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Automated external defibrillators are generally either held by trained personnel who will attend events or are public access units which can be found in places including corporate and government offices, shopping centres, airports, airplanes, restaurants, casinos, hotels, sports stadium, schools and universities, community centers, fitness centers, health clubs, theme parks, workplaces and any other location where people may congregate. The location of a public access AED should take into account where large groups of people gather, regardless of age or activity. Children as well as adults may fall victim to sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). In many areas, emergency vehicles are likely to carry AEDs, with some ambulances carrying an AED in addition to manual defibrillators. Police or fire vehicles often carry an AED for use by first responders. Some areas have dedicated community first responders, who are volunteers tasked with keeping an AED and taking it to any victims in their area. AEDs are also increasingly common on commercial airliners, cruise ships, and other transportation facilities. High-rise buildings are densely populated, but are more difficult to access by emergency crews facing heavy traffic and security barriers. It has been suggested that AEDs carried on elevators could save critical minutes for cardiac arrest victims, and reduce their deployment cost. In order to make them highly visible, public access AEDs are often brightly colored, and are mounted in protective cases near the entrance of a building. When these protective cases are opened or the defibrillator is removed, some will sound a buzzer to alert nearby staff to their removal, though this does not necessarily summon emergency services; trained AED operators should know to phone for an ambulance when sending for or using an AED. In September 2008, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation issued a 'universal AED sign' to be adopted throughout the world to indicate the presence of an AED, and this is shown on the right. A trend that is developing is the purchase of AEDs to be used in the home, particularly by those with known existing heart conditions. The number of devices in the community has grown as prices have fallen to affordable levels. There has been some concern among medical professionals that these home users do not necessarily have appropriate training, and many advocate the more widespread use of community responders, who can be appropriately trained and managed. Typically, an AED kit will contain a face shield for providing a barrier between patient and first aider during rescue breathing; a pair of nitrile rubber gloves; a pair of trauma shears for cutting through a patient's clothing to expose the chest; a small towel for wiping away any moisture on the chest, and a razor for shaving those with very hairy chests. Most manufacturers recommend checking the AED before every period of duty or on a regular basis for fixed units. Some units need to be switched on in order to perform a self check; other models have a self check system built in with a visible indicator.[citation needed] All manufacturers mark their electrode pads with an expiration date, and it is important to ensure that the pads are in date. This is usually marked on the outside of the pads. Some models are designed to make this date visible through a 'window', although others will require the opening of the case to find the date stamp.[citation needed] It is also important to ensure that the AED unit's batteries have not expired. The AED manufacturer will specify how often the batteries should be replaced. Each AED has a different recommended maintenance schedule outlined in the user manual. Common checkpoints on every checklist, however, also include a monthly check of the battery power by checking the green indicator light when powered on, condition and cleanliness of all cables and the unit, and check for the adequate supplies.



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  • Nakay702
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以下のとおりお答えします。 (訳文) 自動化された外部除細動器は、一般的には訓練経験のある要員がイベント出席に携えるか、または公共の用途に供するために次のような場所で見られる。すなわち、企業や官公庁の事務室、買い物の中心地、空港、飛行機、レストラン、カジノ、ホテル、スポーツのスタジアム、学校や大学、地域共同体施設、フィットネスセンター、ヘルスクラブ、テーマパーク、職場、その他人々が集まるようないろんな場所である。 公共用AEDの位置は、年齢や活動内容の別を問わず、大勢の人々が集まる場所を考慮すべきである。大人だけでなく子供も、突然の心臓停止(SCA)の犠牲となることがあり得るからである。 多くの地域で、手動の除細動器に加えて救急車にAEDが搭載されるなど、緊急車両にはAEDsが設置されていることがよくある。警察や消防用車両は、しばしば第一応答者による使用のためのAEDが搭載されている。地域によっては、当該地域共同体での第一応答(引責)者を用意しているところがあるが、その人は常にAEDを保持し、それを地域内のどの犠牲者のところへでも持って行く役目を担うボランティアである。AEDsはまた、商業用の定期旅客機、観光船、および他の交通施設等でますます一般化してきている。 高層ビルには人口が密集しているけれども、深刻な交通やセキュリティの障壁に直面する救援隊にとっては、極めて接近しづらいものである。エレベーターに搭載されたAEDsがあれば、心臓停止の犠牲者のために生死を分ける時間を節約でき、機器の展開にかかるコストを低減できるという可能性が提案されている。 公共用AEDsは、目立つようにするためにしばしば明るく着色され、保護ケースに収納されて、建物の入口付近に設置される。この保護ケースが開かれるか、または除細動器が取り出される時には、必ずしも救急サービスを呼び出すわけではないが、それが取り出されたことについては近くのスタッフに注意を促すためにブザーの鳴るものがある。熟練のAEDオペレータは、AEDを使おうとする際は救急車の出動をも求めるものと承知しているはずである。「国際蘇生法連絡委員会」は、2008年9月にAEDの存在を示すため全世界で採用されるべき『世界AED標識』を発表した。右図参照。 特に既知の心臓関係の既往症を持つ人が、家庭で使用するAEDsを購入する傾向が広がっている。価格が入手可能なレベルに低下してきているので、地域共同体の機器の数は増加した。家庭での使用者は必ずしも適切な訓練を受けてはいない、という懸念が医学のプロの間に若干あって、多くの人が、地域共同体の応答者がより広く使用することを主張している。その方が訓練経験もあり適切に管理できるからである。 一般に、AEDキットには次のものが含まれる。救助作業の間の呼吸で患者と第一援助者の間の障壁を設けるための面シールド、一組のニトリルゴム手袋、胸を露出するために患者の衣類を切り開く大バサミ、胸のわずかな湿気を拭き取るための小さなタオル、および極端に毛深い胸の場合それを削るためのかみそりなどである。 ほとんどのメーカーが、定められた期間の期限前や固定ユニットの規定に基づいた定期に、すべてのAEDをチェックするように勧めている。いくつかのユニットは、自身のチェックを実行するために人手でスイッチを入れる必要がある。他のモデルは、可視のインジケータ〔必要部分の引用〕を内部に備え持っていて、システムの自己チェック実行する。 すべてのメーカーが、期限満了の日付を電極パッドに記載しているので、パッドが日付内にあるのを確認することが重要である。これは通常パッドの外側にマークされている。モデルによっては、『ウィンドウ』を通してこの日付が見えるように設計されているものがある一方、日付印〔必要部分の引用〕を見るためのケースを開くことが求められるものもある。 また、AEDユニットのバッテリーが期限切れになっていないことを確認することも重要である。AEDメーカーが、バッテリーの取り替え回数を指定しているはずである。個々のAEDが、それぞれに異なるメンテナンス計画を推奨し、使用者の手引きの中で概説している。しかし、すべてのチェック一覧に共通のチェックポイントには、電源を入れた時に緑色のインジケータライトの点灯によるバッテリーパワー(あり)の月々の確認、すべてのケーブルとユニットの状態や清潔度、および適正な供給品(常備)のチェックなども含まれる。



  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いします!!

    An Automated External Defibrillator is a simple to use device that uses computer technology to help a person whose heart has stopped heating. It analyzes the heart rhythm of a victim, and then advises the user whether a shock is required. AEDs are designed to be used by common people, who require little training to operate the devices correctly. AEDs are usually limited to just delivering shocks for VF(ventricular fibrillation) and VT(ventricular tachycardia) rhythms. There are 2 types of AEDs : Fully Automated and Semi Automated. Most AEDs are semi automated. A semi automated AED automatically diagnoses heart rhythms and determines if a shock is necessary. If a shock is advised, the person using the device must then push a button to give the shock. A fully automated AED automatically diagnoses the heart rhythm and advises the user to stand back while the shock is automatically given. Also, some types of AEDs come with advanced features, such as a manual override or an ECG display. In order to make them highly visible, public access AEDs are often brightly colored, and are mounted in protective cases near the entrance of buildings. When these protective cases are opened, and the defibrillator is removed, it might make an alarm sound to alert nearby staff that it has been removed. All trained AED operators should phone for an ambulance when sending for or using an AED. Because the patient will be unconscious, this always requires an ambulance to come.

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いします!!

    Unlike regular defibrillators, an automated external defibrillator requires minimal training to use. It automatically diagnoses the heart rhythm and determines if a shock is needed. Automatic models will administer the shock without the user's command. Semi-automatic models will tell the user that a shock is needed, but the user must tell the machine to do so, usually by pressing a button. In most circumstances, the user cannot override a "no shock" advisory by an AED. Some AEDs may be used on children - those under 55 lbs (25 kg) in weight or under age 8. If a particular model of AED is approved for pediatric use, all that is required is the use of more appropriate pads. All AEDs approved for use in the United States use an electronic voice to prompt users through each step. Because the user of an AED may be hearing impaired, many AEDs now include visual prompts as well. Most units are designed for use by non-medical operators. Their ease of use has given rise to the notion of public access defibrillation (PAD), which experts agree has the potential to be the single greatest advance in the treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest since the invention of CPR. Automated external defibrillators are now easy enough to use that most states in the United States include the "good faith" use of an AED by any person under Good Samaritan laws. "Good faith" protection under a Good Samaritan law means that a volunteer responder (not acting as a part of one's occupation) cannot be held civilly liable for the harm or death of a victim by providing improper or inadequate care, given that the harm or death was not intentional and the responder was acting within the limits of their training and in good faith. In the United States, Good Samaritan laws provide some protection for the use of AEDs by trained and untrained responders. AEDs create little liability if used correctly; NREMT-B and many state Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) training and many CPR classes incorporate or offer AED education as a part of their program. In addition to Good Samaritan laws, Ontario, Canada also has the "Chase McEachern Act (Heart Defibrillator Civil Liability), 2007 (Bill 171 – Subsection N)", passed in June, 2007, which protects individuals from liability for damages that may occur from their use of an AED to save someone's life at the immediate scene of an emergency unless damages are caused by gross negligence. Automated external defibrillators are under recent scrutiny by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which is now considering reclassifying AEDs as class III premarket approval devices. The major reason for this appears to be technical malfunctions, which likely contributed to more than 750 deaths in the 5-year period between 2004 and 2009, in most cases by component failures or design errors. During the same period, up to 70 types of AEDs have been recalled, including recalls from every AED manufacturer in the world.

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    送られてきた以下の英語のメール文が上手く読めません。途中までは訳してみたのですが、だんだん難しくなり、途中から全く分からなくなりました。英語に堪能な方、どうかよろしくお願いします。 ーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーー 1. ACT in general is an organization of teachers and non-teaching personnel, from pre-school to colleges and universities. Most of the members are from the public schools that is more than 500,000 nationwide. We have chapters in all (17) regions in the country. It is in the Philippine Constitution that public servants have the right to unionize and in 1987, there was the Executive Order 180, that created the Public Sector Labor Managemant Council. It was only recently, September, 2011 to be exact, that the government thru Civil Service Commision has come up with a clear guidelines on how public school teachers will be unionized. The main essence is that public school teachers can form union on a regional basis. With this, we registered our very union in the National Capital Region (ACT-NCR union) then gained our recognition from the government last Septembr 17, 2012. We are now in the process of negotiation with the Deped NCR. In fact, we already had 2meetings with them. Our Davao region is already in the process of registration. Soon other regions will follow. We are the only teachers organization that is already officially registered and recognized. 2. The ACT-Ncr union is more or less 26t members out of 50t. Membership campaign is on going. Over all we have, 40t members. Trade unions in the Phil are separate from teachers. And also private schools have different unions (school to school basis) 3. Some of our major issues are  a. Increasing of education budget from 3% to 6% of the GDP like all other countries. So that shortages in the number of teachers, rooms, chairs, toilets and sanitation facilities will be addressed  b. Adequate , decent and living wages for teachers and non-teaching personnel. At present, the minimum salary of teachers in the public school is $464.  c. Increase budget for the state colleges and universities  d. Basic education curriculum that is relevant to the needs of the people and national development. We are campaigning for education that is scientific, mass oriented and nationalistic.  e. Implementation of the laws in education that is related to the benefits of teachers like RA 4760 Magna Carta for Public School Teachers, RA 8790 GSIS Law, etc Hope that this explation helped.

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    An AED is "automatic" because of the unit's ability to autonomously analyse the patient's condition. To assist this, the vast majority of units have spoken prompts, and some may also have visual displays to instruct the user. "External" refers to the fact that the operator applies the electrode pads to the bare chest of the victim (as opposed to internal defibrillators, which have electrodes surgically implanted inside the body of a patient). When turned on or opened, the AED will instruct the user to connect the electrodes (pads) to the patient. Once the pads are attached, everyone should avoid touching the patient so as to avoid false readings by the unit. The pads allow the AED to examine the electrical output from the heart and determine if the patient is in a shockable rhythm (either ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia). If the device determines that a shock is warranted, it will use the battery to charge its internal capacitor in preparation to deliver the shock. This system is not only safer (charging only when required), but also allows for a faster delivery of the electric current. When charged, the device instructs the user to ensure no one is touching the patient and then to press a button to deliver the shock; human intervention is usually required to deliver the shock to the patient in order to avoid the possibility of accidental injury to another person (which can result from a responder or bystander touching the patient at the time of the shock). Depending on the manufacturer and particular model, after the shock is delivered most devices will analyze the patient and either instruct CPR to be given, or administer another shock. Many AED units have an 'event memory' which store the ECG of the patient along with details of the time the unit was activated and the number and strength of any shocks delivered. Some units also have voice recording abilities[citation needed] to monitor the actions taken by the personnel in order to ascertain if these had any impact on the survival outcome. All this recorded data can be either downloaded to a computer or printed out so that the providing organisation or responsible body is able to see the effectiveness of both CPR and defibrillation. Some AED units even provide feedback on the quality of the compressions provided by the rescuer. The first commercially available AEDs were all of a monophasic type, which gave a high-energy shock, up to 360 to 400 joules depending on the model. This caused increased cardiac injury and in some cases second and third-degree burns around the shock pad sites. Newer AEDs (manufactured after late 2003) have tended to utilise biphasic algorithms which give two sequential lower-energy shocks of 120 - 200 joules, with each shock moving in an opposite polarity between the pads. This lower-energy waveform has proven more effective in clinical tests, as well as offering a reduced rate of complications and reduced recovery time.

  • 次の英文を和訳してほしいです。

    Methylation is a chemical process in which a methyl(CH3)group is added to an atom or molecule. The resulting compound does not usually dissolve in water and is more easily absorbed into organisms such as plankton. Methylmercury is very dangerous because it enters the food chain as soon as it is absorbed into plankton. Next, it ends up in a fish that eats the contaminated plankton. After the contaminated fish is eaten by another fish, the methylmercury stays in the surviving fish's flesh, and the cycle may be repeated over and over. Once the mercury reaches the top of the food chain, for example in a 300-kilogram tuna, it will stay there for the rest of the fish's life. As a result, people are very worried about the effect of eating fish that are high on the food chain or very old. These fish may have very high accumulations of mercury, and thus may be dangerous to eat. Fish that are lower on the food chain, or younger, are seen as safer. As the article makes clear, an important first step is to discover the exact nature of the ocean's mercury methylation process. After the process is understood, it may be possible to control it. Until we can reduce the amount of mercury that accumulates in the ocean, it would be advisable to avoid fish that may be high on mercury, wouldn't it?

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いしたいです。

    For a pharmaceutical agent to be effective in carrying out its selective action, the drug must be administered in an appopriate manner. Each route of drug administration has specific purposes, advantages, and disadvantages. With this method, drugs formulated in liquid or solid form are absoebed into the body from the gastrointestinal tract(GIT). This is the most commonly used route. Oral drugs are convenient --- portable, oainless, easy to take. Also, administration can be carried out by the patient him or heself. However, the onset of the drug's effect is relatively slow. In this case, the drug, usually in tablet form, is placed under the tongue. This produces a very fast onset of drug action because of the good blood supply to the area, but the duration of the drug's effect is usually short. This method can be used for patients who are unable to take drugs orally, or with younger children, elderly, or mentally disturbed patients. This route is usuful when a drug is known to cause GIT irritation. However, absorption is often incomplete and effectiveness is unpredictable.

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いしたいです。

    An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient, and is able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of electrical therapy which stops the arrhythmia, allowing the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm. With simple audio and visual commands, AEDs are designed to be simple to use for the layperson, and the use of AEDs is taught in many first aid, certified first responder, and basic life support (BLS) level cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) classes. An automated external defibrillator is used in cases of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias which lead to cardiac arrest. The rhythms that the device will treat are usually limited to: 1.Pulseless Ventricular tachycardia (shortened to VT or V-Tach) 2.Ventricular fibrillation (shortened to VF or V-Fib) In each of these two types of shockable cardiac arrhythmia, the heart is electrically active, but in a dysfunctional pattern that does not allow it to pump and circulate blood. In ventricular tachycardia, the heart beats too fast to effectively pump blood. Ultimately, ventricular tachycardia leads to ventricular fibrillation. In ventricular fibrillation, the electrical activity of the heart becomes chaotic, preventing the ventricle from effectively pumping blood. The fibrillation in the heart decreases over time, and will eventually reach asystole. AEDs, like all defibrillators, are not designed to shock asystole ('flat line' patterns) as this will not have a positive clinical outcome. The asystolic patient only has a chance of survival if, through a combination of CPR and cardiac stimulant drugs, one of the shockable rhythms can be established, which makes it imperative for CPR to be carried out prior to the arrival of a defibrillator. Uncorrected, these cardiac conditions (ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, asystole) rapidly lead to irreversible brain damage and death, once cardiac arrest takes place. After approximately three to five minutes in cardiac arrest, irreversible brain/tissue damage may begin to occur. For every minute that a person in cardiac arrest goes without being successfully treated (by defibrillation), the chance of survival decreases by 7 percent per minute in the first 3 minutes, and decreases by 10 percent per minute as time advances beyond ~3 minutes. AEDs are designed to be used by laypersons who ideally should have received AED training. However, sixth-grade students have been reported to begin defibrillation within 90 seconds, as opposed to a trained operator beginning within 67 seconds. This is in contrast to more sophisticated manual and semi-automatic defibrillators used by health professionals, which can act as a pacemaker if the heart rate is too slow (bradycardia) and perform other functions which require a skilled operator able to read electrocardiograms. Bras with a metal underwire and piercings on the torso must be removed before using the AED on someone to avoid interference. American TV show Mythbusters found evidence that use of a defibrillator on a woman wearing an underwire bra can lead to arcing or fire but only in unusual and unlikely circumstances. A study analyzed the effects of having AEDs immediately present during Chicago's Heart Start program over a two-year period. Of 22 individuals 18 were in a cardiac arrhythmia which AEDs can treat (Vfib or Vtach). Of these 18, 11 survived. Of these 11 patients, 6 were treated by bystanders with absolutely no previous training in AED use.

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いします。

    Climate change is often associated with extreme weather events, melting glaciers and rising sea levels. But it could also have a major impact on human, animal and plant health by making it easier for diseases to spread. Various germs and parasites may find the coming years a time to live longer and prosper. Rising temperatures are changing environments and removing some of their natural impediments. Sonia Altizer is an associate professor at the University of Georgia’s Odum School of Ecology and lead author of the study. She said it’s a review of research done over the past 10 years to see what trends and new information on climate change have emerged. “One of the big themes that has emerged is that there’s a lot of diseases, especially in natural systems, where there as a pretty clear signal that either the prevalence or severity of those diseases has increased in response to climate change.” She said some of those natural systems where the signal is strongest are in the arctic and in warmer oceans. “So in the arctic there are parasitic worms that affect muskox and reindeer, for example, that are developing faster and becoming more prevalent and expanding their ranges. And then in tropical oceans, like Caribbean coral reefs, there’s a large amount of evidence that has mounted that shows that warming interferes with the symbiosis of corals – makes them more vulnerable to disease and at the same time increases the growth rate of some lethal bacteria,” she said. But a second theme emerged indicating that sometimes climate change may have no effect at all. “The other main point that we focused on is that knowing why different pathogens respond differently to climate change is what’s needed to help us predict and ultimately manage disease outbreaks in people and animals and plants,” she said. Some countries will be much better prepared to handle the disease threat than others, like those in Europe and North America. . “Surveillance, vector control, modern sanitation, drugs, vaccines can be deployed to prevent outbreaks of a lot of diseases, especially vector borne disease or diarrheal disease that are much more problematic in the developing world. And so these can counter the effects of climate change and make it hard to detect increases in those pathogens,” said Altizer. Controlling vectors means controlling such things as mosquitos and ticks, which can carry malaria or dengue fever. In developing countries, pathogens affecting agriculture and wildlife could adversely affect food security and the livelihoods of indigenous peoples. So how concerned should health officials be? Altizer said there’s no simple answer. “I think that the answer to it really depends on the location. So where, when and what pathogen? So I think we’re at a stage now where in the next five to ten years scientists will be able to move towards a predictive framework that will be able to answer questions about where in the world and what pathogens are responding and will continue to respond most strongly to climate change.” Altizer says the effects of climate change will unfold over decades. So it’s vital to follow long-term standardized data for many diseases and pathogens. She said crop management may be a good example to follow. It has a long history of tracking disease outbreaks, forecasting potential threats and responding to those threats early.

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いします。

    When the tricky diagnosis of appendicitis is considered, blood tests and a urinalysis are required. The patient's blood is put into different colored tubes, each with its own additive depending on the test being performed: •A purple-top tube is used for a complete blood count (CBC). A CBC measures: 1) The adequacy of your red blood cells, to see if you are anemic. 2) The number and type of white blood cells (WBCs), to determine the presence of infection. 3) A platelet count (platelets are a blood component necessary for clotting) •A red-top tube is used to test the serum (the liquid or non-cellular half of your blood). •A blue-top tube is used to test your blood's clotting. The tests in your case indicate that you have an elevated WBC count. This is a sign of a bacterial infection, and bacterial infections are commonly associated with appendicitis. At this point, the emergency physician may request that you not eat or drink anything. The reason is that appendicitis is treated by surgery, and an empty stomach is desirable to prevent some complications of anesthesia. When the emergency physician has all the information he can obtain, he makes a determination of the most likely diagnosis from his differential diagnosis. Alternately, he may decide that he does not have enough information to make a decision and may require more tests. At this point, he speaks to a general surgeon -- the appropriate consultant in this case. The surgeon comes to see you and performs a thorough history, physical exam, and review of your lab data. She examines your symptoms: pain and tenderness in the right, lower abdomen, vomiting, low-grade fever and elevated WBC count. These symptoms all point to appendicitis. The treatment of appendicitis is removal of the appendix, or an appendectomy. The surgeon explains the procedure, including the risks and benefits. You then sign a consent form to document this and permit her to operate on you. The vast array of people caring for patients in an emergency department can be quite confusing to the average health care consumer -- as confusing as if you were watching your first baseball game ever and no one was around to explain all those players. Additionally, most people are uncertain of the training and background necessary to become a member of the emergency-department team. Well, here's the scorecard. The emergency physician comes to the team after spending four years in college studying hard to get as high a GPA (grade point average) as possible in order to get accepted into medical school. Medical school is a four-year course of study covering all the essentials of becoming a physician. It generally includes two years of classroom time, followed by two years rotating through all the different specialties of medicine. Toward the end of medical school, each medical student must select a particular specialty (emergency medicine, family practice, internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, etc.). The medical student then completes an internship (one year) and residency (two to three additional years) in order to be a specialist in emergency medicine. Physicians must pass an all-day written exam and an all-day oral exam to become board certified in emergency medicine. As of 2001, there were approximately 32,000 emergency physicians practicing in the United States, of which 17,000 were certified by the American Board of Emergency Medicine.

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いいたします。

    LATITUDE OF LOVE by Walter Robinson Hiro Yamagata is master of the pop spectacle. In the mid-1990s, the Japanese-born artist, who now lives in Los Angeles, painted a fleet of Mercedes Benz Cabriolet motorcars with a cascade of flowers and butterflies. He has produced paintings for the Olympics and the 100th anniversary of the Eiffel Tower, and made an official portrait of President Ronald Reagan. Hiro has collaborated on projects with Jack Nicklaus and Arnold Schwarzenegger, and designed a set of stamps for Japan. He has produced laser installations in Paris, Los Angeles, St. Louis, Bilbao, Yokohama and Cape Town, some monumental in scale. He has involved himself with worthy charities for people with disabilities, for earthquake victims, and for orphaned children. For the last five years, Hiro has turned his attention to the Bamiyan Valley in Afghanistan, where he proposed a $60-million project for a laser-beam recreation of the destroyed buddha statues there (fueled by solar power). But after several trips to the country, and meetings with government officials, he was forced to abandon the project. In its stead he has been producing a series of somber yet beautiful abstractions, paintings done in black-and-white with rice paper collaged on 6 x 6 ft. canvases, seven of which are now on view in the humble exhibition space of the Tenri Cultural Institute of New York. These works, frankly inspired by Hiro’s visits to Afghanistan, suggest a soaring bird’s-eye view of a dramatic and desolate landscape. The model of consciousness here is a profound one. As we can’t help but draw out in our minds a world of snow and shadow, mountain and crevice, expansive spaces and hollows of human habitation from this fragile surface of thin paper, ink and glue, so do people fill the empty present with all the imagined possibilities of human life. Nowhere is this more true than in the war zone. In these abstractions, in this "Atmosphere," Hiro Yamagata has uncovered something simple but profound, a model of the spark of creativity. Hiro Yamagata, "Atmosphere," Nov. 4-30, 2010, at Tenri Cultural Institute of New York, 43A West 13th Street, New York, N.Y. 10011