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The 6th Army line from La Bassée to Armentières and Menin, was ordered not to attack until the operations of the new 4th Army in Belgium had begun. Both armies attacked on 20 October, the XIV, VII, XIII and XIX corps of the 6th Army making a general attack from Arras to Armentières. Next day the northern corps of the 6th Army attacked from La Bassée to St Yves and gained little ground but prevented British and French troops from being moved north to Ypres and the Yser fronts. On 27 October, Falkenhayn ordered the 6th Army to move heavy artillery north for the maximum effort due on 29 October at Gheluvelt, to reduce its attacks on the southern flank against II and III corps and to cease offensive operations against the French further south. Armeegruppe von Fabeck was formed from XIII Corps and reinforcements from the armies around Verdun, which further depleted the 6th Army and ended the offensive from La Bassée north to the Lys. On 14 and 15 October, II Corps attacked on both sides of La Bassée Canal and German counter-attacks were made each night. The British managed short advances on the flanks, with help from French cavalry but lost 967 casualties. From 16 to 18 October, II Corps attacks pivoted on the right and the left flank advanced to Aubers, against German opposition at every ditch and bridge, which inflicted another thousand casualties. Givenchy was recaptured by the British on 16 October, Violaines was taken and a foothold established on Aubers Ridge on 17 October; French cavalry captured Fromelles. On 18 October, German resistance increased as the German XIII Corps arrived, reinforced the VII Corps and gradually forced the II Corps to a halt. On 19 October, British infantry and French cavalry captured Le Pilly (Herlies) but were forced to retire by German artillery-fire. The fresh German 13th Division and 14th Division arrived and began to counter-attack against all of the II Corps front. At the end of 20 October, the II Corps was ordered to dig in from the canal near Givenchy, to Violaines, Illies, Herlies and Riez, while offensive operations continued to the north. The countryside was flat, marshy and cut by many streams, which in many places made trench digging impractical, so breastworks built upwards were substituted, despite being conspicuous and easy to demolish with artillery-fire. (It was not until late October that the British received adequate supplies of sandbags and barbed wire.)The British field artillery was allotted to infantry brigades and the 60-pounders and howitzers were reserved for counter-battery fire. The decision to dig in narrowly forestalled a German counter-offensive which began on 20 October, mainly further north against the French XXI Corps and spread south on 21 October, to the 3rd Division area.

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>The 6th Army line ~ and the Yser fronts. ⇒ラ・バセからアルマンティエールやメニンまでの第6方面軍戦線は、新しい第4方面軍の作戦がベルギーで始まるまで攻撃しないよう命じられた。両方面軍とも10月20日に攻撃を始め、第6方面軍の第XIV、第VII、第XIII、第XIX軍団はアラスからアルマンティエールまでの総攻撃を行った。翌日、第6方面軍の北部軍団はラ・バセからサン・イヴまでを攻撃して少しの地面を得たが、英国とフランスの軍隊が北のイープルやイゼールの前線に動かされるのを妨げた。 >On 27 October, Falkenhayn ~ were made each night. ⇒10月27日、ファルケンハインはゲルベルトで最大の戦闘を10月29日にするため、重砲兵隊を北に移動させ、南側面の第II、第III軍団に対する攻撃を減らし、それより南のフランス軍に対する攻撃を中止するよう命令した。第XIII軍団とヴェルドゥン周辺の増援隊からフォン・ファベック方面軍グループが編成されたが、それで第6方面軍が空っぽになり、ラ・バセ北からリィスへの攻勢が終った。10月14日と15日、第II軍団はラ・バセ運河の両岸で襲撃したが、毎夜ごとにドイツ軍の反撃が行われた。 >The British managed short ~ French cavalry captured Fromelles. ⇒英国軍は、フランス軍騎兵隊の助けを借りて、側面で何とか短く進軍したが、英国軍は967人の犠牲者を失った。10月16日から18日にかけて、第II軍団の攻撃が右翼を軸にして左翼隊がオベールに向かって進み、あらゆる塹壕や橋梁で対抗するドイツ軍とわたり合って、さらに1000人の犠牲者を被った。10月16日に英国軍によってジバンシーが再攻略され、10月17日にヴィオレーンが奪取され、オベール・リッジに足場が確立された。フランス軍騎兵隊はフロメーユを攻略した。 >On 18 October, German ~ operations continued to the north. ⇒10月18日、ドイツ第XIII軍団が到着して第VII軍団を強化し、徐々に第II軍団を停止に追い込むにつれて、(かえって)ドイツ軍の抵抗は増大した。10月19日、英国軍歩兵隊とフランス軍騎兵隊がル・ピリー(ヘルリー)を攻略したが、ドイツ軍の砲撃で後退を余儀なくされた。新進(気鋭)のドイツ軍第13師団と第14師団が到着し、第II軍団の前線全体に対して対抗攻撃を始めた。10月20日の終わりに、第II軍団はジバンシー近くの運河からヴィオレーン、イリー、ヘルリー、リエズに向かって塹壕を掘るように命じられ、一方で攻撃的な作戦行動が北へ向かって続いた。 >The countryside was flat, ~ the 3rd Division area. ⇒田園地方は平らな湿地で、多くの流れによって寸断されていた。そして、多くの場所で塹壕掘削が非現実的にされていたので、目立つことによって大砲砲火で破壊するのが簡単であるにもかかわらず、上方へ盛り上げて造られる胸墻に代えられた。(英国軍は10月下旬まで砂袋と有刺鉄線の十分な必需品を受け取ることはなかった。)英国軍野戦砲兵隊は歩兵連隊に割り当てられて、60型ポンド砲と榴弾砲は反撃砲火のために保存された。この塹壕掘削を決定したことで、ドイツ軍の対抗攻勢を辛うじて阻止した。その攻撃は、10月20日、さらに北の、主としてフランス第XXI軍団に向かい、10月21日には南に広がって第3師団地域へ向かった。 ※この段落は誤訳があるかも知れませんが、その節はどうぞ悪しからず。

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    On 2 October, the Marine Brigade was sent to Antwerp, followed by the rest of the 63rd (Royal Naval) Division on 6 October, having landed at Dunkirk on the night of 4/5 October. From 6–7 October, the 7th Division and the 3rd Cavalry Division landed at Zeebrugge. Naval forces collected at Dover were formed into a separate unit, which became the Dover Patrol, to operate in the Channel and off the French-Belgian coast. BEF In late September, Marshal Joseph Joffre and Field Marshal John French discussed the transfer of the BEF from the Aisne to Flanders, to unify British forces on the Continent, shorten the British lines of communication from England and to defend Antwerp and the Channel Ports. Despite the inconvenience of British troops crossing French lines of communication, when French forces were moving north after the Battle of the Aisne, Joffre agreed subject to a proviso, that French would make individual British units available for operations as soon as they arrived. On the night of 1/2 October, the transfer of the BEF from the Aisne front began in great secrecy. Marches were made at night and billeted troops were forbidden to venture outside in daylight. On 3 October, a German wireless message was intercepted, which showed that the BEF was still believed to be on the Aisne. II Corps moved from the night of 3/4 October and III Corps followed from 6 October, leaving a brigade behind with I Corps, which stayed until the night of 13/14 October. II Corps arrived around Abbeville from 8–9 October and concentrated to the north-east around Gennes-Ivergny, Gueschart, Le Boisle and Raye, preparatory to an advance on Béthune. The 2nd Cavalry Division arrived at St Pol and Hesdin on 9 October and the 1st Cavalry Division arrived a day later. GHQ left Fère-en-Tardenois and arrived at Saint-Omer on 13 October. III Corps began to assemble around Saint-Omer and Hazebrouck on 11 October, then moved behind the left flank of II Corps, to advance on Bailleul and Armentières. I Corps arrived at Hazebrouck on 19 October and moved eastwards to Ypres.[13] After a tour of the front on 15 September, the new chief of the German General Staff (Oberste Heeresleitung, OHL), General Erich von Falkenhayn planned to continue the withdrawal of the right flank of the German armies in France from the Aisne, to gain time for a strategic regrouping, by moving the 6th Army from Lorraine. A decisive result (Schlachtentscheidung), was intended to come from the offensive of the 6th Army but on 18 September, French attacks endangered the German northern flank instead and the 6th Army used the first units from Lorraine to repulse the French as a preliminary. The French used undamaged rail and communications networks, to move troops faster than the Germans but neither side could begin a decisive attack, having to send units forward piecemeal, against reciprocal attacks of the opponent, in the Race to the Sea (The name is a misnomer, because neither side raced to the sea but tried to outflank their opponent before they reached it and ran out of room.)

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    The retirement was assisted by French artillery-fire, which slowed the German advance despite a 2 mi (3.2 km) gap and the isolation of a battalion near Fromelles. At midnight the 19th Brigade fell back to a line from Rouges Bancs to La Boutillerie and dug in. German troops of Infantry Regiments 122 and 125 of the 26th Division appeared to be unaware of the retirement, having strayed southwards after the capture of La Vallée earlier in the day. In the 6th Division area, field defences were far less developed than on the 4th Division front, since piecemeal retirements had led to positions being abandoned and new ones dug from scratch several times, from which artillery observation was unsatisfactory. Many German attacks were made from 22–23 October, particularly against the 16th Brigade, which held a south-facing salient with Le Quesne at the apex, 3 mi (4.8 km) south-east of Armentières. At dawn on 23 October, a German force exploited a dawn mist to infiltrate British positions and it was only repulsed after costly hand-to-hand fighting. The 10th Brigade extended its front south to La Chapelle-d'Armentières, taking over from the 12th Brigade, which was moved into reserve at the divisional boundary and then on 24 October, the brigade relieved the 17th Brigade of the 6th Division as far as Rue du Bois, extending the 4th Division front to 8 mi (13 km). By 22 October III Corps and the 19th Brigade held a line between French and British cavalry units, about 12 mi (19 km) long from Rouges Bancs, 5 mi (8.0 km) south-west of Armentières to Touquet, La Houssoie, Epinette, Houplines, Le Gheer, St Yves and the Douve river, facing the bulk of the German XIII Corps with the 48th Reserve Division in reserve, XIX Corps and I Cavalry Corps. The XIII Corps had begun moving southwards from Menin on 18 October and had attacked the 19th Brigade at Radinghem on 21 October. It was anticipated that it would attack the area between III Corps and II Corps, which it did on 23 October and drove out the French from Fromelles, leaving the right flank of III Corps dangerously exposed until 24 October, when the Jullundur Brigade of the Lahore Division arrived and filled the gap, the French I Cavalry Corps going back into reserve. French gave orders for the III Corps to dig in and maintain its positions, which was relatively easy for the 4th Division, after the recapture of Le Gheer on 20/21 October, because German activity was limited to artillery-fire, sniping and minor attacks until 29 October. Opinion in the 4th Division was that with rifle-fire, machine-gun fire from the flanks and artillery crossfire, any German attack could be repulsed. Control of the artillery was centralised, to be brought to bear on the divisional front and further north in the Cavalry Corps area at Messines. As dawn broke on 24 October, the 6th Army made a general attack from La Bassée Canal to the Lys and on the III Corps front was repulsed, except on the 16th Brigade front, which was enfiladed from the east.

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    Battle of Gheluvelt On 28 October, as the 4th Army attacks bogged down, Falkenhayn responded to the costly failures of the 4th and 6th armies by ordering the armies to conduct holding attacks while a new force, Armeegruppe Fabeck (General Max von Fabeck) was assembled from XV Corps and the II Bavarian Corps, the 26th Division and the 6th Bavarian Reserve Division, under the XIII Corps headquarters. The Armeegruppe was rushed up to Deûlémont and Werviq, the boundary between the 6th and 4th armies, to attack towards Ypres and Poperinghe. Strict economies were imposed on the 6th Army formations further south, to provide artillery ammunition for 250 heavy guns allotted to support an attack to the north-west, between Gheluvelt and Messines. The XV Corps was to attack on the right flank, south of the Menin–Ypres road to the Comines–Ypres canal and the main effort was to come from there to Garde Dieu by the II Bavarian Corps, flanked by the 26th Division. Battle of Gheluvelt (1 November 1914) On 29 October, attacks by the XXVII Reserve Corps began against I Corps north of the Menin Road, at dawn, in thick fog. By nightfall, the Gheluvelt crossroads had been lost and 600 British prisoners taken. French attacks further north, by the 17th Division, 18th Division and 31st Division recaptured Bixschoote and Kortekeer Cabaret. Advances by Armeegruppe Fabeck to the south-west against I Corps and the dismounted Cavalry Corps further south, came to within 1.9 mi (3 km) of Ypres along the Menin road and brought the town into range of German artillery. On 30 October, German attacks by the 54th Reserve Division and the 30th Division, on the left flank of the BEF at Gheluvelt, were repulsed but the British were pushed out of Zandvoorde, Hollebeke and Hollebeke Château as German attacks on a line from Messines to Wytschaete and St Yves were repulsed. The British rallied opposite Zandvoorde with French reinforcements and "Bulfin's Force" a command improvised for the motley of troops. The BEF had many casualties and used all its reserves but the French IX Corps sent its last three battalions and retrieved the situation in the I Corps sector. On 31 October, German attacks near Gheluvelt broke through until a counter-attack by the 2nd Worcestershire restored the situation.

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