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The failure of General Aylmer's latest attempt - on 21 January 1916 at Hanna - to relieve the besieged British force at Kut-al-Amara - resulted in muted trench warfare throughout the month of February as the flooding season approached. Although having received reinforcements originally intended for the Western Front, Aylmer remained pessimistic about his chances of successfully relieving Sir Charles Townshend and his beleaguered 10,000 men at Kut. With the latest setback at the Hanna Defile he had advocated calling off the relief operation. However incoming regional Commander-in-Chief Sir Percival Lake was clear in his determination that Aylmer should try once again.

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以下のとおりお答えします。 クツに包囲された英国軍の救出問題について述べています。 >The failure of General Aylmer's latest attempt - on 21 January 1916 at Hanna - to relieve the besieged British force at Kut-al-Amara - resulted in muted trench warfare throughout the month of February as the flooding season approached. ⇒エールマー将軍の最新の ― 1916年1月21日ハナの陣地でクツ-アル-アマラに包囲された英国軍を救うという ― 試みの失敗により、氾濫季節が近づいていたこともあって、2月いっぱいにわたる意気消沈の塹壕戦が結果としてもたらされた。 Although having received reinforcements originally intended for the Western Front, Aylmer remained pessimistic about his chances of successfully relieving Sir Charles Townshend and his beleaguered 10,000 men at Kut. With the latest setback at the Hanna Defile he had advocated calling off the relief operation. However incoming regional Commander-in-Chief Sir Percival Lake was clear in his determination that Aylmer should try once again. エールマーは、もともと西部戦線向けに企図された強化隊を受け入れたが、チャールズ・タウンゼンド卿とクツで包囲されている彼の兵士10,000人を首尾よく救出するための機会については、依然悲観的であった。ハナ峡谷で退却したばかりの時なので、彼は救援作戦の中止を主張した。しかし、新任の地域総司令官パーシバル・レイク卿の明確な決断としては、エールマーがもう一度それを試みるべきである、というものであった。

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  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    Downriver from Kut, at Ali Gharbi, Lieutenant-General Fenton Aylmer was collecting forces to relieve the Kut garrison. Initially, the only force available in theatre which were not already in Kut was the 6th Indian Cavalry Brigade and the 35th and 28th Indian Brigades. They would soon be joined by the first elements of the 7th (Meerut) Division. With pressure from both Townshend in Kut and Nixon in Basra, Aylmer succumbed to their demands and began his advance upriver as soon as his he had collected three full brigades of infantry. Setting out on 4 January 1916, Aylmer would be able to commit approximately 9,900 infantry, 1340 cavalry, and 42 field guns. Additionally, along the Tigris there would be four gunboats to support the advance.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The Ottomans, who had become adept at trench warfare during their victory at Gallipoli, had put their experience to good use. The Ottoman Sixth Army had invested Townshend’s position with an elaborate trench network since December 1915. Downriver, the Field Marshal von der Goltz and his senior Ottoman commander, Khalil Pasha, erected a series of well sited defensive positions at the Hanna and the Sanniyat on the left bank of the river and the Dujaila along the right bank. Because Townshend had adopted a passive defensive stance, even more so since losing his ability to cross the river with the destruction of the pontoon bridge from Kut to the Woolpress village, Von Der Goltz had been able to shift more and more of his troops south. In all, the Ottoman Sixth Army could muster approximately 25,000 men, 1,200 cavalry, and 80 artillery pieces. With Townshend's passivity, Field Marshal Von Der Goltz was able to move the bulk of his forces south, leaving only about 2,000 men to maintain the siege itself. On the left bank, the 52nd, 38th, and part of 35th Ottoman Divisions continued to occupy the Hanna line. 8,500 men, 1,500 cavalry and 32 artillery pieces of the 2nd and 35th Ottoman Divisions defended the right bank of the Tigris at the Dujaila position.

  • お手数ですが、次の英文を訳して下さい。

    On 15 December 1915, Ottoman troops had surrounded the Anglo-Indian force of about 10,000 men at the town of Kut-al-Amara. The British commander Major General Charles Townshend called for help, and the commander of the Mesopotamian theatre General Sir John Nixon began assumbling a force of 19,000 men to relieve the besieged forces. This relief force, designated as the Tigris Corps, initially consisted of 2 divisions: 3rd (Lahore) Division and 7th (Meerut) Division, as well other units available in the region. This relief force, commanded by Lieutenant General Fenton Aylmer, suffered two setbacks during its initial January 1916 offensive (see the Battle of Wadi). After these defeats, the relief force (now reduced to around 10,000 men) was ordered once again to attempt to break through the Ottoman lines and continued its movement up the Tigris until it encountered 30,000 men of the Ottoman Sixth Army, under the command of Khalil Pasha, at the Hanna defile, 30 miles downriver of Kut-al-Amara.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    On 20 January, Enver Pasha replaced Nureddin Pasha with Colonel Halil Kut (Khalil Pasha). Nureddin Pasha did not want to work with a German General. He sent a telegram to the War Ministry "The Iraq Army has already proven that it does not need the military knowledge of Goltz Pasha..."[citation needed] After the first failure, General Nixon was replaced by General Lake. British forces received small quantities of supplies from the air. These drops were not enough to feed the garrison, though. Halil Kut forced the British to choose between starving or surrendering, though in the mean time they would try to lift the siege. Between January–March 1916, both Townshend and Aylmer launched several attacks in an attempt to lift the siege. In sequence, the attacks took place at the Battle of Sheikh Sa'ad, the Battle of the Wadi, the Battle of Hanna, and the Battle of Dujaila Redoubt. These series of British attempts to break through the encirclement did not succeed and their costs were heavy. Both sides suffered high casualties. In February, XIII Corps received 2nd Infantry Division as a reinforcement. Food and hopes were running out for Townshend in Kut-al-Amara. Disease were spreading rapidly and could not be cured.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    General Keary, separately adhering to Aylmer's specified timetable, followed up with a secondary attack but missed a clear opportunity to pierce weakened areas of the Turkish line. Townshend himself decided to call off his own planned attack from Kut once he determined the failure of the morning's operation. Thereafter the attack dwindled with the consequence that British forces shortly afterwards returned to their starting positions having suffered a further 3,500 casualties (set against 1,200 Turkish losses). In the wake of this latest dismal failure on the part of the relieving force Aylmer was recalled and replaced by the unpopular George Gorringe on 12 March. Recognition was finally dawning among the British high command of the improbability of ultimate success in relieving Kut. One final effort was nevertheless attempted, at the First Battle of Kut the following month. With its failure the fate of the garrison at Kut was sealed. Click here to view a map charting operations in Mesopotamia through to 1917.

  • 日本語訳をお願い致します。

    The Battle of Wadi, occurring on 13 January 1916, was an unsuccessful attempt by British forces fighting in Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) during World War I to relieve beleaguered forces under Sir Charles Townshend then under siege by the Ottoman Sixth Army at Kut-al-Amara. Pushed by regional British Commander-in-Chief Sir John Nixon, General Fenton Aylmer launched an attack against Ottoman defensive positions on the banks of the Wadi River. The Wadi was a steep valley of a stream that ran from the north into the River Tigris, some 6 miles (9.7 km) upstream towards Kut-al-Amara from Sheikh Sa'ad. The attack is generally considered as a failure, as although Fenton managed to capture the Wadi, it cost him 1,600 men. The British failure led to Townshend's surrender, along with 10,000 of his men, in the largest single surrender of British troops up to that time. However, the British recaptured Kut in February 1917, on their way to the capture of Baghdad sixteen days later on 11 March 1917.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    With the Poona Division under siege, the high commands in London and Simla began scrambling to put together a relief force. Lieutenant-General Fenton Aylmer was appointed to command the relief expedition, designated as the Tigris Corps. Originally intended to be made up of the 3rd (Lahore) Division and 7th (Meerut) Division as well as replacements intended for the besieged Poona Division. The Tigris Corps' first drive to relieve Townshend and the Kut garrison ground to a halt at the Battle of Hanna on 21 January 1916.

  • 以下の英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Although Townshend declared that his intent to engage in an active defense of Kut, the reality was completely different. Instead of launching any raids or sorties, Townshend dug his troops in around the town of Kut, and across the river at the village the soldier's nicknamed "Woolpress", and awaited rescue. At the first sign that the pontoon bridge, the primary link between Kut and Woolpress, was threatened by the Ottoman siege lines, Townshend ordered it destroyed. This left Townshend with only a few small launches and the gunboat Sumana to ferry men and supplies across the river.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Finally, the British re-captured Kut on 24 February 1917 in the Second Battle of Kut. The local Ottoman commander, Karabekir Bey, did not let his army become trapped in Kut, as General Townshend had been in the First Battle of Kut. The march on Baghdad resumed on 5 March 1917. Three days later, Maude's corps reached the Diyala River on the outskirts of the city. Khalil Pasha chose to defend Baghdad at the confluence of the Diyala and the Tigris, some 35 miles south of Baghdad. The Ottoman troops resisted the initial British assault on 9 March. General Maude then shifted the majority of his army north. He believed that he could outflank the Ottoman positions and strike directly for Baghdad. Khalil Pasha responded by shifting his army out of its defensive positions to mirror the move of the British on the other side of the river. A single regiment was left to hold the original Diyala River defences. The British crushed this regiment with a sudden assault on 10 March 1917.

  • お手数ですが、次の英文を訳して下さい。

    By dusk, it became clear that the attempt had failed. British troops, attempting to manoeuvre around the Ottoman flanks, failed to reach the river, and the mouth of the Hanna Defile was still strongly held by the entrenched Ottoman troops. Aylmer called off the attack by the end of the day and ferried most of his remaining troops to the right bank of the Tigris. By this time, Aylmer's troops had gained control of the Wadi, but it was a small advance that was unworthy of the 1,600 men killed or wounded (including 40 British officers) in the attack and did little to bring relief closer to Townshend’s beleaguered forces at Kut. The provision of adequate medical capacity and supplies had not improved significantly since the appalling debacle at Sheikh Sa'ad, so again many casualties suffered without treatment or evacuation for several days.