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The Lake Naroch Offensive in 1916 was an unsuccessful Russian offensive on the Eastern Front in World War I. It was launched at the request of Marshal Joseph Joffre and intended to relieve the German pressure on French forces. Due to lack of reconnaissance, Russian artillery support failed to overcome and neutralise the well-fortified German defenses and artillery positions, leading to costly and unproductive direct attacks, hindered by the weather. On March 30, General Evert ordered to stop the offensive.

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以下のとおりお答えします。 第一次世界大戦の、東部前線での会戦の1つを述べています。 >The Lake Naroch Offensive in 1916 was an unsuccessful Russian offensive on the Eastern Front in World War I. It was launched at the request of Marshal Joseph Joffre and intended to relieve the German pressure on French forces. Due to lack of reconnaissance, Russian artillery support failed to overcome and neutralise the well-fortified German defenses and artillery positions, leading to costly and unproductive direct attacks, hindered by the weather. On March 30, General Evert ordered to stop the offensive. ⇒1916年の「ナロッチ湖攻撃」は、第一次世界大戦の東部前線での、ロシア軍の不成功な攻撃であった。それはジョセフ・ジョッフル司令官の要請で始められて、ドイツの圧力を受けているフランス軍の救援を意図した。偵察不足のため、ロシア軍砲兵隊の支援は、見事に強化されたドイツ防衛隊や砲兵隊の陣地を制覇することにも無力化することにも失敗した。そしてそれは、高くつく非生産的な直接攻撃を引き起こし、それも天候によって妨げられた。3月30日、エバート将軍は、攻撃を止める命令を下した。

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  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The unanticipated duration of the offensive made Verdun a matter of German prestige as much as it was for the French and Falkenhayn became dependent on a British relief offensive and a German counter-offensive to end the stalemate. When it came, the collapse of the southern front in Russia and the power of the Anglo-French attack on the Somme reduced the German armies to holding their positions as best they could. On 29 August, Falkenhayn was sacked and replaced by Hindenburg and Ludendorff, who ended the German offensive at Verdun on 2 September. In 1980, Terraine gave c. 750,000 Franco-German casualties in 299 days of battle; Dupuy and Dupuy gave 542,000 French casualties in 1993. Heer and Naumann calculated 377,231 French and 337,000 German casualties, a monthly average of 70,000 casualties in 2000.

  • 英語の文章を日本語に翻訳してください。

    Reserve divisions and cavalry would then begin a pursuit from the ridge into the Douai plain. D'Urbal wanted a four-hour artillery bombardment to surprise the German defenders but this was over-ruled by Foch and Joffre. A four-day bombardment was substituted, based on the experience of the offensives of the winter and early spring (especially the St. Mihiel offensive). Delays in the arrival of artillery led to a postponement of the attack from 1 May until 7 May and the bombardment began on 3 May. Bad weather reduced visibility and the bombardment was extended to six days and on 8 May, the artillery began a destructive bombardment on the German front defences, which were severely damaged. In the last four hours, all of the Tenth Army artillery bombarded the German wire and the first and reserve trench lines, ready for the infantry attack at 10:00 a.m. The German defences had been improved in the ridges, hollows and ravines between Arras and Lens, since the war of movement had ended late in 1914. Barbed wire and chevaux-de-frise obstacles had been placed in front of the German defences and tunnels, caves and trenches, cellars and loopholed buildings had been fortified; avenues of approach were surveyed and registered by the German artillery. The 6th Army had retained most of the plateau of the Lorette Spur and all of the Spur of the White Way and Spur Souchez during the local attacks by the French in March and April. On 9 May, the French line ran about 1,100 yd (1,000 m) west of the Chapel, to the summit of the Arabs' Spur and by the Great Spur and Spur Mathis, down to the valley west of Ablain. Five German trench lines had been dug from the Arabs' Spur, across the plateau to the Arras–Béthune road near Aix-Noulette. The trench lines were fortified with iron roofs, sandbags, concrete and barbed wire. At every 100 yd (91 m), a machine-gun nest had been built into the trench and small fortified posts supported the defenders, one to the north-east of the Chapel of Notre Dame de Lorette, with dug-outs over 50 ft (15 m) deep. Artillery and machine-guns in Ablain commanded the southern slopes of the ridge and those in Souchez the eastern face of the spur. Guns hidden in Angres and Liévin to the north-east of the plateau commanded the approaches from the plain to the north and along the spur. Below the southern side of the Lorette Spur were Ablain, Souchez and a sugar refinery in buildings along a 200 yd (180 m)-length of the banks of the St. Nazaire stream, which had been fortified. To the south was Mill Malon and east of the sugar refinery lay marshes.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The strength of the Anglo-French offensive surprised Falkenhayn and the staff officers of OHL despite the losses inflicted on the British; the loss of artillery to "overwhelming" counter-battery fire and the policy of instant counter-attack against any Anglo-French advance, led to far more German infantry casualties than at the height of the fighting at Verdun, where 25,989 casualties had been suffered in the first ten days, against 40,187 losses on the Somme. The Brusilov Offensive had recommenced as soon as Russian supplies had been replenished, which inflicted more losses on Austro-Hungarian and German troops during June and July, when the offensive was extended to the north.

  • 以下の英文を訳して下さい。

    The Battle of Lake Naroch, an offensive on the Eastern Front by the Russian army during World War I, ends on this day in 1916 after achieving little success against German positions near Lake Naroch and the Russian town of Vilna (in modern-day Lithuania). With French forces under heavy attack at the fortress town of Verdun, French Commander in Chief Joseph Joffre called on his allies in early 1916 to launch offensive operations of their own in order to divert German resources and ease pressure on Verdun. Britain’s answer to this entreaty would come only months later, at the Somme in June. Czar Nicholas II and the Russian chief of staff, General Mikhail Alekseyev, responded more quickly, with a planned offensive drive in the Vilna-Naroch region, where 1.5 million Russian soldiers would face just 1 million combined German and Austro-Hungarian troops. In their haste to come to France’s aid, however, the Russian command seemed to overestimate the capability and preparedness of their own troops, especially against the well-trained, well-organized German army machine.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    The Battle of Lake Naroch, an offensive on the Eastern Front by the Russian army during World War I, ends on this day in 1916 after achieving little success against German positions near Lake Naroch and the Russian town of Vilna (in modern-day Lithuania). With French forces under heavy attack at the fortress town of Verdun, French Commander in Chief Joseph Joffre called on his allies in early 1916 to launch offensive operations of their own in order to divert German resources and ease pressure on Verdun. Britain’s answer to this entreaty would come only months later, at the Somme in June. Czar Nicholas II and the Russian chief of staff, General Mikhail Alekseyev, responded more quickly, with a planned offensive drive in the Vilna-Naroch region, where 1.5 million Russian soldiers would face just 1 million combined German and Austro-Hungarian troops. In their haste to come to France’s aid, however, the Russian command seemed to overestimate the capability and preparedness of their own troops, especially against the well-trained, well-organized German army machine.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    On June 8 forces of the Southwestern Front took Lutsk. The Austrian commander, Archduke Josef Ferdinand, barely managed to escape the city before the Russians entered, a testament to the speed of the Russian advance. By now the Austrians were in full retreat and the Russians had taken over 200,000 prisoners. Brusilov's forces were becoming overextended and he made it clear that further success of the operation depended on Evert launching his part of the offensive. Evert, however, continued to delay, which gave the German high command time to send reinforcements to the Eastern Front. In a meeting held on the same day Lutsk fell, German Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn persuaded his Austrian counterpart Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf to pull troops away from the Italian Front to counter the Russians in Galicia. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg, Germany's commander in the East (Oberkommando-Ost), was again able to capitalize on good railroads to bring German reinforcements to the front. Finally, on June 18 a weak and poorly prepared offensive commenced under Evert. On July 24 Alexander von Linsingen counterattacked the Russians south of Kovel and temporarily checked them. On July 28 Brusilov resumed his own offensive, and although his armies were short on supplies he reached the Carpathian Mountains by September 20. The Russian high command started transferring troops from Evert's front to reinforce Brusilov, a transfer Brusilov strongly opposed because more troops only served to clutter his front. International reactions On 18 June 1916, an article entitled "Hero of the Hour in Russia, Described Intimately by One Who Knows Him Well"  by Brusilov's brother-in-law, Charles Johnson, appeared in the New York Times.

  • 英語の文章を訳して下さい。

    The Battle of Koprukoy was part of the Caucasus Campaign during World War I between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, and occurred as the Russians were advancing to Erzurum. The Russians achieved total surprise and broke through the Ottoman defenses, sending the Third Army retreating towards Erzurum. The Third Army was well positioned. There were two lines of defenses, carefully positioned to take advantage of the terrain, with wire obstacles to impede the attackers covered by machine guns backed up by artillery. The weakness of the position was a lack of reserves to deal with a break-through by the Russian Army.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    General Paul von Hindenburg was again able to capitalize on good railroads to bring German reinforcements east. At last, on June 18, a weak and poorly prepared offensive commenced under Alexei Evert, and on July 24 Alexander von Linsingen commenced his own counter-attack. Brusilov and Russian Tsar Nicholas II ordered other Russian commanders to commence their own attacks, however high casualties and internal rivalry meant that this did not occur.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    On 16 May a German counter-offensive on a front of 2.5 miles (4.0 km), from the north-west of Laffaux Mill to the Soissons–Laon railway was defeated and after dark more attacks north of Laffaux Mill and north-west of Braye-en-Laonnois also failed. French attacks on 17 May took ground east of Craonne and on 18 May German attacks on the California Plateau and on the Chemin des Dames just west of the Oise–Aisne Canal were repulsed. On 20 May a counter-offensive, to retake the French positions from Craonne to the east of Fort de la Malmaison, was mostly defeated by artillery-fire and where German infantry were able to advance through the French defensive barrages, French infantry easily forced them back; 1,000 unwounded prisoners were taken. On 21 May, German surprise attacks on the Vauclerc Plateau failed and on the following evening the French captured several of the last few observation posts dominating the Ailette Valley and took three German trench lines east of Chevreux. A German counter-attack on the Californie Plateau was smashed by artillery and infantry small-arms fire and 350 prisoners taken. At 8:30 p.m. on 23 May, a German assault on the Vauclerc Plateau was defeated and on 24 May, a renewed attack was driven back in confusion. During the night the French took the wood south-east of Chevreux and almost annihilated two German battalions.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    In June 1916, the amount of French artillery at Verdun had been increased to 2,708 guns, including 1,138 × 75 mm field guns; the French and German armies fired c. 10,000,000 shells, with a weight of 1,350,000 long tons (1,370,000 t) from February–December. The German offensive had been contained by French reinforcements, difficulties of terrain and the weather by May, with the 5th Army infantry stuck in tactically dangerous positions, overlooked by the French on the east bank and the west bank, instead of secure on the Meuse Heights. Attrition of the French forces was inflicted by constant infantry attacks, which were vastly more costly than waiting for French counter-attacks and defeating them with artillery. The stalemate was broken by the Brusilov Offensive and the Anglo-French relief offensive on the Somme, which had been expected to lead to the collapse of the Anglo-French armies.