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Salmon are essential resource for bears because the survival of these large mammals depends on the amount of fat they can deposit in the late summer and fall.Onece bears enter their dens in the early winter, they neither eat nor drink for up to seven months.Yet bears are not true hibernators so they must produce body heat to survive throughout the cold months.In addition, females give birth and milk their young during this time. Because the bears' the survival is closely tied to their physical condition in the autumn, natural selection favors those that get the most nourishment out of the fish they eat.And bears exhibit two types of behavior to this end.First, to avoid interference from othe bears, they often carry captured salmon to the riverbank or into the forest before eating.Bears are relatively solitary for most of their adult lives, expect when finding partners in spring and summer.When they gather in reverside areas to feed on salmon, they become aggressive.These confrontations can be either relatively harmless, resulting in one bear stealing a fish from another, or violent, ending in serious injury or death to one of the bears.Carrying the carcass into the forest out of sight of other bears isis a way to prevent confrontation. The second important behavior is that the bears often eat only the most nourishing part of the salmon.If the salmon densities are high, it takes less than a minute to capture a fish in a small river, and under these conditions of plenty, the bears rarely eat the whole fish.An analysis of more than 20,000 carcasses revealed that bears consume about 25 percent of each captured salmon, selectively eating only the parts highest in fat content, such as the eggs. After consuming the tastiest parts, bears abandon the carcass and return to the river to catch another fish.Thus, bears kill far more salmon than they eat. Why is this unusual feeding behavior important for the vitality of the ecosystem?After all, in the absence of bears, the salmon would still die after laying their eggs, and their carcasses would be eaten by birds, fish and insects in the river, and flushed out to the ocean.By killing many of the fatter salmon, carrying the fish to the forest, and then abandoning the carcass with most of the body remaining, bears make a tremendous amount of food and nourishment available to riverside plants and animals that would not otherwise have access to this resource.The bears are truly ecosystem engineers.

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  • 回答No.1
  • Nakay702
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以下のとおりお答えします。(面白い内容でした。なお、今回は誤植はなかったと思います。) 熊にとってサケは重要な資源です。なぜなら、この大型哺乳動物の生存はサケが晩夏や秋に供給できる脂肪の量に依存するからです。熊は、初冬のころ一たび穴に入ると7か月に及んで食べ物や飲み物を一切とりません。しかし熊は本来の冬眠動物ではありません。したがって、彼らは寒い数か月の間じゅう生き残るべく体温を作り出さなければなりません。さらに、メスはこの間に小熊を生み、ミルクを与えます。 熊の生き残りは、秋ごろの健康状態と緊密に結びついているので、自然淘汰上、彼らが食べる魚から最大の栄養を得るものが有利になります。また、熊はこの目的に対して2つのタイプの振る舞いを表わします。まず第一に、彼らは他の熊からの妨害を回避するためにしばしば捕らえたサケを、食べる前に河岸や森林へ運びます。 熊は、春夏に相手を探すときを除いて、成年期のほとんどを単独で過ごします。彼らはサケを常食するために、川岸周辺に集まってくると攻撃的になります。これらの対決は、比較的無害のうちに一方の熊が他方から魚を盗むことになる場合や、獰猛にもお互いに大怪我や死に終わることもあり得ます。(魚の)死体を他の熊の目に触れない森林の中へ運んだりするのは、互いの対決を防ぐための1つの方法なのです。 第二の重要な振る舞いは、しばしばサケの中で最も滋養になる部分だけを食べるということです。サケ密度が高い場合、小川で魚を捕らえるのに1分とかからないので、こういう豊漁の条件下では、熊が魚を丸々食べることはめったにありません。20,000体を超える死骸の分析によって、卵のような脂肪含有量が最も高い部分だけを選択的に食べて、捕らえたサケの約25パーセントだけを熊が消費する、ということが明らかになりました。 最も味のよい部分を消費した後に、熊は死骸を放棄して別の魚を捕らえるため川へ返ります。したがって、熊は自分で食べるよりはるかに多くのサケを殺します。この異常な採食行動が、生態系の活力にとって重要であるというのはなぜでしょうか。それはつまりこうです。熊がいなくなっても、サケは卵を提供した後まだそこに横たわっているので、その死骸が川べりの鳥や魚や昆虫に食べられ、海洋へと押し出されていく、ということになるのでしょう。 より太ったサケをたくさん捕獲し、その魚を森林へ運び、そして食べ残りの、ほとんどの身をつけた死骸を放置することによって、熊は莫大な量の食物および栄養を川岸の動植物が利用できるようにしますが、そうでなければ、彼らはこの資源に巡りあうことさえないでしょう。熊は、まさに生態系の技師なのです。

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  • 回答No.2
  • SPS700
  • ベストアンサー率46% (15293/33009)

    大型の動物にとっては、夏から冬にかけて蓄積する脂肪に生死がかかっているので、シャケは、熊に取って大切な食料である。冬の初め、熊が一旦ねぐらに入ると、7ヶ月の間飲み食いを絶つ。    しかし熊は真の冬眠動物ではないので寒い間生き続ける体温を作り出さなくてはならない。そのうえ、メスはこの期間、小熊を産んだり哺乳したりする。     クマが、生き残るかどうかは、秋の健康状態にかかっているので、自然淘汰には食する魚から最大量の栄養分を摂取するものに利がある。     したがって、クマはこの目的のために二種類の行動を見せる。第一は、他のクマに邪魔されないように、彼らは捕った魚を食べる前に、川岸や林の中に屢々運ぶ。成獣のクマは、春や夏にパートナーを探す期間を除いて、単独で行動することが多い。     川辺でシャケ穫りに群がる時は、攻撃的になる。このような対決は、一匹のクマが他から魚を一匹盗む、と言った軽い場合もあれば、どちらかが思い傷を負ったり、死にいたるような激しい場合もある。     他のクマに覚られないように林の中に死体を運ぶのは、他のクマとの対決を避けるためである。     第二に重要な行動は、クマは、シャケのもっとも栄養の高い部分だけを食べるということだ。シャケの密集度が高い場合は小さい川なら一匹の魚を捕らえるのに一分間もかからない、     このように獲物が多い場合には、クマはシャケ全体を食べることは殆ど無い。2万尾以上の(シャケの)残骸を分析した結果クマはシャケの約25%を食べ、筋子のような脂肪分のもっとも多い部分を選んで食べていることが分かった。     一番うまい部分を食べたクマは、シャケの食べかけを捨て、次の獲物を求めて川に戻る。このようにしてクマは食用必要量より遥かに多数のシャケを殺す。     なぜこのような珍しい狩猟行動が健全な環境組織に重要なのか? クマがいなくても、シャケは産卵後死に、その残骸は鳥、川の魚や虫に食われ、海に流れ出る。     脂肪分の多いシャケの多くを穫り、林に運び、魚の一部だけを食べて後捨てることによって、クマは、他の方法ではこう言った食料源にありつかない川辺の動植物に、多量に食料と栄養を与えているのである。     クマは、本当にエコ組織のエンジニアである。

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