epidemic over 8,000 people were infected worldwide. Around 800 people died.  AIDS is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It emerged in the last decades of the 20th century and has a high death rate. A lot of research has been directed toward trying to find a cure and a vaccine, but neither has yet been developed. It is estimated that AIDS will have claimed 65 million lives by 2010.  Bacteria multiply rapidly. Some double their numbers every 20 minutes. Mutations cause some of the new bacteria to be different to the older ones. Some of the new bacteria may be resistant to antibiotics that are effective against the original ones. These new bacteria thrive while the antibiotic destroys the originals. So the antibiotic actually promotes the development of bacteria that are resistant to it.  Hospitals throughout the world are now having problems with “superbugs”, bacteria that are resistant to different types of antibiotics. Resistance to one type of antibiotic is not a problem, since others can be used. But multi-resistance, in which bacteria develop resistance to most or all antibiotics, is increasing. One particularly nasty bacterium, MRSA, infects more than 100,000 people in the U.S. each year and has spread to other countries. It is now one of the greatest dangers to patients undergoing surgery.   Doctors now accept that antibiotic resistance will always be with us. We need to develop new antibiotics faster than the bacteria can develop resistance to the older ones. Viruses also mutate, which is why we need to be vaccinated each year against new types of influenza. A frightening prospect is that some countries are developing new or modified diseases that could be used in warfare or by terrorists. Since they would be new diseases, populations would have no natural immunity to them.

  • 英語の生物の和訳です。

    1.4 DNA structure and function DNA is huge ladder-like molecule made up of sugar , phosphate and four organic bases called Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine.The bases will only join up in the pairs A to T and G to C. The two halves of the ladder can also un-zip between the pairs of bases.They do this: (a) At mitosis: each half ladder forms the other half on itself.So two ladders,which are identical, result.This is the reason why a chromosome that splits in mitosis forms two identical chromosomes. (b) When genes make proteins: each half ladder forms a related substance, RNA(very similar to DNA) on it.This then detaches, passing to the ribosomes.RNA carries the sequence of bases that were in the DNA.Each three letter ‘word’(triplet),e.g.AGC attracts particular amino acid to the ribosome. The sequence of the hundreds of triplets is what determines the kind of protein formed at the ribosomes-each protein has its own unique DNA sequence. Thus a length of DNA with its own unique sequence is a gene; and a gene is what is used to make its own, unique,protein by linking a particular sequence of amino acids together at ribosome. The‘ladder’structure of DNA is in fact turned into a spiral(double helix) thread,with 10 base pairs per complete 360°turn.This has little to do with the function of DNA but it was a crucial fact, discovered by Franklin, Wilkins, Watson and Crick, in determining its structure. かなり長いですがお願いします。 すごく急いでます。

  • 次の英文を大至急訳してください

    Sandra is a slender lady who can eat as much as she likes without having to exercise like a fiend. She is in a shrinking minority of people who follow a Western lifestyle. The norm is to be fat. In most of Western Europe and the United States more than half the adults are overnight. What, then, explains the ability of Sandra and others like her to stay thin in such an environment? The answer is complex and not the same for everyone. Apart from upbringing and environment, scientists are discovering that genes and biology are more important than previously believed.

  • 英語が出来る方助けてください。(かなり困っています。)

    英語が出来る方助けてください。(かなり困っています。) 今学生をしているのですが400ページほどある英語の専門書を読み始めたのですがこの部分の訳がどうしてもしっくりこないのですが分かる方いませんでしょうか?? 英語が大変苦手なので自分の訳に自信がなく困っています。 先生が海外に勉強に行っているので聞けず大変困っています。もし分かる方がいらしたら宜しくお願いします。 1.6. Mobility of Adsorbed Molecules The translational movement of adsorbed molecules is governed by the amplitude of the oscillations of Li(z) across the surface and by the available thermal energy. If the variations in Li(z) are much smaller than the mean thermal, kT, the energy barriers between adsorption sites are small enough to be overcome easily at the operational temperature: the adsorbed molecules therefore retain two translational degrees of freedom and can be regarded as mobile. On the other hand, if the energy barriers are much larger than kT, the adsorbed molecules are said to be localized since they spend most of their time on particular surface sites. In the hypothetical case of a perfectly homogeneous surface, there is no variation of Li(z) in the xy plane - see Figure 1.4a. It is more realistic to picture a uniform surface, which gives rise to energy wells of the same depth. Now, the potential energy profiles corresponding to mobile and localized adsorption are shown respectively in Figures 1.4b and 1.4c. In the former case, there is a random distribution of adsorbed molecules across the surface; whereas in the latter case, the location of the adsorbed molecules is governed by the surface structure of the adsorbent. Localization does not prevent the adsorbed molecules from 'hopping' from one site to another (unlike the situation in immobile chemisorption), but it is not compatible with the state of a close-packed completed monolayer.

  • 英語の訳をお願いします!!

    'It's natural for species to become extinct over millions of years,' says Dr.Lovejoy.'What's unnatural is that humans are speeding up the process many times over.' People are doing this in four main ways: destroying wildlife habitats, overhunting, introducing new species that endanger native wildlife, and polluting the environment. These activities affect all species in one way or another. 'All life is interconnected,' cautions Dr.Lovejoy.Is there time to prevent disaster? Just barely, say scientists.Worldwide action will be difficult and costly.But scientists agree that action must be taken - quickly. The clock is ticking…

  • 英語の答え合わせをお願いします。

    英語の答え合わせをお願いします。 1.Leaves are to the plant ( ) lungs are to animal. what? 2.There is no rule ( ) exceptions. without? 3.He bought two ( ) of the new book. pairs? 4.He ( ) his leg broken in the accident. was? 5.Strike ( ) the iron is hot. when? 6.The student was ( ) in an examination. taking? 7.I met her on the campus yesterday.--( ). Did you? 8.My ideas are different from ( ). their? 9.She is an adult,and should be treated ( ). such as? 10.( ) is the English for the Japanese'yuri'? What? 11.I was ( ) a loss what to do. at? 12.I will tell about it on condition()you won't reveal my name. while? 宜しくお願いします。

  • 次の英文を和訳してほしいです。

    From the time that life first appeared on Earth, species have gone extinct. Extinction is a natural part of evolution. Species that are best at adapting to their environment survive. Other species are unable to adapt quickly enough – so they die off. So, why do endangered species get so much attention today? One reason is much of the extinction happening these days is unnatural. The leading reason for a species to become endangered is loss of habitat. As humans cut down forests for farmland, expand cities, or pollute waterways, to name a few ways that habitat is destroyed, animals, plants, and insects find it harder and harder to survive. Thus, the effect of humans on the natural world is causing species to become endangered, and, ultimately, go extinct. Another leading reason for a species to become endangered is climate change. For example, the lizards in this article could probably adapt to a gradual change in temperature. However, the rapid change in the climate, and the consequent decrease in lizard birthrate, threaten to doom many lizard species. If human activity is a major reason for climate change, then it would seem that we are changing our world far too rapidly for species to naturally adapt. Humans are highly adaptable, but most species need a lot of time to get used to changing conditions.

  • 次の文を訳してください。。。

    The most difficult kind of liberty to preserve in a democracy is that kind which derives its importance from services to the community that are not very obvious to ignorant people. また、文法の解説もよろしくお願いします。

  • 英語の和訳

    この英文の和訳お願いします(>_<) ↓ ↓ Someone must decide whether or not to give an award. The process of nominating and choosing Nobel Prize winners has two parts. First,nominations of people who might deserve a Nobel Prize are made. The nominations in physics,chemistry and economics are made by the Royal Academy of Science in Stockholm. The nominations in medicine are made ay the Caroline Medical Institute,which is also in Stockholm. The Swedish Academy both makes nominations in literature and receives them from experts and other academies such as those of France and Spain. The Peace Prize nominations are made by a committee of the Norwegian government. Many nominations are made in each area. Nominations from these groups begin the process of choosing the Nobel Prize winners. The second part of the process of choosing Nobel Prize winners is to decide which of the nominated people deserves the award in each area. This decision is made by the Nobel Foundation in Stockholm. The winners of Nobel Prizes are honored for their great achievements and are rewarded both by fame and by money for their contribution to human life. A Nober Prize is one of the highest honors any scientist,politician,or writer can ever receive.

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いします。

    送られてきた以下の英語のメール文が上手く読めません。途中までは訳してみたのですが、だんだん難しくなり、途中から全く分からなくなりました。英語に堪能な方、どうかよろしくお願いします。 ーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーー 1. ACT in general is an organization of teachers and non-teaching personnel, from pre-school to colleges and universities. Most of the members are from the public schools that is more than 500,000 nationwide. We have chapters in all (17) regions in the country. It is in the Philippine Constitution that public servants have the right to unionize and in 1987, there was the Executive Order 180, that created the Public Sector Labor Managemant Council. It was only recently, September, 2011 to be exact, that the government thru Civil Service Commision has come up with a clear guidelines on how public school teachers will be unionized. The main essence is that public school teachers can form union on a regional basis. With this, we registered our very union in the National Capital Region (ACT-NCR union) then gained our recognition from the government last Septembr 17, 2012. We are now in the process of negotiation with the Deped NCR. In fact, we already had 2meetings with them. Our Davao region is already in the process of registration. Soon other regions will follow. We are the only teachers organization that is already officially registered and recognized. 2. The ACT-Ncr union is more or less 26t members out of 50t. Membership campaign is on going. Over all we have, 40t members. Trade unions in the Phil are separate from teachers. And also private schools have different unions (school to school basis) 3. Some of our major issues are  a. Increasing of education budget from 3% to 6% of the GDP like all other countries. So that shortages in the number of teachers, rooms, chairs, toilets and sanitation facilities will be addressed  b. Adequate , decent and living wages for teachers and non-teaching personnel. At present, the minimum salary of teachers in the public school is $464.  c. Increase budget for the state colleges and universities  d. Basic education curriculum that is relevant to the needs of the people and national development. We are campaigning for education that is scientific, mass oriented and nationalistic.  e. Implementation of the laws in education that is related to the benefits of teachers like RA 4760 Magna Carta for Public School Teachers, RA 8790 GSIS Law, etc Hope that this explation helped.