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I remember an incident involving one of the group whose name must go unmentioned because it occupies an elevated place in the history of electric lighting.Well,he too one night became frozen in the arms of Morpheus and began to breathe pretty loudly in his sleep.The disturbance was like intermittent approaching thunder with crashes between,ending with a periodical gulping that shook the laboratory in the silence of night.'I'll fix him,'said one of the boys with a fiendish grin,'I have a machine that will do the business,and you don't need to waste any more ammonia.'He went away and returned with a contraption that he had been working on the day before.It was a soap box upon which was mounted an enormos rattle that was actuated by a crankshaft turned by hand.'Which it work,boys,'he whispered as he placed the infernal thing near the sleeper on the table and gave it a few vigorous turns. It produced a terrific noise.The poor victim fairly bounced into the air thinking that a tornado had struck Menlo Park! The boys laughed.Some of us dubbed the machine a 'corpse revier'and others called it the 'calmer.'


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  • ddeana
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私は、その名前は伏せておくべきグループの一人が関わった事件を覚えている。なぜならそのことが電気照明の歴史における高みを占めるからだ。そう、彼もまたある晩モルペウスの腕の中でやる気をなくしており(※1)、眠りながらかなりうるさい寝息をかきだした。そのうるささときたら、合間合間で、夜のしじまの中で実験室を震撼させる周期的な雑音で終わりながら、断続的な雷鳴をともなう雷が近づいてくるようだった。「俺がヤツを始末する」と悪魔のような微笑みを浮かべて小僧どもの一人が言った。「俺は役に立つ機械をもっている。君たちはこれ以上アンモニアを無駄にする必要はないよ。」彼はどこかに行き、前日取り組んでいた奇妙な機械装置を持って戻ってきた。それは手動で回転するクランクシャフト(※2)で作動させる巨大なガラガラが取り付けられた石鹸箱だった。「これが役に立つよ、みんな」彼はテーブルで寝ている人のそばに仕掛け物をおきながらささやき、二、三回勢いよく回転させた。それはものすごい騒音を作り出した。あわれな犠牲者は、トルネードがメンロパークを襲ったと思い、まんまと空中に飛び上がったのだ! 小僧どもは笑った。我々の一部は、その機械に「死体再生機」というあだなをつけ、他のものは「落ち着かせ機」と呼んだ。 ※1:became frozen in the arms of Morpheus モルペウスはギリシャ神話に出てくる「夢の神」ですから、これは爆睡していたという意味だと思います。 ※2:crankshaft エンジン構成部品のひとつ





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      Nevertheless,disregarding the 'worry hunters'' the Pearl Strret Central Station was started on September 4,1882,and the Edison system and underground conductors service for decades.  Another somewhat similar incident of a different character happened at the corner of Nassau and Ann streets.As is known,Edison placed cast-iron junction boxes at the intersection of the streets,in connection with his underground conductors.Late one night when he was still at the station,a policeman came running in and in an excited voice said that the iron box at the above-mentioned corner had exploded.Edison and one of the 'boys' went there to see what had happened.He found that the cover on the manhole,which weighed about a couple of hundred pounds,had vanished,but everything inside the manhole was in good order.Edison concluded that gas from a gas main might have got into the manhole, or it might have been the acid used in picking the casting that gave off hydrogen that mixed with the air leaking in to make the explosive mixture.   The incident worried him;there were many such manhole boxes in the system,and if one should explode in a crowded street and life a few oersons into the air the company might be compelled to pay damages.Edison got his thinker in action and soon solved the problem.He placed a little bottle of chloroform with a small hole in the cork each box.The chroloform evaporated and, being heavy,settled in the box,displacing the air that may have got in.Edison said afterward that he had never heard of an explotion in a box that had a bottle of chloroform in it.

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    The early speculator was harassed by no such scruples, and asserted as facts what he knew in reality only as probabilities. But we are not on that account to doubt his perfect good faith, nor need we attribute to him wilful misrepresentation, or consciousness of asserting that which he knew not to be true. He had seized one great truth, in which, indeed, he anticipated the highest revelation of modern enquiry -- namely, the unity of the design of the world, and its subordination to one sole Maker and Lawgiver. With regard to details, observation failed him. He knew little of the earth's surface, or of its shape and place in the universe; the infinite varieties of organized existences which people it, the distinct floras and faunas of its different continents, were unknown to him. But he saw that all which lay within his observation bad been formed for the benefit and service of man, and the goodness of the Creator to his creatures was the thought predominant in his mind. Man's closer relations to his Maker is indicated by the representation that he was formed last of all creatures, and in the visible likeness of God. For ages, this simple view of creation satisfied the wants of man, and formed a sufficient basis of theological teaching, and if modern research now shows it to be physically untenable, our respect for the narrative which has played so important a part in the culture of our race need be in nowise diminished. No one contends that it can be used as a basis of astronomical or geological teaching, and those who profess to see in it an accordance with facts, only do this sub modo, and by processes which despoil it of its consistency and grandeur, both which may be preserved if we recognise in it, not an authentic utterance of Divine knowledge, but a human utterance, which it has pleased Providence to use Providence a special way for the education of mankind.

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    I have never been able to find out who the parties were that employed this detective agency.If I may venture a guess,those interested in gas had something to do with it.It all shows the pitfalls that are laid for an inventor when paramount interests are at stake. It is thus no wonder that G.P.Lowrey counseled prudence in showing people round and at the same time took precautions without Edison's knowledge for the company's sake.Yes,Lowrey was ever on the watch,and as we approached the busy termination of work atMenlo Park,the Edison Electric Light Company knew perfectly well which men at the Park were loyal and which were not,even before Edison had any idea of it.It was one these gum-shoed gentleman whose report on Boehm caused the latter to leave Menlo Park with lightning rapidly.I remember one of this company's shadowers well;his name was Russell.He once got into a jam and was beaten so severely that he had to cover his whole back with a large porous plaster;his nickname after that was 'Porous-plaster Jim'.

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    Margie even wrote about it that night in her diary. On the page headed May 17, 2155, she wrote, 'Today Tommy found a real book." It was a very old book. Margie's grandfather had heard about books like it when he was a little boy. He once said his grandfather had told them that there was a time when all stories were printed on paper. They turned the pages, which were yellow. It was very funny to read the words. They stood still, instead of moving the way they were supposed to - on a screen, you know. And then, when they turned back to the page before, it had the same words on it. It was just the same as it had been when they read it the first time.

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    翻訳機はなしで^^; Margie even wrote about it that night in her diary. On the page headed May 17, 2155, she wrote, 'Today Tommy found a real book." It was a very old book. Margie's grandfather had heard about books like it when he was a little boy. He once said his grandfather had told them that there was a time when all stories were printed on paper. They turned the pages, which were yellow. It was very funny to read the words. They stood still, instead of moving the way they were supposed to - on a screen, you know. And then, when they turned back to the page before, it had the same words on it. It was just the same as it had been when they read it the first time. "Oh," said Tommy. "What a waste! When you're through with the book, you just throw it away, I guess. Our television screen must have had a million books on it, and it's good for many more. I wouldn't throw it away." "Same with mine," said Margie. She was 11 and hadn't seen as many telebooks as Tommy had. He was 13. She said, 'Where did you find it?' "In my house." He pointed without looking, because he was busy reading. "In the attic." "What's it about?" "School."

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    On 6 November. the German submarine U–35 torpedoed and sank a steamer HMS Tara in the Bay of Sollum. U-35 surfaced, sank the coastguard gun-boat Abbas and badly damaged Nur el Bahr with its deck gun. On 14 November the Sanussi attacked an Egyptian position at Sollum and on the night of 17 November, a party of Sanussi fired into Sollum, as another party cut the coast telegraph line. Next night a monastery at Sidi Barrani, 48 miles (77 km) beyond Sollum was occupied by 300 Muhafizia and on the night of 19 November, a coastguard was killed. An Egyptian post was attacked 30 miles (48 km) east of Sollum on 20 November. The British withdrew from Sollum to Mersa Matruh, 120 miles (190 km) further east, which had better facilities for a base and the Western Frontier Force was created.

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    Here I mention another visitor,well known at that time,who appeared at the laboratory one day.His name was Hiram S.Maxim.He had made an arc lamp and generator which he exploited and which was known as the Maxim arc light system. He,too as I already mentioned,dabbled about wity an incandescent lamp idea in 1878 and like others had no success.His lamp was of very low resistance and possessed many other defects-it was simply an abandoned experiment of no practical value. Maxim was very much interested in what Edison showed him and the two spent almost a day together.Edison explained to him how the paper filaments were made and carbonized and all about the glass-blowing part.In fact,Maxim spent nearly two hours with Edison in the glass house where Boehm,Holzer and Hipple were working.He,too,like the 'celebrated electrician of Cleveland' took leave with the most touching cordiality.

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    In operating the electric pen,I got my current from a Bunsen battery consisting of two glass jars, capped at the top and controlled by a plunger with which I lowered the plates into the acid solution or drew them up when the pen was not in use.Thus the life of the battery was prolonged. The pen had a needlelike point which darted in and out of the writing end so rapidly that the eye could hardly detect it. This was operated by a miniature clectric motor small enough to be attached to the upper end of the pen.The shaft containing the needle was given its motion by cams on the rotating engine shaft so that when the current was turned on,and I wrote with the pen,holding it in a vertical position, it made innumerable tiny punctures on the sheet of paper,tracing the words that comprised the letter. After the master copy of the stencil had thus been made, I took it to the 'press',where it had to be spanned in a frame before the copies could be made.A plain sheet of paper was placed on the press,the stencil was laid on top and an ink roller passed over it. The impression of the handwriting was marked on the under sheet by the ink through the holes made by the needle.It was said that 5,000 copies could be made from a single stencil.

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     It was in 1979 that the systematization of postwar pedagogy was culminated, while the educational system, which postwar pedagody had examined as an object of analysis and criticism, manifested its functional failures in the form of a series of pathological phenomeon in education like school bullying or violence, clearly representing and revealing a division between theory and reality.

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    It was Dr.Werner Siemens' initiativeness that brought electric traction definitely before the world,for he was the first to employ grnerated by a series dynamo used as a motor.His apparatus,at that period considered modern,convinced everyone that at last the problem had been switched onto the right track.The little railway proved how futile all work on the motor had been before 1879. Siemons'`series machines'were also used for series arc lighting.Now,examining the picture of his motor,the electrical engineer will see at a glance how inadequately that motor was provided with iron for the poles and cores.Notice also that it used the least effective magnet core winding,which was long and of hardly any breadth.What was modern in 1878-79 was antiquated in1880,for Edison's regeneration of the dynamo worked a revolution in the art.After a look at Edison's electric locomotive of 1880,we aren't surprised that his machine had an efficiency which was more than double that of any dynamo or motor previouslybuilt.The Edison constant potential system also fulfilled the demands of electric traction.