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The Battle of Koprukoy was part of the Caucasus Campaign during World War I between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, and occurred as the Russians were advancing to Erzurum. The Russians achieved total surprise and broke through the Ottoman defenses, sending the Third Army retreating towards Erzurum. The Third Army was well positioned. There were two lines of defenses, carefully positioned to take advantage of the terrain, with wire obstacles to impede the attackers covered by machine guns backed up by artillery. The weakness of the position was a lack of reserves to deal with a break-through by the Russian Army.


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  • Nakay702
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以下のとおりお答えします。 コプルコイの戦い(ロシア軍vsオスマントルコ軍)について述べています。 >The Battle of Koprukoy was part of the Caucasus Campaign during World War I between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, and occurred as the Russians were advancing to Erzurum. The Russians achieved total surprise and broke through the Ottoman defenses, sending the Third Army retreating towards Erzurum. ⇒コプルコイの戦いは、第一次世界大戦の間にロシア帝国とオスマン帝国の間で交されたコーカサス山脈会戦の一部であり、ロシア軍がエルズルムに進軍していった際に勃発した。ロシア人は完全な急襲を達成し、エルズルム方面へ戻る第3方面軍を差し向けてオスマントルコ軍の防衛線を突破した。 >The Third Army was well positioned. There were two lines of defenses, carefully positioned to take advantage of the terrain, with wire obstacles to impede the attackers covered by machine guns backed up by artillery. The weakness of the position was a lack of reserves to deal with a break-through by the Russian Army. ⇒第3方面軍は、陣地の立地状況がよかった。砲兵隊の後方支援を受けた機銃攻撃兵を妨げるために有刺鉄線の障壁を設け、地勢上の利点を得るために慎重に位置取りをした2本の防衛線があった。陣地の(唯一の)弱さは、ロシア軍隊の突破に対峙する予備軍の欠如であった。





  • 英語の文章を訳して下さい。

    In early January, Yudenich secretly left its winter quarters and marched towards the major Ottoman fort at Erzurum. The winter is not normally a time for military activity in this part of the world. The bitter cold and terrible roads contributed greatly to the annihilation of Enver Pasha's 3rd Army in the previous year. The Russian General Yudenich viewed this as an opportunity to take the Ottomans by surprise. The Russians achieved total surprise and destroyed an Ottoman division that was in winter quarters at Battle of Koprukoy (January 10–18).

  • 日本語訳をお願い致します。

    The Fortress was under Russian threat, both from north and east. With the victories, the Russian Army had cleared the approaches to Erzurum. The Russians were now planning to take Erzurum, a heavily fortified stronghold. Erzurum was considered as the second best defended town in the Ottoman Empire. The Fortress was defended by 235 pieces of artillery. The fortifications covered the city on a 180 degree arc in two rings. There were eleven forts and batteries covering the central area. The flanks were guarded by a group of two forts on each flank. The Ottoman 3rd Army lacked the soldiers to adequately man the perimeter. Also, casualties totaled 10,000 and an additional 5,000 had been taken prisoner, 16 pieces of artillery had been lost and 40,000 men had found refuge in Erzurum Fortress. On February 11, Russians began to shell the fortified formations around Erzurum. Fierce fighting erupted. Turkish battalions of 350 men had to defend against Russian battalions of 1,000 men. There were few reinforcements for the beleaguered Turks. In three days Russians managed to reach the heights overlooking the Erzurum plain. It was now obvious for the command of the Turkish Third Army that the town was lost. Turkish units began to retreat from the fortified zones at the front and also evacuate the town of Erzurum.

  • 英語の文章を和訳して下さい。

    After their defeat, the Ottoman Army gave Mustafa Kemal the organization of the defense of the region in August. The region was controlled by the 2nd Army. When Mustafa Kemal was assigned to his post, the enemy forces were in constant advance. Fighting around the east side of Lake Van continued throughout the summer but was inconclusive. In the earlier periods of the campaign, the XVI Corps managed to take Bitlis and Mush. Ahmet İzzet Paşa decided to attack one week after the conclusion of the Russian offensive. A military force was gathered and sent marching along the coast. The Second Army advanced on August 2. While Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich was in the north and pushing the Ottoman 3rd Army, the Ottoman 2nd Army was in the south facing the insurgency and the second branch of Russian army under General Tovmas Nazarbekian and the detachment Armenian volunteer units led by Andranik Ozanian. After fighting from 1–9 August 1916, the Ottoman Army was overwhelmed and the entire region fell to the Russian Empire and Armenian volunteers, and thus an assault on Van was prevented.

  • 英語の文章を訳して下さい。

    Ottoman High Command did not expect any Russian operations during winter. Mahmut Kamil was in Istanbul, and his chief of staff, Colonel Felix Guse, was in Germany. General Yudenich launched a major winter offensive. In the middle of January, there was heavy snow, which often came up to 4 feet. Defense lines The Russians while having a slight edge in numbers, could not rely on numbers alone. For that reason, the Russian plan was to break through a weak part of the line. On January 10, the initial offensive was directed at the XI Corps. The first engagement was at the Azkani village and its mountain crest of Kara Urgan. In four days the Russians managed to break through the XI Corps. XI Corps losses were high. On January 17, at Battle of Koprukoy The forces at Köprüköy (the main town on the road to Erzurum) were forced to leave. By 18 January, the Russian forces approached Hasankale, a town on the road to Erzurum and the new location of the Third Army headquarters. on January 23 Kargabazar Dag Hinis. Within just one week, the defensive formation was dissolved.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The Battle of Erzincan (Russian: Эрзинджанское сражение, Turkish: Erzincan Muharebesi) was a Russian victory over the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. In February 1916, Nikolai Yudenich had taken the cities of Erzurum and Trabzon. Trabzon had provided the Russians with a port to receive reinforcements in the Caucasus. Enver Pasha ordered the Third Army, now under Vehip Pasha, to retake Trabzon. Vehip's attack failed and General Yudenich counterattacked on July 2. The Russian attack hit the Turkish communications center of Erzincan forcing Vehip's troops to retreat as well as losing 34,000 men, half taken as POWs. As a result, the Third Army was rendered ineffective for the rest of the year.

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    The immediate strategic goal of the Caucasus Campaign was to retake Artvin, Ardahan, Kars, and the port of Batum. As a longer term goal, head of the Ottoman war ministry İsmail Enver hoped a success would facilitate opening the route to Tbilisi and beyond, which in turn would trigger a revolt of Caucasian Muslims. Another Turkish—or rather German—strategic goal was to cut Russian access to its hydrocarbon resources around the Caspian Sea. The headquarters of the Ottoman 3rd Army was in Erzurum, under the command of Hasan Izzet. On 30 October 1914, the 3rd Army headquarters was informed by High Command in Constantinople about the Ottoman navy's bombardment of the Russian ports of Novorossiysk, Odessa and Sevastopol in the Black Sea. High Command expected the Russian Army to cross the Ottoman border at any time. The Bergmann Offensive (November 2, 1914 – November 16, 1914) ended with the defeat of Russian troops under Bergmann. The Russian success was along the southern shoulders of the line. Hasan İzzet stabilized the front by letting the Russians 25 kilometres (16 mi) inside the Ottoman Empire along the Erzurum-Sarikamish axis. The Third Army was a relatively ragtag force when it was assigned to the offensive. The most combat-hardened and well-equipped units in the empire such as the III Corps were selected to defend the strategically significant Gallipoli peninsula. Facing the Russians in Caucasia, of the Third Army's nine infantry divisions, three were being rebuilt from scratch and four were new divisions deployed there from Thrace that year. Additionally, many of its approximately 118,000 soldiers were actually gendarmerie rather than regular army troops. Erickson describes the Third Army as "hastily assembled and clobbled-together army, hurled against the Russians with predictably disastrous results." The war minister, Ismail Enver, devised an operation plan while he was at the Department of War in Istanbul. His strategy was based on German principles copied from Napoleon. Enver's plan involved a single envelopment using three Corps. On the right flank, XI Corps would fix the Russians in place and conduct feint attacks. In the center, IX Corps would fight in the direction of Sarikamish Pass. Assistant Chief of Staff Colonel Hafız Hakkı’s X Corps, which was to be on the left flank, would drive to Oltu, cross the Allahuekber Mountains, cut the Kars road, and drive the Russians to the Aras Valley, where the Russian forces would be destroyed by all three Corps attacking in concert. Meanwhile, a detachment unit under Stange Bey would conduct highly visible operations to distract and pin Russian units. Success depended on all troops arriving at their specified objectives at the correct moment. The first part of the plan was fulfilled when the Russians concentrated their forces at Sarikamish and Köprüköy after the Bergmann Offensive.

  • 次の英文を日本語の文章に訳して下さい。

    The Battle of Manzikert or Battle of Malazgirt (Russian: Битва при Манцикерте Bytva pri Mantsikerte ;Turkish: Malazgirt Muharebesi) was a battle of the Caucasus Campaign of World War I, which took place over the period July 10–26, 1915. Even though losses were heavy on both sides, the Russians retreated north and the Turks retook Malazgirt then they further advanced towards Karakilise where they were defeated on 5–8 August at the Battle of Kara Killisse. At the beginning of May the Russians captured Tutak and on 17 May the town of Malazgirt was captured. On July 10, 1915, Russian General Oganovski launched an offensive to capture the hills just west of Malazgirt. He believed that the Turkish forces in the area were weak. However, the Turkish forces contained several divisions numbering upwards of 40,000 men. On July 16, the Ottoman Army counter-attacked under Abdul Kerim Pasha. They outnumbered the Russians by a factor of 3-1. Oganovski was forced to retreat back to Malazgirt, and in the process the Turks captured his baggage train. On July 20, the Turks retook Malazgirt and on 27 July also took Muş from the Russians. Due to the poor quality of the Russian communications, Yudenich, who was the Russian commander of the Caucasus front, did not learn that the Russian army was in retreat until July 22. The Russian army in Malazgirt was outnumbered 3-1 by the Ottoman army. Realizing that if the Ottomans attacked, his army would be destroyed, Yudenich ordered a retreat. The Russians retreated from Malazgirt, and the entire Van region as well. This left the city of Van open to an Ottoman attack, and the Ottomans captured the city on August 22. However, Malazgirt was re-captured by the Russians after the Ottomans were defeated at the Battle of Kara Killisse. Yudenich quickly regrouped his forces, fired Oganovski, and launched a counter-offensive. Russian casualties were reported to be about 10,000. Malazgirt was recaptured but Yudenich did not have a force large enough to exploit the situation further. The morale of the Turkish leadership was lifted by the victory at Malazgirt and Abdulkerim Pasha was encouraged by his success to follow the Russians. However, in the following battle of Karakilise in August the Turks were defeated and this in turn raised Russian morale. Manzikert マラズギルト

  • お手数ですが、次の英文を訳して下さい。

    By the late September, the Ottoman attack ended. The cost for the 2nd Army was 30,000 killed and wounded. The Russians strengthen their lines. They were strong enough to respond with counteroffensives in two weeks after the launch of the Ottoman offensive. The Russians held up the advance. From September towards the Russian Revolution, the Russian Navy still dominated the Black Sea. The rest of the year 1916 was spent by the Turks with organizational and operational changes in the Caucasian front. Fortunately for the Ottoman commanders, the Russians were quiet during this period. The winter of 1916–17 was extremely harsh, which made fighting nearly impossible.

  • お手数ですが、次の英文を訳して下さい。

    By June 13, Russian units were back to their starting line. On June 19, the Russians launched another offensive. This time northwest to Lake Van. The Russians, under Oganovski, launched an offense into the hills west of Manzikert. The Russians underestimated the size of the Ottoman arm, and were surprised by a large Turkish force at the counterattack. Russian forces began to march from Manzikert towards Mush. However, they were not aware of the fact that the Turkish IX Corps, together with the 17th and 28th Divisions was moving to Mush as well. Although the conditions were extremely difficult, the Turks were executing a very efficient operation of reorganization. 1st and 5th Expeditionary Forces were positioned to the south of the Russian offensive force and a “Right Wing Group” was established under the command of Brigadier General Abdülkerim Paşa. This group was independent from the Third Army and Abdülkerim Paşa was directly reporting to Enver Paşa. The Turks were ready to face the Russian attacks.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    On February 12, Fort Kara-gobek was taken. On the 13th, the Russians continued their attacks. On February 14, Fort Tafet was taken, and with that the Russians had penetrated through both rings of the cities's defenses. By February 15, the remaining forts surrounding Erzurum were evacuated. Early in the morning of February 16, Russian cossacks were among the first to enter the city. Turkish units had successfully withdrawn and avoided encirclement, however casualties were already high. 327 pieces of artillery were lost to the Russians. Support units of the Third Army and around 250 wounded at the hospital of Erzurum were taken prisoner. While aerial reconnaissance revealed that the Turks were retreating, the Russian pursuit was not effective as it could have been. Meanwhile remnants of the X and XI Corps established another defensive line, 8 kilometers east of Erzurum.