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On 15 October, the cavalry was ordered to reconnoitre the Lys from Estaires to Menin. Estaires was captured by French cavalry but German defences prevented an advance beyond Comines, 5.5 miles (8.9 km) west of Menin, where advanced guards of the German XIX and XIII Corps had arrived during the night. A foothold was gained at Warneton and German outposts at Houthen and Hollebeke, west of the Ypres–Comines canal, were pushed back to the far side. By the end of 15 October, the Cavalry Corps and the 3rd Cavalry Division held the Lys river from Armentières to Comines and the Comines canal to Ypres. The BEF was ordered to make a general advance on 16 October, as the German forces were falling back, except for III Reserve Corps, which was advancing westwards from Antwerp. The cavalry were ordered to cross the Lys between Armentières and Menin as the III Corps advanced north-east, to clear the way for the cavalry and gain touch with the 7th Division near Ypres. The cavalry advanced towards the Lys between Houplines and Comines at 6:00 a.m. in fog, which grounded Royal Flying Corps (RFC) reconnaissance aircraft and made artillery support impossible. The river was a muddy stream 45–60 feet (14–18 m) wide and 5 feet (1.5 m) deep at that point, flanked by water meadows. The banks of the Lys were cut by boggy streams and dykes, which kept the cavalry on the roads. German outposts were pushed back but the crossings were well-defended and dismounted cavalry attacks were not able to dislodge the German defenders. Cavalry which got to Warneton town square, were withdrawn during the night. The attack was resumed on 18 October, when the cavalry attacked from Deûlémont to Tenbrielen but made no progress against a strong and well-organised German defence, ending the day opposite Deûlémont in the south to the railway at Tenbrielen to the north. From 9–18 October, the Cavalry Corps had c. 175 casualties. A German attack threatened the left flank of the 1st Cavalry Division (Major-General Beauvoir De Lisle), which held its position on Messines Ridge despite substantial casualties. The 3rd Cavalry Brigade of the 2nd Cavalry Division was shelled out of its positions at Kortewilde and the line was withdrawn to Hollebeke Château. Confusion over the orders, meant the units interpreted the order from Gough to retreat to this new line as an order for a general retreat beyond Hollebeke Château. Once this was realised, Gough ordered an immediate counter-thrust to recapture lost ground. The attack succeeded with little loss, against the German Cavalry Corps. Lieutenant-General Gustav von Hollen, given command of the Cavalry Corps after his performance commanding German IV Cavalry Corps on 20 October, was dismissed and replaced by General Georg von der Marwitz. The 6th Cavalry Brigade and the 7th Division moved to cover the gap that threatened the left flank.

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>On 15 October, ~ advancing westwards from Antwerp. ⇒10月15日、騎兵隊はリィス川のエステールからメニンまでを偵察するよう命じられた。エステールはフランスの騎兵隊によって攻略されたが、ドイツ軍防衛隊はメニンから5.5マイル(8.9キロ)西のコミーヌを越える前進は阻止した。ドイツ軍の第XIX、第XIII軍団の先進警護隊が夜間そこに到着していたのである。ワルネトンで足場が得られ、イープル–コミーヌ運河西のウーテンとホルベクにあるドイツ軍の前哨基地が向こう(敵陣)側に押し戻された。10月15日の終わりまでに、騎兵隊と第3騎兵師団がアルマンティエールからコミンズまでと、コミンズ運河からイープルまでのリィス川を掌握した。アントワープから西に向かって進んでいた第III予備軍団を除いて、ドイツ軍が後退しかかっていたので、BEFは10月16日に総前進するようとの命を受けた。 >The cavalry were ordered ~ withdrawn during the night. ⇒第III軍団が北東に進んだとき、騎兵隊は、アルマンティエールとメニンの間でリィスを渡って道を開き、イープル近くの第7師団と接触する連絡をつけるように命じられた。騎兵隊は午前6時、霧の中でウプリンとコミーヌの間のリィスに向かって前進した。霧のせいで、王立航空隊(RFC)の偵察機は駐機したままで、砲兵隊支援が不可能になったからであった。川はその時点で幅45-60フィート(14-18 m)、深さ5フィート(1.5 m)の泥だらけの流れで、湿った雑草地がそれに沿っていた。リィスの堤防は湿地帯の小川と堤によって切断されていたので、騎兵隊は路上に留まらざるを得なかった。ドイツ軍の前哨基地は押し戻されたが、交差地点は十分に防御されており、下馬した騎兵攻撃隊もドイツ軍の防衛隊を追い払うことはできなかった。ワルネトンの町の広場に着いた騎兵隊は、夜中に撤退した。 >The attack was resumed ~ withdrawn to Hollebeke Château. ⇒10月18日に攻撃が再開された。騎兵隊はデュレモンからテンブリレンを攻撃したが、見事に強固に組織されたドイツ軍の防衛に対して何らの前進もできず、北はテンブリレンの鉄道、南はデュレモンに対峙したままその1日を終えた。10月9日-18日に、騎兵団は約175人の犠牲者を出した。ドイツ軍の攻撃が第一騎兵師団(ボーヴォワール・ド・リスル少将)の左側面を脅かしたが、甚大な犠牲にもかかわらずメセン尾根の陣地は保持した。第2騎兵師団の第3騎兵旅団はコルトヴィルデ陣地から追い出され、この戦線はホルベク城に後退した。 >Confusion over the orders, ~ that threatened the left flank. ⇒命令をめぐる混乱があったが、それは、諸部隊がこの新しい戦線に後退するようにというゴフからの命令を、ホルベク城を超えた総勢の後退の命令と解釈したことを意味した。これが行われた後、ゴフは失った地面を奪回するために即座の引き返し突進を命じた。ドイツ騎兵軍団に対する攻撃は、ほとんど損失なく成功した。10月20日に、ドイツ軍の第IV騎兵軍団を実践指揮した後に騎兵軍団の指揮を与えられていたグスタフ・フォン・ホーレン中将が解任され、ゲオルク・フォン・デル・マルヴィッツ将軍に置き換えられた。第6騎兵旅団と第7師団が、左側面を脅かしていた間隙を埋めるため、そこへ移動した。

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    The German forces in Flanders were homogeneous and had unity of command, against a composite force of British, Indian, French and Belgian troops, with different languages, training, tactics, equipment and weapons. German discipline and bravery was eventually defeated by the dogged resistance of the Allied soldiers, the effectiveness of French 75 mm field guns, British skill at arms, skilful use of ground and the use of cavalry as a mobile reserve. Bold counter-attacks by small numbers of troops in reserve, drawn from areas less threatened, often had an effect disproportionate to their numbers. German commentators after the war like Oberstleutnant (Lieutenant-Colonel) Konstantin Hierl criticised the slowness of the 6th Army in forming a strategic reserve which could have been achieved by 22 October rather than 29 October; generals had "attack-mania", in which offensive spirit and offensive tactics were often confused. Casualties From 15–31 October the III Corps lost 5,779 casualties, 2,069 men from the 4th Division and the remainder from the 6th Division. German casualties in the Battle of Lille from 15–28 October, which included the ground defended by III Corps, were 11,300 men. Total German losses from La Bassée to the sea from 13 October – 24 November were 123,910. The Battle of Messines was fought in October 1914 between the armies of the German and British empires, as part of the Race to the Sea, between the river Douve and the Comines–Ypres canal. From 17 September – 17 October the belligerents had made reciprocal attempts to turn the northern flank of their opponent. Joseph Joffre, the head of Grand Quartier Général (Chief of the General Staff) ordered the French Second Army to move to the north of the 6th Army, by transferring by rail from eastern France from 2–9 September. Erich von Falkenhayn, Chief of Oberste Heeresleitung (German General Staff) ordered the German 6th Army to move from the German-French border to the northern flank on 17 September. By the next day French attacks north of the Aisne, led to Falkenhayn ordering the 6th Army to repulse French forces to secure the flank. The Battle of Messines メセンの戦い

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