Environmentalists Urge Countries to Cut Emissions as Adaptation Efforts Are Underway

  • Environmentalists like Namakin are calling on countries like the United States and Australia to take the lead in cutting emissions, instead of relying solely on adaptation efforts.
  • The Pacific Regional Environment Program and other groups have initiated a $34 million adaptation effort in the Pacific region, including measures such as preparing for flooding, improving sea walls, and relocating gardens and fishing industry in vulnerable areas.
  • However, unless developing countries take strong measures to curb emissions, these adaptation efforts may be insufficient to prevent the annihilation of entire countries.
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Environmentalists like Namakin are focused on fight over flight, drawing up adaptation plans and continuing to urge countries like the United States and Australia to take the lead in cutting emissions. Such action "would give us more hope for the future, instead of starting to pack and leave," he said. The Pacific Regional Environment Program has joined other groups in the region to start a $34 million adaptation effort that includes preparing roads for flooding in the Federated States of Micronesia; improving sea walls and drainage systems in the Cook Islands; and relocating gardens, planting salt-resistant crops and reviving the fishing industry in Solomon Islands atolls. But even Takesy, the program's director, says such efforts may be akin to "rearranging the deck chairs on the Titanic" unless strong measures are taken by developing countries to curb emissions. "I do not believe that the world should sit idly by while entire countries are slowly but surely annihilated," Takesy said. "And do you really want five million angry Pacific Islanders to come knocking on your door?"

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ナマキンの様な環境問題の専門家は、国外脱出をめぐる戦いに焦点を当て、適応計画を作成し、アメリカやオーストラリアの様な国々が排気ガス削減で主導するように促し続けています。 この様な行動は、「荷造りをして出て行く代わりに、私たちに将来に対する希望をより多く与えてくれるでしょう。」と、彼は言いました。 『太平洋地域環境計画』は、同地域の他のグループと共に、3400万ドルの対応運動を開始しました、この運動には、ミクロネシア連邦の洪水に対する道路整備、クック諸島の防波堤や排水システムの改善、ソロモン環礁の果樹園の移転、塩に抵抗力のある作物の植え付け、漁業の再生が含まれます。 しかし、このプログラムの事務局長であるタケシ [ = アステリオ・R・タケシ南太平洋地域環境計画(SPREP)事務局長] でさえ、排気ガスを抑制する強力な対策が先進諸国によって取られない限り、この様な努力は「タイタニック号のデッキ・チェアの並べ替え」に似ているのかも知れませんと言います。 「全ての国々がゆっくりとではあるが確実に絶滅に向かっている時に、世界が何もせずにじっとしているとは、私には信じられません。それに、あなたは、本当に、500万の怒れる太平洋の島民たちが、あなたの玄関の扉をノックしに来ることを望みますか?」と、タケシは言いました。





  • 和訳について!!これで合ってますか?

    namakinが何だったのか調べてもローズウォーターしか出てこなくて訳がヘンテコになってしまいました。ご指摘をお願いします。私の英語力ではこの程度の訳しかできなくて…。 Environmentalists like Namakin are focused on fight over flight, drawing up adaptation plans and continuing to urge countries like the Unaited States and Australia to take the lead in cutting emissions. 自然保護派は、ナマキンが、飛行の上の戦いに焦点を合わせられて、適応計画をたてて、放出を切る際に率先してアメリカ合衆国とオーストラリアのような国に促し続けているのが好きです。 Such action "would give us more hope for the future,instead of starting to pack and leave,"he said. 彼は、そのような動作が「荷造りして、いなくなり始めることの代わりに未来の、より多くの希望を私たちに与えるだろう」と言いました。 The Pacific Regional Environment Program has jojned other groups in the region to sart a $34 million adaptation effort that includes preparing roads for flooding in the Federated States of Micronesia; improving sea walls and drainage systems in the Cook Isiands; and relocating gardens, planting salt-resistant crops and reviving the fishing industry in Solomon Islands atolls. 太平洋の地方は適応計画氾濫のためにこの地域のグループとともにミクロネシア連邦で道路を準備するのを含んでいる3400万ドル規模の適応策を講じ始めた。 クックアイスランドの海壁を改良して、排水システム。 そして、耐塩の作物を植えて、ソロモン諸島環礁で水産業を蘇らせて、移動は庭造します。

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    Some countries' economies already depend on remittances from islanders who have gone abroad to find jobs, and climate change could swell those numbers. Meanwhile, villages have already been evacuated from low-lying areas in Vanuatu and the Carteret Islands of Papua New Guinea. Ben Namakin, an environmentalist and native of Kiribati, says that, in his homeland, saltwater intrusion is already ruining taro patches and spoiling well water, houses are being flooded, coastlines are receding, and a causeway whose beauty he had appreciated since he was a child collapsed last October. And, as in many such Pacific island nations, there is little higher, habitable land for people to move to. "I really don't know where they will go," Namakin said in an e-mail interview. "They may move further inland, but the more they do that, they will end up on somebody else's land or reach the ocean on the other side, as the islands are too narrow." The result could be a resource grab that pushes governments to the breaking point, and a clamor to relocate to developed countries on the Pacific Rim or elsewhere.

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    "There's going to be an increased demand for migration, as people look for economic opportunities," said Benjamin Preston, an Australian government scientist in marine and atmospheric research. "And as the impact of climate change becomes more severe, that's going to add urgency into the equation." If there is a mass exodus, countries like Tuvalu - which have contingency plans and close relations with a developed country partner like New Zealand - will have an advantage. The Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, for example, could benefit from closer historical ties with the United States (both are former U.S.-administered trust territories). The biggest losers will be unskilled, poor islanders who cannot easily emigrate - especially in politically turbulent states like the Solomon Islands. Preston and others say that, aside from New Zealand, there are few signs that developed nations are taking an active approach to dealing with rising emigration from the region. That may be in part because the predicated climate change scenarios still seem too alarmist and far away to accept. Even in Tuvalu, many islanders do not see inundation as an urgent problem, said Lono Leneuoti, a Tuvaluan tourism official. "You don't really notice that much of a difference, except during the king tide months," he said. "It's hard to believe that 50 years from now the place is going to be under water."

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    Factoring in these emissions, Indonesia had quickly become the world’s third-leading producer of carbon emissions that scientists believe are responsible for global warming, ranked after the United States and China, according to a study released in December by researchers from Wetlands International and Delft Hydraulics, both in the Netherlands. “It was shocking and totally smashed all the good reasons we initially went into palm oil,” said Alex Kaat, a spokesman for Wetlands, a conservation group. Biofuals, long a cornerstone of the quest for greener energy, may sometimes create more harmful emissions than fossil fuels, scientific studies are finding. As a result, politicians in many countries are rethinking the billions of dollars in subsidies that have indiscriminately supported the spread of all of these supposedly eco-friendly fuels for vehicles and factories. The 2003 European Union Biofuels Directive, which demands that all member states aim to have 5.75 percent of transportation run by biofuel in 2010, is now under review.

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    Biofuels are heavily subsidized throughout the developed world , including the European Union and the United States, and enjoy tax breaks that are given because they are more expensive to produce than conventional fuel. In the United States and Brazil most biofuel is ethanol , derived from corn and, used to power vehicles . In Europe it is mostly local rapeseed and sunflower oil, used to make diesel fuel. But as many European countries push for more green energy, they are increasingly importing plant oils from the tropics, since there is simply not enough biomass at home. On the surface, the environmental equation that supports biofuels is simple: Since they are derived from plants, biofuels absorb carbon while they are grown and release it when they are burned. In theory that neutralizes their emissions. But the industry was promoted long before there was adequate research, said Reanne Creyghton, who runs Friends of the Earth’s campaign against palm oil here.

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    That is a lifeline that many similarly threatened island nations - including Kiribati, Vanuatu, the Marshall Islands, the Cook Islands, Fiji and the Solomon Islands - do not yet have. While their stories may not be as compelling as Tuvalu's, such nations include atolls that may also vanish. And they depend on vulnerable, low-lying coastal areas for living space, cropland and tourism. For them, even conservative estimates of rising waters look set to make life on once-idyllic islands increasingly nasty, crowded and very, very wet. "Entire Pacific islands disappearing from inundation is indeed dramatic," said Asterio Takesy, director of the Pacific Regional Environment Program, an intergovernmental organization based in Apia, Samoa. "But a complete loss of livelihoods from decreased fisheries, damaged coral reefs, tourism affected by dengue epidemics, and agriculture destroyed because of changing rain patterns - surely these are just as worthy of our attention."

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    Many previous studies have assumed that the impact of aircraft emissions was the same everywhere. But the new analysis reveals that aircraft emissions increased the fraction of cirrus clouds where vapour trails were most abundant, and actually decreased the cirrus fraction in several locations by increasing the temperatures in the lower atmosphere, reducing the relative humidity in such locations. If black-carbon emissions from aircraft could be reduced 20-fold, warming would be halted and a slight cooling would occur from plane-created vapour trails, Jacobson says. The team’s study is being peer reviewed and is expected to be published soon, Jacobson added. David Fahey, of the Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado ― part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ― says that studies such as Jacobson’s are important to fill the gaps in aircraft-emissions data following the nation’s previously “muddled” research course. Fahey says that how European leaders are calling for carbon taxes to be levied on each commercial airline flight, the United States is being driven to catch up on aircraft-emissions research. Some of the EU proposals suggest taxing a flight for emissions along its entire route. This is “absurd”, says Fahey. For a more realistic levy, high-quality research is needed on the actual impact of such emissions, he adds. よろしくお願いします^^;

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    The region already faces a witches' brew of problems that environmentalists say are being worsened by climate change: coastal erosion, saltwater intrusion onto taro cropland and tourist sites, shortages of potable water, anemic economies propped up by foreign aid, disease, dependence on sugar-packed, processed food imports. And there are health problems like obesity and diabetes exacerbated by such food imports. A recent World Health Organization survey found that the South Pacific was the world's most overweight region. "We're not dealing with climate change on its own, because we have an expanding population and so greater stress on resources anyway," said Ashvini Fernando, regional climate change coordinator for the World Wildlife Fund South Pacific Program, based in Fiji. "Climate change makes those stresses so much greater." Some experts warn that, ultimately, these issues will combine to power a wave of emigrants fleeing the Pacific islands. Indeed, there are already signs of flight: according to a study by the Australian government, applications for New Zealand residency from eligible Pacific island nations shot up sharply in 2005 and 2006, compared with 2003.

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    To be confined to means to only exist or affect that place - and developed countries are the richer ones with advanced industries - like the United States or Japan as Russell said. ロッセルが言うようにアメリカや日本のような先進国は進んだ産業によって自国を豊かにする 文型がよく分かりません。 真ん中のonesはdeveloped countriesを指してるんでしょうか。 andはどんな役割でしょうか。 お願いします。

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    Policy makers and environmentalists argue that, alongside the task of cutting carbon dioxide emissions, governments must prepare for drastic changes which will result from the inevitable rise in temperatures. "What we are seeing now are the early signs of climate change as a result of the emissions produced in the 1960s and 1970s," said Tom Burke, visiting professor at Imperial and University Colleges, London. "There is a 40 year lag between carbon entering the atmosphere and its effects starting to show." He added that the report "is a wake-up call, and what is tricky about this is that we are going to have to spend billions preparing and adapting, and that is going to compete for money to stop climate change getting worse." The draft of the European Commission's Green Paper "Adapting to Climate Change in Europe - Options for EU Action," underlines the scale of the challenge. The document warns that, unless there is advance planning, European countries will be left to respond "to increasingly frequent crises and disasters which will prove much more costly and also threaten Europe's social and economic systems and its security." It adds: "For impacts where we have enough confidence in the forecasts, adaptation must therefore start now."