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以下の文章です。 In some respects it was the closest men have ever come to achieving the ideal of one united world. As one poet expresses it, “Rome had made a city where once there was a world.” It was not a great exaggeration, for Rome's empire at its height included most of what was known of the Western world. And despite its great size, the Empire had many of the qualities of a closely-knit city. From the Atlantic shores of Spain in the west to the Caspian Sea in the east, and from Hadrian's Wall in Britain to Egypt in the south, people lives under one system of government, used the same kind of money and were protected by a common Roman law. Linking the far-flung parts of the Empire physically were 50,000 miles of the finest roads built until very recent times.


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    ある面では、(ローマ帝国は)一つの纏まった世界という人類の理想に一番近づいた時であった。ある詩人が言い表したように「かつては世界があった場所にローマは町を作った」と言うのは言い過ぎではない、頂点に達した時のローマ帝国は、(人に)知られている西洋の殆どを含んでいたからである。その領域は広大であったにもかかわらず、(ローマ)帝国は、ひとつの町のような密接さを持っていた。西は大西洋海岸のスペインから、東はカスピ海まで、北はブリテンのハドリアヌスの長城(下記)から南はエジプトまで、人は一つの政府組織の下に住み、同じ通貨を使い、共通のローマ法に保護されたのである。この広大な帝国の隅々を結びつけたのは、ごく最近まであった5万マイルに及ぶ立派な道路である。     http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%8F%E3%83%89%E3%83%AA%E3%82%A2%E3%83%8C%E3%82%B9%E3%81%AE%E9%95%B7%E5%9F%8E




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  • 回答No.2

ここで翻訳してみては? 無料です。 http://www.excite.co.jp/world/english/



  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    The Treaty of Sèvres (French: Traité de Sèvres) was one of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I. Hostilities had already ended with the Armistice of Mudros. The treaty was signed on 10 August 1920, in an exhibition room at the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres porcelain factory in Sèvres, France. The Sèvres treaty marked the beginning of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, and its dismemberment. The terms it stipulated included the renunciation of all non-Turkish territory and its cession to the Allied administration. Notably, the ceding of Eastern Mediterranean lands allowed the creation of new forms of government, including Mandatory Palestine and the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon. The terms of the treaty stirred hostility and nationalist feeling amongst Turks. The signatories of the treaty were stripped of their citizenship by the Grand National Assembly led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, and this ignited the Turkish War of Independence. In that war, Atatürk led the Turkish nationalists to defeating the combined armies of the signatories of the Treaty of Sèvres, including the remnants of the Ottoman Empire. In a new treaty, that of Lausanne in 1923, Turkish sovereignty was preserved through the establishment of the Republic of Turkey. George Dixon Grahame signed for the UK, Alexandre Millerand for France, and Count Lelio Bonin Longare for Italy. Avetis Aharonian, the President of the Delegation of the First Republic of Armenia, which had signed the Treaty of Batum on 4 June 1918, was also a signatory. One Allied power, Greece, did not accept the borders as drawn, mainly due to the political change after the Greek legislative election, 1920, and never ratified the treaty. There were three signatories for the Ottoman Empire: ex-Ambassador Hadi Pasha, ex-Minister of Education Rıza Tevfik Bölükbaşı, and second secretary of the Ottoman embassy in Bern, Reşad Halis. The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic was not a party to the treaty because it had negotiated the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Ottoman Empire in 1918. In that treaty, at the insistence of Grand Vizier Talaat Pasha, the Ottoman Empire regained the lands the Russian Empire had captured in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), specifically Ardahan, Kars, and Batumi. The Treaty of Versailles was signed with the German Empire before the Sèvres treaty, and it annulled German concessions in the Ottoman sphere, including economic rights and enterprises. Also, France, Great Britain and Italy signed a secret "Tripartite Agreement" on the same date. The Tripartite Agreement confirmed Britain's oil and commercial concessions, and turned the former German enterprises in the Ottoman Empire over to a Tripartite corporation. The Treaty of Sèvres セーヴル条約

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします

    以下の文章です。 It is, of course, true that the emancipation of Asia and Africa and the development of the European crisis went hand in hand. Among the factors which facilitated the rise of independence movements in Asia and Africa, we must include the weakening of the grip of the European powers, Iargely as a consequence of their own discords and rivalries and of the wastage of resources in which their wars resulted. From the time of the First World War the incipient nationalist movements in the non-European world profited and the sudden collapse of the European empires after 1947 was to a large extent a consequence of external pressures and of the impact of world politics. In Asia neither the British nor the French nor the Dutch ever recovered from the blows inflicted by japan between 1941 and 1945; while in Africa and the Middle East they were checked and forced into retreat by pressures from the United States-acting directly and through the United Nations-which had a strong anti-colonial tradition of its own and was unwilling to stand aside while colonialism drove the peoples of Asia and Africa over to the side of the Soviet Union. Nationalism came to Asia a century later than it came to Europe and to black Africa fifty years later than to Asia. Two external events in the early years of the twentieth century were a powerful stimulus in its rise. The first was the victory of Japan over Russia in the war of 1904-5ー a victory hailed by dependent peoples everywhere as a blow to European ascendancy and proof that European arms were not invincible. Its impact was redoubled when, ten years later,the Japanese defeated the Germans in Shantung; and the successful campaigns of Kemal Ataturk against France in 1920 and Greece in 1922 were greeted in the same way as Asian victories over western military power. The second event was the Russian revolution of 1905ーa revolution which produced scarcely an echo in Europe but which, seen as a struggle for liberation from despotism, had an electrifying effect throughout Asia. The wave of unrest extended as far as Vietnam, and its impact, in sparking off the Persian revolution of 1906, the Turkish revolution of 1908 and the Chinese revolution of 1911, and in the new impetus it gave to the Indian Congress movement in 1907, was such that its consequences in Asia have been compared with those of the French revolution of 1789 in Europe.

  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    The Battle of Kostiuchnówka was a World War I battle that took place July 4–6, 1916, near the village of Kostiuchnówka (Kostyukhnivka) and the Styr River in the Volhynia region of modern Ukraine, then part of the Russian Empire. It was a major clash between the Russian Army and the Polish Legions (part of the Austro-Hungarian Army) during the opening phase of the Brusilov Offensive. Polish forces, numbering 5,500–7,300, faced Russian forces numbering over half of the 46th Corps of 26,000. The Polish forces were eventually forced to retreat, but delayed the Russians long enough for the other Austro-Hungarian units in the area to retreat in an organized manner. Polish casualties were approximately 2,000 fatalities and wounded. The battle is considered one of the largest and most vicious of those involving the Polish Legions in World War I.

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします。

    下記の文の穴埋めと指定部分の和訳をお願いします。 Two beakers were ( 1 ) with water. In each beaker a glass cylinder was immersed, across the bottom of which a membrane was tied. The membrane allowed water to pass through it freely, but it would not allow molecules of dissolved protein to pass which ( 2 ) molecules to pass through it is known as permeable membrane. However, since the membranes used in this experiment allowed only molecules of the solvent to pass through, they are ( 3 ) as semi-permeable membranes. Two protein solutions were then made up, one at a concentration of 5g dm^-3,and the other at 10 g dm^-3. Some of the 5 g dm^-3 solution was ( 4 ) into one of the glass cylinders, and some of the 10 g dm^-3 solution into the other cylinder. The levels of the water in the beakers and the protein solutions in the glass cylinders were ( 5 ) until they were all equal. The experiment was then left for a period of twenty-four hours. After twenty-four hours, it was ( 6 ) that the levels of the water and protein solutions were considerably different from when the experiment was ( 7 ). The level of liquid in the cylinders was seen to be higher than the level of the water in the beakers. Moreover, when the height of the liquid in each cylinder was ( 8 ), /ここから和訳/ it was found that the height of the column of liquid in the cylinder containing the more concentrated solution was twice the height of the other solution. ( )内は以下の語群から、適切な形に変えて選ぶ begin/pour/know/observe/fill/allow/adjust/measure よろしくお願いします。

  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    The British military historian Correlli Barnett claimed that the Treaty of Versailles was "extremely lenient in comparison with the peace terms that Germany herself, when she was expecting to win the war, had had in mind to impose on the Allies". Furthermore, he claimed, it was "hardly a slap on the wrist" when contrasted with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that Germany had imposed on a defeated Russia in March 1918, which had taken away a third of Russia's population (albeit of non-Russian ethnicity), one-half of Russia's industrial undertakings and nine-tenths of Russia's coal mines, coupled with an indemnity of six billion marks. Eventually, even under the "cruel" terms of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany′s economy had been restored to its pre-war status. Barnett also claims that, in strategic terms, Germany was in fact in a superior position following the Treaty than she had been in 1914. Germany′s eastern frontiers faced Russia and Austria, who had both in the past balanced German power. Barnett asserts that its post-war eastern borders were safer, because the former Austrian Empire fractured after the war into smaller, weaker states, Russia was wracked by revolution and civil war, and the newly restored Poland was no match for even a defeated Germany. In the West, Germany was balanced only by France and Belgium, both of which were smaller in population and less economically vibrant than Germany. Barnett concludes by saying that instead of weakening Germany, the treaty "much enhanced" German power. Britain and France should have (according to Barnett) "divided and permanently weakened" Germany by undoing Bismarck's work and partitioning Germany into smaller, weaker states so it could never have disrupted the peace of Europe again. By failing to do this and therefore not solving the problem of German power and restoring the equilibrium of Europe, Britain "had failed in her main purpose in taking part in the Great War".The British historian of modern Germany, Richard J. Evans, wrote that during the war the German right was committed to an annexationist program which aimed at Germany annexing most of Europe and Africa. Consequently, any peace treaty that did not leave Germany as the conqueror would be unacceptable to them. Short of allowing Germany to keep all the conquests of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Evans argued that there was nothing that could have been done to persuade the German right to accept Versailles. Evans further noted that the parties of the Weimar Coalition, namely the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the social liberal German Democratic Party (DDP) and the Christian democratic Centre Party, were all equally opposed to Versailles, and it is false to claim as some historians have that opposition to Versailles also equalled opposition to the Weimar Republic.

  • 和訳お願いします

    Terror of the Deep Kronosaurus lived in the seas that covered Australia, but it probably left the water to lay its eggs on land. Its head was seven feet (2m) long and its teeth were as big as bananas! The prime function of a set of teeth like this, says paleontologist Colin McHenry, was to grab and crush its prey. In fact, Kronosaurus was one of the most powerful predators of all time.

  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    On 4 June 1918, Azerbaijan and the Ottoman Empire signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation, clause 4 of which held that the Ottoman Empire would provide military assistance to Azerbaijan, if such assistance was required for maintaining peace and security in the country. Prelude The Ottoman Islamic Army of the Caucasus was under the command of Nuri Pasha. It was formed in Ganja. It included the Ottoman 5th Caucasian and 15th divisions, and the Azerbaijani Muslim Corps under general Ali-Agha Shikhlinski. There were roughly 14,000 Ottoman troops with 500 cavalrymen and 40 pieces of artillery. 30% of the newly formed army consisted of Ottoman soldiers, the rest being Azerbaijani forces and volunteers from Dagestan. The Baku forces were commanded by the former Tsarist General Dokuchaev, with his Armenian Chief of Staff, Colonel Avetisov. Under their command were about 6,000 Centrocaspian Dictatorship troops of the Baku Army or Baku Battalions. The vast majority of the troops in this force were Armenians, though there were some Russians among them. Their artillery comprised some 40 field guns. Most of the Baku Soviet troops and practically all their officers were Armenians of Dashnak leanings, and often outright Dashnaks. One of the Red Army commanders was the notorious Amazasp, who had fought as a guerrilla leader against the Turks, and for whom any Muslim was an enemy simply because he was a Muslim. The British mission, Dunsterforce, was headed by Major-General Lionel Dunsterville, who had arrived to take command of the mission force in Baghdad on 18 January 1918. The first members of the force were already assembled. Dunsterville set out from Baghdad on 27 January 1918, with four NCOs and batmen in 41 Ford vans and cars. The British troops in battle under Dunsterville numbered roughly 1,000. They were supported by a field artillery battery, machine gun section, three armoured cars, and two airplanes. He was to proceed through Persia (began from Mesopotamian Campaign through Persian Campaign) to the port of Anzali. On 6 June 1918, Grigory Korganov, People's Commissar of Military and Naval Affairs of the Baku Soviet, issued an order to the Red Army to begin offensive operations against Ganja. Being unable to defend the independence of the country on their own, the government of Azerbaijan asked the Ottoman Empire for military support in accordance with clause 4 of the treaty between the two countries. The Baku Soviet troops looted and killed Muslims as they moved towards Ganja.

  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    As a result of the operations of 21–23 August, the frontline had been established to the east of the Albert-Arras railway line with all but one of the ridges to the south and west of Bapaume held by IV Corps. However, the 5th Division had been unsuccessful in its attacks which left the ridge running from Loupart Wood to Grévillers and then onto Biefvillers still in the hands of the Germans. Although over 2,000 prisoners of war had been taken during this period along with 25 field guns, the 5th Division had suffered 1,600 casualties by this stage of the battle. The New Zealand Division was tasked to capture Grévillers, held by two battalions of the Royal Bavarian 14th Infantry Regiment (Kgl. Bayerisches 14. Infanterie-Regiment), and then push into, and beyond, Bapaume, while the 37th Division, on the left of the New Zealanders, was to capture Biefvillers. The attack had two phases; the 1st Infantry Brigade was to capture Loupart Wood and Grévillers and establish a line about 450 m (490 yd) beyond. This would leave Bapaume and the high ground beyond to be captured in the second phase by the 2nd Infantry Brigade. Intelligence indicated that Bapaume was lightly held and the advance was to be supported by two brigades of artillery as well as thirteen Mark IV tanks and a company of Whippets. Most of the armoured support was intended to cover the 2nd Infantry Brigade in its advance, as the artillery support was primarily for the 1st Infantry Brigade. A Whippet tank crossing a trench near Grevillers, August 1918 The New Zealanders' attack began with a night-time advance on 24 August by the 1st Infantry Brigade to clear the approaches to Bapaume, including Loupart Wood and Grévillers. Brigadier General Charles Melvill, commanding the brigade, was directed to move onto Bapaume if it were able to do so quickly. However, progress was delayed by heavy machine gun fire and artillery took its toll on the supporting tanks allocated to the brigade. Furthermore, in contrast to the previous three days, the weather was poor. Despite this, Grévillers fell to the brigade along with 380 prisoners and several field guns. There were over 100 casualties among the attacking New Zealanders, including the commander of 2nd Auckland Battalion.

  • 英文を和訳してください。お願いします。 

    弟に宿題の英語の訳を手伝うように頼まれたのですが僕自身もあまり英語が得意ではありません・・・。しかし弟の手前英語ができないといえず。。。。。。よろしくお願いいたします。 後半が特におかしな和訳になってしまいました・・。 Yet another key factor in those turbulent times was that, once the Tokugawa Shogunate had been overthrown and the Emperor (Meiji) had been restored to power in 1868, those leaders realized that administrative reforms had to be at their top of priority. Consequently, a Cabinet consisting of 11 departments was established where there had been an unmanageable and out-of-date system of court administration; Western codes of civil and penal law were adopted; and, most importantly, local governments were totally revamped and reconstituted along modern lines. New political parties representing various ideologies and interests were also formed, such as Jiyuto (the Liberal Party) in 1881 and Kaishinto (the Reform Party) in 1882. An Imperial decree in 1889 proclaimed constitutional government to be the law of the land. Please note the dates — 1868 and 1889: It took more than two decades for Japan to establish and entrench its modern nation state in the form of democratic institutions. Between the beginning of Meiji and that time, the country was nearly wracked by armed rebellions, violent arguments and numerous clashes of vested interests. Again, a lesson for today: A couple of decades of confusion is very common during reformation. It is not only Japan that is suffering through this seemingly dull nightmare. The United States, Russia and some countries in Europe are going through their own “lost years.” But nothing is truly lost if it leads to something better.

  • 英文の長文和訳で困っています 和訳を助けてください

    英文の和訳で困っています。 和訳を教えていただきたいです。 よろしくお願いします!! The most drastic modification of an existing cult was the conversion of the temple at the north end of the forum into a Capitolium to house the three-fold cult of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, imported from the Capitoline hill in Rome. Venus had been the patron goddess of Sulla whose veterans formed the first colonists, and the official name of the colony, Colonia Veneria cornelia, connects it both with Venus and with Sulla who belonged to the gens Cornelia. t was built on a vast artificial platform and must have been intended to be conspicuous from the sea like several other famous temples of Aphrodite. In the shrine of uncertain dedication near the Greek Theatre the cella was rebuilt, and several changes were made in the precinct. The new temple demonstrated the supremacy of Rome’s most prestigious cult, and emphasized the romanitas of the new colony.