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Reserve divisions and cavalry would then begin a pursuit from the ridge into the Douai plain. D'Urbal wanted a four-hour artillery bombardment to surprise the German defenders but this was over-ruled by Foch and Joffre. A four-day bombardment was substituted, based on the experience of the offensives of the winter and early spring (especially the St. Mihiel offensive). Delays in the arrival of artillery led to a postponement of the attack from 1 May until 7 May and the bombardment began on 3 May. Bad weather reduced visibility and the bombardment was extended to six days and on 8 May, the artillery began a destructive bombardment on the German front defences, which were severely damaged. In the last four hours, all of the Tenth Army artillery bombarded the German wire and the first and reserve trench lines, ready for the infantry attack at 10:00 a.m. The German defences had been improved in the ridges, hollows and ravines between Arras and Lens, since the war of movement had ended late in 1914. Barbed wire and chevaux-de-frise obstacles had been placed in front of the German defences and tunnels, caves and trenches, cellars and loopholed buildings had been fortified; avenues of approach were surveyed and registered by the German artillery. The 6th Army had retained most of the plateau of the Lorette Spur and all of the Spur of the White Way and Spur Souchez during the local attacks by the French in March and April. On 9 May, the French line ran about 1,100 yd (1,000 m) west of the Chapel, to the summit of the Arabs' Spur and by the Great Spur and Spur Mathis, down to the valley west of Ablain. Five German trench lines had been dug from the Arabs' Spur, across the plateau to the Arras–Béthune road near Aix-Noulette. The trench lines were fortified with iron roofs, sandbags, concrete and barbed wire. At every 100 yd (91 m), a machine-gun nest had been built into the trench and small fortified posts supported the defenders, one to the north-east of the Chapel of Notre Dame de Lorette, with dug-outs over 50 ft (15 m) deep. Artillery and machine-guns in Ablain commanded the southern slopes of the ridge and those in Souchez the eastern face of the spur. Guns hidden in Angres and Liévin to the north-east of the plateau commanded the approaches from the plain to the north and along the spur. Below the southern side of the Lorette Spur were Ablain, Souchez and a sugar refinery in buildings along a 200 yd (180 m)-length of the banks of the St. Nazaire stream, which had been fortified. To the south was Mill Malon and east of the sugar refinery lay marshes.

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>Reserve divisions and cavalry would then begin a pursuit from the ridge into the Douai plain. D'Urbal wanted a four-hour artillery bombardment to surprise the German defenders but this was over-ruled by Foch and Joffre. A four-day bombardment was substituted, based on the experience of the offensives of the winter and early spring (especially the St. Mihiel offensive). Delays in the arrival of artillery led to a postponement of the attack from 1 May until 7 May and the bombardment began on 3 May. ⇒それで、予備師団と騎兵隊が尾根からドゥエー平野への追跡を開始することとなった。ドゥルバルは、ドイツ軍の防御隊を急襲するために4時間の砲撃を望んでいたが、これはフォッシュとジョフルによって却下された。冬と早春の攻勢(特にサン・ミヒエル攻勢)の経験に基づいて、4日間の砲撃に代えられた。砲兵隊の到着の遅れにより、5月1日から5月7日までの攻撃が延期され、5月3日に砲撃が開始された。 >Bad weather reduced visibility and the bombardment was extended to six days and on 8 May, the artillery began a destructive bombardment on the German front defences, which were severely damaged. In the last four hours, all of the Tenth Army artillery bombarded the German wire and the first and reserve trench lines, ready for the infantry attack at 10:00 a.m. The German defences had been improved in the ridges, hollows and ravines between Arras and Lens, since the war of movement had ended late in 1914. ⇒悪天候によって視界が悪くなったので、砲撃は6日間に延長され、砲兵隊が5月8日にドイツ軍の前線防衛隊に破壊的な砲撃を開始した。最後の4時間で、第10方面軍の砲兵全員が、ドイツ軍の鉄条網、第1および予備塹壕戦線を砲撃し、午前10時の歩兵攻撃(の下準備)を整えた。1914年末に戦争の動向が終わって以来、ドイツ軍はアラスとレンズ間の尾根、くぼ地、山峡など(の各地)で防御施設を改良した。 >Barbed wire and chevaux-de-frise obstacles had been placed in front of the German defences and tunnels, caves and trenches, cellars and loopholed buildings had been fortified; avenues of approach were surveyed and registered by the German artillery. The 6th Army had retained most of the plateau of the Lorette Spur and all of the Spur of the White Way and Spur Souchez during the local attacks by the French in March and April. On 9 May, the French line ran about 1,100 yd (1,000 m) west of the Chapel, to the summit of the Arabs' Spur and by the Great Spur and Spur Mathis, down to the valley west of Ablain. ⇒有刺鉄線やシュヴォー・ド・フリーズ(可動防護柵)の障害物が、ドイツ軍の防御隊の前に設置され、トンネル、洞窟、塹壕、地下室、抜け穴付の建物などが強化された。接近のための主要路は、ドイツ軍砲兵隊によって調査され、登録された。3月と4月にフランス軍が局地を攻撃した際には、ロレット山脚の高原の大部分とホワイト・ウェイの山脚やスーシェ山脚のすべてを第6方面軍が維持していた。5月9日、フランス軍の戦線はチャペルの西約1,100ヤード(1,000 m)を走り、アラブ山脚の頂上、グレート山脚やマティス山脚の脇、下ってアブレン西の渓谷、などを通っていた。 >Five German trench lines had been dug from the Arabs' Spur, across the plateau to the Arras–Béthune road near Aix-Noulette. The trench lines were fortified with iron roofs, sandbags, concrete and barbed wire. At every 100 yd (91 m), a machine-gun nest had been built into the trench and small fortified posts supported the defenders, one to the north-east of the Chapel of Notre Dame de Lorette, with dug-outs over 50 ft (15 m) deep. ⇒ドイツ軍の5本の塹壕戦線が、アラブ山脚から高台を越えてエス・ヌレット近くのアラス‐ベテューン道まで造られた。塹壕戦線が鉄製屋根、土嚢、コンクリート、有刺鉄線で強化された。100ヤード(91 m)ごとの塹壕に機関銃巣が建設され、小さく要塞化された哨戒基地が防御施設を支持していた。ノートルダム・ド・ロレット礼拝堂の北東にもそれが1つあって、深さ50フィート(15 m)以上の掘り込み避難壕がついていた。 ※この段落、誤訳があるかも知れませんが、その節はどうぞ悪しからず。 >Artillery and machine-guns in Ablain commanded the southern slopes of the ridge and those in Souchez the eastern face of the spur. Guns hidden in Angres and Liévin to the north-east of the plateau commanded the approaches from the plain to the north and along the spur. Below the southern side of the Lorette Spur were Ablain, Souchez and a sugar refinery in buildings along a 200 yd (180 m)-length of the banks of the St. Nazaire stream, which had been fortified. To the south was Mill Malon and east of the sugar refinery lay marshes. ⇒アブレンの大砲と機関銃が尾根の南斜面に、スーシェのそれら(大砲・機関銃)が山脚の東面に睨みを効かせていた。高原の北東にあるアングレとリエヴァンに隠された砲門は、平原の北と山脚沿いの接近路に睨みを効かせていた。ロレット山脚の南側の平地にはアブレン、スーシェがあり、200ヤード(180 m)の長さのサン・ナゼール川のほとりに沿った建物に砂糖精製所があって、それが要塞化されていた。その南にはミル・マロン(製粉所)があり、砂糖精製所の東には湿地帯があった。

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    The cost of the Nivelle Offensive in casualties and loss of morale were great but German losses were also high and the tactical success of the offensive in capturing elaborately fortified positions and defeating counter-attacks, reduced German morale. The German had been forced from three of the strongest positions on the Western Front and had failed to recapture them. Vimy Ridge, the Scarpe Heights, the caverns, spurs and plateau of the Chemin des Dames and the Moronvilliers massif had been occupied for more than two years, carefully surveyed by German engineers and fortified to make them impregnable. In six weeks all were lost and the Germans were left clinging to the eastern or northern edges of the ridges of the summits, having lost the western or southern sides. The French tactic of assault brutal et continu suited the German defensive dispositions, since much of the new construction had taken place on reverse slopes. The speed of attack and the depth of the French objectives meant that there was no time to establish artillery observation posts overlooking the Ailette valley, in the areas where French infantry had reached the ridge. The tunnels and caves under the ridge nullified the destructive effect of the French artillery, which was also inhibited by poor weather, which reduced observation and by German air superiority, which made French artillery-observation aircraft even less effective.

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    Pétain wanted more air reconnaissance but aircraft wireless was of extremely short range and during attacks, confusion on the ground made artillery observation from the air impossible. As an alternative, Pétain suggested making highly detailed maps of the German rear areas and systematically bombarding German artillery emplacements continuously, rather than during attacks but the suggestions were impractical, because of the ammunition shortage. Foch and d'Urbal met late on 15 May and ordered that the offensive was to end temporarily, as the attacks after 9 May had been poorly prepared and of diminishing effectiveness. Preparations with the standard of detail and organisation of the attack on 9 May, were to be made before the offensive resumed. "Bases of departure" were to be captured at Souchez and Neuville, before an attack on Vimy Ridge, which Foch expected to take eight to ten days. D'Urbal cancelled an attack due on 16 May and issued instructions to each corps to capture limited objectives. XXXIII Corps was given five objectives before an attack on Souchez and XXI Corps three objectives before supporting the attack on Souchez. The first limited objective attack was planned for 17 May but rainstorms forced a delay until 20 May and the night of 20/21 May. Huge artillery bombardments preceded infantry attacks, intended to occupy several hundred square metres of ground at a time. On the afternoon of 21 May, the French attacked the Spur of the White Way from the north, south and west. A party attacking from the Arabs' Spur captured their objectives in minutes and another party attacking from the north seized the main German communication trench, surrounding and taken the garrison prisoner. The attack from Ablain captured houses west of the church and the communications trench linking the White Way with Souchez was cut; 300 Germanprisoners and a field gun were taken. At 2:00 a.m. on 22 May, a German counter-attack from a foothold in Ablain was repulsed. On 25 May IX, XXI and XXXIII corps attacked limited objectives simultaneously, after a day-long artillery bombardment but made little progress. The remnants of the garrison in Ablain were attacked again on 28 May in their remaining trenches around the cemetery. French artillery placed a barrage to the east of the cemetery, cutting off the garrison before the infantry attacked and took 400 prisoners.