German Cavalry and Belgian Troops Clash in Halen

  • On 12 August, the German cavalry began their advance through Belgium, despite the fatigue of their horses caused by the summer heat.
  • The Belgian Headquarters intercepted wireless messages indicating that German troops were approaching de Witte's position.
  • In Halen, a group of Belgian troopers attempted to establish a fortified position, but were driven out by German field artillery.
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The German cavalry did not begin to move until 12 August due to the fatigue of the horses caused by the intense summer heat and a lack of oats. The 2nd Cavalry Division of Major-General von Krane advanced through Hasselt to Spalbeek and the 4th Cavalry Division under Lieutenant-General von Garnier advanced via Alken to Stevoort. The Belgian Headquarters discovered from intercepted wireless messages that German troops were advancing towards de Witte's position and sent the 4th Infantry Brigade to reinforce the Cavalry Division. Marwitz ordered the 4th Cavalry Division to cross the Gete and at 8:45 a.m. the 7th and 9th Jäger battalions advanced. A German scouting party advancing from Herk-de-Stad came under fire from Belgian troops and c. 200 Belgian troopers attempted to set up a fortified position in the old brewery in Halen but were driven out when the Germans brought up field artillery.

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ドイツの騎兵部隊は8月12日までは動き出そうとしなかった。夏の強烈な暑さやオーツ麦の欠乏で馬が疲弊していたためである。 フォン・クレーネ少将の第2騎兵師団は、ハッセルトを通ってシュパルベークに進撃し、 フォン・ガルニエル中将の第4騎兵師団はアルケンを経由してステーヴォールトに進撃した。ベルギーの司令部は無線通信を傍受し、ドイツ軍部隊はヴィッテのところに向かっており、第4歩兵旅団を騎兵師団に増強するために送られている、ということを知った。 マルビッツは、第4騎兵師団にゲーテ川を渡るよう指令し、午前8時45分に、第7、際9猟兵大隊も前進させた。 ヘルク・デ・スタットから進んできたドイツの斥候部隊はベルギー軍部隊と交戦した。約200名のベルギー軍はハーレンの古い醸造所に陣地を設けようとしたが、ドイツ軍の野戦砲兵がやってくると追い払われた。





  • 英文翻訳をお願いします。

    The German II Cavalry Corps under General Georg von der Marwitz was ordered to conduct reconnaissance towards Antwerp, Brussels and Charleroi and by 7 August, had found that the area to a line from Diest to Huy empty of Belgian and Allied troops. Belgian and French troops were rumoured to be between Tienen and Huy and Marwitz advanced to the north towards parties of Belgian cavalry, which had retired towards Diest. On 11 August, large bodies of German cavalry, artillery and infantry had been seen by Belgian cavalry scouts in the area from Sint-Truiden to Hasselt and Diest. Belgian headquarters therefore anticipated a German advance towards Hasselt and Diest.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The Belgian army retirement continued on 11 and 12 October, covered by cavalry, cyclists and motor machine-gun sections. On 14 October, the Belgian army began to dig in along the Yser, the 6th and 5th divisions to the north of French territorial divisions, assembled at Boesinghe, then northwards along the Yser canal to the Fusiliers Marins at Dixmude. The 4th, 1st and 2nd divisions prolonged the line north, with advanced posts at Beerst, Keyem, Schoore and Mannekensvere, about 1 mi (1.6 km) forward on the east bank. A bridgehead was also held near the coast around Lombartzyde and Westende, to cover Nieuport, with the 2nd Cavalry Division in reserve. On 18 October, the French 87th and 89th Territorial Infantry divisions took over the defence of the front line south of Fort Knokke from the 6th Belgian division, which is moved to the Yser Front. On 21 October, the hard-pressed Belgian Army was reinforced with the French 42nd Division under command of Paul François Grossetti. The Allies assembled a naval force under the British Admiral Horace Hood with three monitors, HMS Severn, Humber and Mersey and assorted craft to provide heavy artillery support to the Allied defenders of the seaward flank. The German forces comprised the newly organised 4th Army, commanded by the Albrecht Duke of Württemberg, with the III Reserve Corps from Antwerp and four new reserve corps from Germany, along with cavalry and heavy artillery units. It moved southwards from Bruges and Ostend in the direction of the Yser river, to take the line from Nieuwpoort to Ypres. Diksmuide was attacked on 16 October and defended by Belgian and French troops under Colonel Alphonse Jacques who would later be awarded the title "de Dixmude" for his role in the defence of the town. Despite heavy losses, the Belgians and French held the town. The press, politicians, literary figures and the military channelled public opinion, making out that the defence of the town was both strategic and heroic. On 18 October the German offensive began and overran Allied troops from Nieuwpoort south to Arras. The objective was to defeat the Belgian and French armies and to deprive the British of access to Calais, Boulogne and Dunkirk. The III Reserve Corps attacked Belgian defences from Diksmuide to the sea, regardless of loss. The Germans captured advanced posts at Keiem, Schoore and part of Mannekensvere and reached the Yser, despite fire support from the Anglo-French flotilla, which bombarded German troops along the coast as far as Middelkerke. The 4th Ersatz Division was forbidden to cross the Yser at Nieuwpoort because of the shell-fire from the Allied ships.

  • 日本語訳をお願い致します。

    The Allied forces around Ghent withdrew on the approach of German forces on 11 October. The British 7th Division moved to Aeltre 10 miles (16 km) to the west, made rendezvous with British detachments, which had moved inland from Bruges and began to march to Ypres. The southern flank was covered by the 3rd Cavalry Division, which had moved from Thourout to Roulers and the French Fusiliers Marins brigade moved on to Dixmude. At Thielt on the night of 12/13 October, General Capper, the 7th Division commander was informed that German cavalry near Hazebrouck had retired on the approach of the British II Corps, leaving the country west of the 7th Division clear of German forces. The division reached Roulers on 13/14 October, met BEF cavalry near Kemmel and linked with the French 87th Territorial Division around Ypres. The German IV Cavalry Corps had moved south four days previously, except for several Uhlans who were disturbed by a party arranging billets and captured by the 10th Hussars. By 18 October the Belgian, British and French troops in northern France and Belgium had formed a line with the BEF II Corps in position with the 5th Division from La Bassée Canal north to Beau Puits, the 3rd Division from Illies to Aubers and three divisions of the French Cavalry Corps of General Conneau in position from Fromelles to Le Maisnil, the BEF III Corps with the 6th Division from Radinghem to Epinette and the 4th Division from Epinette to Pont Rouge, the BEF Cavalry Corps with the 1st and 2nd Cavalry divisions, from Deulemont to Tenbrielen, the BEF IV Corps with the 7th Division and 3rd Cavalry Division from Zandvoorde to Oostnieuwkirke, the French Groupe Bidon and the de Mitry Cavalry Corps from Roulers to Cortemarck, the French 87th and 89th Territorial Divisions from Passchendaele to Boesinghe and then the Belgian Field Army and fortress troops from Boesinghe to Nieuport (including the Fusilier Marin brigade at Dixmude). The Battle of the Yser began on 16 October.

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    On 15 October, the cavalry was ordered to reconnoitre the Lys from Estaires to Menin. Estaires was captured by French cavalry but German defences prevented an advance beyond Comines, 5.5 miles (8.9 km) west of Menin, where advanced guards of the German XIX and XIII Corps had arrived during the night. A foothold was gained at Warneton and German outposts at Houthen and Hollebeke, west of the Ypres–Comines canal, were pushed back to the far side. By the end of 15 October, the Cavalry Corps and the 3rd Cavalry Division held the Lys river from Armentières to Comines and the Comines canal to Ypres. The BEF was ordered to make a general advance on 16 October, as the German forces were falling back, except for III Reserve Corps, which was advancing westwards from Antwerp. The cavalry were ordered to cross the Lys between Armentières and Menin as the III Corps advanced north-east, to clear the way for the cavalry and gain touch with the 7th Division near Ypres. The cavalry advanced towards the Lys between Houplines and Comines at 6:00 a.m. in fog, which grounded Royal Flying Corps (RFC) reconnaissance aircraft and made artillery support impossible. The river was a muddy stream 45–60 feet (14–18 m) wide and 5 feet (1.5 m) deep at that point, flanked by water meadows. The banks of the Lys were cut by boggy streams and dykes, which kept the cavalry on the roads. German outposts were pushed back but the crossings were well-defended and dismounted cavalry attacks were not able to dislodge the German defenders. Cavalry which got to Warneton town square, were withdrawn during the night. The attack was resumed on 18 October, when the cavalry attacked from Deûlémont to Tenbrielen but made no progress against a strong and well-organised German defence, ending the day opposite Deûlémont in the south to the railway at Tenbrielen to the north. From 9–18 October, the Cavalry Corps had c. 175 casualties. A German attack threatened the left flank of the 1st Cavalry Division (Major-General Beauvoir De Lisle), which held its position on Messines Ridge despite substantial casualties. The 3rd Cavalry Brigade of the 2nd Cavalry Division was shelled out of its positions at Kortewilde and the line was withdrawn to Hollebeke Château. Confusion over the orders, meant the units interpreted the order from Gough to retreat to this new line as an order for a general retreat beyond Hollebeke Château. Once this was realised, Gough ordered an immediate counter-thrust to recapture lost ground. The attack succeeded with little loss, against the German Cavalry Corps. Lieutenant-General Gustav von Hollen, given command of the Cavalry Corps after his performance commanding German IV Cavalry Corps on 20 October, was dismissed and replaced by General Georg von der Marwitz. The 6th Cavalry Brigade and the 7th Division moved to cover the gap that threatened the left flank.

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    Early on 9 October, German troops found some forts of the inner ring empty; Beseler ended the bombardment and summoned the military governor, General Victor Deguise, to surrender. About 30,000 men of the Antwerp garrison surrendered and the city was occupied by German troops. About 33,000 soldiers of the garrison (c. 30 percent of the Belgian Army) fled north to the Netherlands, where they were interned for the duration. During the siege of Antwerp, the German and French armies fought the Battle of the Frontiers (7 August – 13 September) and then the German armies in the north pursued the French and the BEF southwards into France in the Great Retreat, which culminated in the First Battle of the Marne (5–12 September), followed by the First Battle of the Aisne (13–28 September). A series of reciprocal attempts by the Franco-British and German armies to envelop the northern flank of the opposing army, the Race to the Sea took place through Picardy, Artois and Flanders (17 September – 19 October. The "race" ended on the North Sea coast of Belgium, when the last open area from Dixmude to the North Sea was occupied by Belgian troops from Antwerp. British and French forces in Belgium covered the retirement of the Belgians and British from Antwerp. The 1st, 3rd and 4th divisions reached Ostend, the 5th and 6th divisions arrived at Torhout and Diksmuide and the Antwerp garrison troops moved to an area north-west of Ghent. The Germans 4th Ersatz Division and Landwehr troops at Lokeren and Moerbeke turned east towards Ghent before the withdrawal was discovered. The III Reserve Corps and the 4th Ersatz Division were then ordered to turn west and advance on Kortrijk, to prolong the main German front, before being sent towards Ghent and Bruges, with orders to reach Blankenberge and Ostend on the coast. On 11 October, German troops were detected advancing on Ghent, by which time the Belgian fortress troops had joined the field army. A withdrawal from Ghent from 3:00–10:00 p.m. began, after which German troops entered the city. Several bridges were demolished during the retirement, although crowds of civilians on the main road and rail bridges led to them being left intact. Captains of the French Fusiliers marins at the Yser By 18 October, the Belgian, British and French troops in northern France and Belgium had formed a defensive line, with the British II Corps in position, with the 5th Division from La Bassée Canal north to Beau Puits, the 3rd Division from Illies to Aubers and three divisions of the French Cavalry Corps (General Louis Conneau) deployed from Fromelles to Le Maisnil, the British III Corps with the 6th Division from Radinghem to Epinette and the 4th Division from Epinette to Pont Rouge, the BEF Cavalry Corps with the 1st and 2nd Cavalry divisions, from Deûlémont to Tenbrielen, the British IV Corps with the 7th Division and 3rd Cavalry Division from Zandvoorde to Oostnieuwkirke, the French Groupe Bidon and the de Mitry Cavalry Corps from Roulers to Cortemarck, the 87th and 89th Territorial divisions from Passchendaele to Boesinghe and then the Belgian field army and fortress troops from Boesinghe to Nieuport.

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    The German 4th Cavalry Division lost 501 men and c. 848 horses during the battle, casualty rates of 16 percent and 28 percent. Total casualties of the 2nd and 4th Cavalry divisions were 150 dead, 600 wounded, 200–300 prisoners. The Belgian army had 1,122 casualties, including 160 dead and 320 wounded. Until the German advance into France began, the 2nd Cavalry Division remained in the vicinity of Hasselt to guard the area near the Gete and the 4th Cavalry Division moved south on 13 August to the area around Loon and then moved towards the south-east of Tienen and joined the 9th Cavalry Division, which had crossed the Meuse on 14 August. On 16 August Marwitz advanced with the two divisions to Opprebais and Chaumont-Gistoux, where skirmishing with cavalry and artillery occurred, before meeting infantry who were well dug-in. Next day the cavalry slowly retired towards Hannut.

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    The German 4th Cavalry Division lost 501 men and c. 848 horses during the battle, casualty rates of 16 percent and 28 percent. Total casualties of the 2nd and 4th Cavalry divisions were 150 dead, 600 wounded, 200–300 prisoners. The Belgian army had 1,122 casualties, including 160 dead and 320 wounded.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The troops on the left were exposed by the repulse of the troops to the west, beyond the Thuizy–Nauroy road. German resistance in the Konstanzlager to the south-east of Mont Blond, prevented its right from being supported by the 45th division. The 83rd Regiment managed a costly advance to the summit of Mont Cornillet but German machine-guns on the ridge between Mont Cornillet and Mont Blond, slowed the advance. The left flank of the 59th Regiment was stopped by the Germans at Flensburg Trench, which connected the German defences of Mont Cornillet and Mont Blond, losing touch with the 83rd Regiment. The Germans in the west end of Erfurt Trench, repulsed the attack and the left flank regiment of the 45th Division on the right, was held up at the Konstanzlager. Lobit, the 34th division commander, sent the reserve battalions of the two regiments, to guard the open western flank of the division, between Erfurt trench and Mont Cornillet and to close the gap between the 83rd and 59th regiments. Some companies were sent to outflank the Konstanzlager from the west. Field artillery from the 128th Division, was galloped up the slopes of Mont Cornillet, despite German return fire and the 34th Division was subjected to a heavy German bombardment and counter-attacks against both flanks. At 2:30 p.m., the German garrison and reinforcements from the tunnel under the hill, broke into the French position on Mont Cornillet.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    French troops were to relieve the II Corps at Béthune, to move north and link with the right of III Corps but this did not occur. On the northern flank of III Corps, in front of the Cavalry Corps was a line of hills from Mont des Cats to Mt. Kemmel, about 400 ft (120 m) above sea level. Spurs ran south across the British line of advance and Mont des Cats and Flêtre were occupied by Höhere Kavallerie-Kommando 4 (HKK 4), with the 3rd, 6th and Bavarian Cavalry divisions, based on Bailleul. On 12 October, the British cavalry advanced to make room for III Corps and captured the Mont des Cats at dusk, having made combined attacks by hussars, lancers and a horse artillery battery during the day. Pulteney ordered III Corps to continue the advance on 13 October towards Bailleul, with the 6th Division on the right to move in three columns, on a line towards Vieux Berquin and Merris to the east of Hazebrouck and the 4th Division in two columns towards Flêtre, slightly north-east of Hazebrouck, with the Cavalry Corps advancing to the north east of the Mont des Cats. As Antwerp fell on 9 October, Falkenhayn ordered the III Reserve Corps (5th and 6th Reserve divisions and 4th Ersatz Division) westwards in pursuit of the Belgian army. With the fall of the fortress and the arrival of Franco-British forces in the area between Lille and Dunkirk, Falkenhayn ordered the 4th Army headquarters to Flanders from Lorraine and the assembly of a new army with the XXII, XXIII, XXVI and XXVII Reserve corps, to break through the Allied forces between Menin and the sea. German cavalry of HKK 4 operating to the north of the 6th Army, had probed north-west as far as Ypres and towards Estaires in the Lys valley, then retired south across the Lys near Armentières, before moving south-west through Bailleul and Frelinghien to Laventie. The 3rd Cavalry Division found the road to Estaires blocked and 6th Cavalry Division moved through Deûlémont and Radinghem-en-Weppes to Prémesques and Fleurbaix. A skirmish occurred with French Chasseurs but reinforcements arrived to drive them off and c. 3,000 Belgian reservists were captured. The moves of the German cavalry united the divisions of HKK 4 with HKK 1 and HKK 2 but with so little room for manoeuvre, HKK 4 was sent north of the Lys on 11 October. Next day, HKK 4 was ordered onto the defensive as British and French cavalry advanced from the west. The 6th Army had arrived piecemeal from Lorraine, the VII Corps deploying from La Bassée towards Armentières; on 15 October the XIX Corps arrived opposite Armentières, followed by the XIII Corps from Warneton to Menin. British attacks by II Corps and III Corps against the German VII and XIX corps led to the XIII Corps being moved south as a reinforcement opposite the junction of the II and III corps.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    After the Siege of Maubeuge in France, German super-heavy artillery was moved towards Antwerp which like Liège and Namur, would be untenable unless it could be incorporated into the main Allied front line, like the fortified regions of Verdun and Belfort in France. On 25 September the French General Staff (GQG) requested another sortie from Antwerp and the Belgian General Staff began to plan another operation. Signs of German preparations for a general attack on Antwerp, led to the forces intended for the sortie being reduced. The 5th Division, elements of the 4th Division and the Cavalry Division, which held the defences on the west side of the National Redoubt at Dendermonde and the Waasland, attacked German troops moving westward from Aalst. Although they succeeded in making a small advance, a counter-attack by the 37th Landwehr Brigade, supported by heavy artillery, led to the cancelling of the assault. On 28 September, the German bombardment of the Antwerp fortresses began. The German bombardment began on 28 September, with German siege guns directed by observation balloons on gun emplacements, flanking positions and magazines, which were the most vital parts of the forts, had by 6:00 p.m. on 29 September with extraordinary accuracy, made Fort Sint-Katelijne-Waver untenable and extensively damaged Fort Walem. Preparations to evacuate the Belgian Army to Ostend were begun by the Belgian Army Headquarters on 29 September and wounded, recruits, untrained men, prisoners of war, transport, equipment, ammunition and industrial machinery were gradually moved from Antwerp. The route out of the city crossed the Scheldt on two narrow pontoon bridges at the city centre and at Burcht. Trains had to run south along the right bank, cross the Rupel near German infantry positions only 10,000 yards (9,100 m) from the siege guns at Mechelen and then cross the railway bridge at Temse 12 miles (19 km) away. From 29 September – 7 October trains with lights extinguished, ran each night unopposed. The 4th Division assembled at Dendermonde, where a German attack was expected and the Cavalry Division guarded the river line, to protect the escape route between the Dender and the coast. Early on 29 September, the Belgian Prime Minister, Charles de Broqueville, informed the British that if all the outer forts were lost, the government and field army of 65,000 men would withdraw to Ostend and leave the 80,000 fortress troops to hold Antwerp for as long as possible. The next day, de Broqueville formally appealed to the British and French governments for help.