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A number of pit-heads known as Fosses and auxiliary shafts called Puits had been built around Loos, when the area was developed by the mining industry; Fosse 8 de Béthune was close to the north end of a spoil-heap (Crassier) known as "The Dump". The Crassiers had been tunnelled or hollowed out by both sides, to provide observation-posts and machine-gun nests. The Dump was 20-foot (6.1 m) high, with an excellent view in all directions. New fortifications were built as quickly as possible, after the Franco-British offensives in May and June 1915. At Dump and Fosse trenches, on a slight rise 400 yards (370 m) in front of the original front line, a new defensive work wired for all-round defence was built and named the Hohenzollernwerk. The face of the redoubt was 300 yards (270 m) long and curved, with extensions to join with "Big Willie" Trench to the south and "Little Willie" Trench to the north. British planners judged the Hohenzollern Redoubt to be the strongest defensive-work on the whole of the front. In the area of Fosse 8, more fortifications were built in July by the German 117th Division, after it had fought at Vimy Ridge in May and June; once a period of reorganisation at Roubaix was over, the division returned to the line on 9 July. On 25 September, the two leading battalions of the 26th Brigade attacked from the jumping-off trench at 6:30 a.m., under the cover of the gas discharge, a smoke-shell barrage from Stokes mortars and phosphorus grenades, which formed a thick yellow screen. The gas was not blown far into no man's land and many British troops were poisoned. The gas and smoke persisted for long enough for the first infantry companies in the attack to form up behind it, ready to advance when the British artillery lifted off the German front trenches. The right-hand battalion advanced through the screen, into German small-arms fire, found the wire well cut but quickly entered the German trenches, finding little organised resistance from the garrison. The battalion bombed forward along communication trenches, North Face and South Face trenches to reach Fosse Trench around 7:00 a.m., with few additional casualties. The troops continued towards Fosse 8, the cottages nearby and The Dump, as German troops retired towards Auchy and by 7:30 a.m. the British had reached Three Cabarets and occupied Corons Trench east of the fosse, before pausing to re-organise. The left-hand battalion waited for ten minutes for the gas and smoke, to move towards their objective at Little Willie Trench but then advanced through it at 6:40 a.m. regardless. As the British emerged from the screen they were engaged by fire from Madagascar ("Mad") Point to the left, which inflicted many losses on the first lines of infantry. The advance accelerated and Little Willie was entered, the wire having been well cut. The Germans firing from Mad Point, were forced to change targets to the 28th Brigade on the left which was attacking directly towards the point, which gave the battalion enough time to reach Fosse Trench at 7:10 a.m. The miners' cottages ahead had been captured by the right-hand battalion and by 7:45 a.m. the battalion reached Three Cabarets and Corons de Pekin to the north of the Dump. Many more casualties had been incurred by this battalion and a supporting battalion had advanced to reinforce it, which had then been caught by machine-guns firing from Mad Point and also had many casualties.


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以下のとおりお答えします。 >A number of pit-heads ~ in May and June 1915. ⇒この地域が鉱山業によって開発されたとき、フォッセ(城塞壕)と呼ばれる多くの坑道口や、プイットと呼ばれる補助シャフト(縦坑)がルース周辺に建設されていた。ベトゥーンの城塞壕8は、「ザ・ダンプ(集積場)」として知られる鉱渣捨場(クラシエ)の北端近くにあった。クラシエは、監視所と機関銃巣を提供するため、両側にトンネルまたは窪地が掘られていた。ダンプの高さは20フィート(6.1 m)で、すべての方向からよく視認できた。1915年5月と6月の仏英軍攻勢の後、新しい要塞が可能な限り迅速に建設された。 >At Dump and Fosse trenches, ~ to the line on 9 July. ⇒集積場と城塞壕の塹壕で、当初の前線の前方から少し上った400ヤード(370 m)の高台で、全面に鉄線をめぐらす防御施設が新たに建造された。万能の防衛のために建てらおでれた、ホーエンツォルレンヴェルク(山岳大施設)と名付けられた。この要塞の表面は長さ300ヤード(270 m)で湾曲しており、南は「ビッグ・ウィリー」塹壕と合流し、北は「リトル・ウィリー」塹壕と合流するような拡張施設を擁していた。英国の計画立案者らが、ホーエンツォルレン要塞砦は最強の防御施設であると判断した。ドイツ第117師団は、5月と6月にヴィミー・リッジで戦った後、7月に城塞壕8の地域でさらなる強化砦を建設した。ルーベー(フランス北東部の都市)での再編成期間が終了すると、この師団は7月9日に戦線に戻った。 >On 25 September, the two ~ the German front trenches. ⇒9月25日、第26旅団の先導2個大隊が、午前6時30分に始発塹壕から、ガス弾放射の覆いの下で、ストークス迫撃砲とリン手榴弾による煙幕集中砲火で攻撃したところ、部厚い黄色幕が形成された。ガスは中間地帯の遠距離までは吹き込まれず、多くの英国軍隊が毒を吸った。ガスと煙は、最初の攻撃についた歩兵中隊が背後に回って隊を組むのに十分な時間持続し、英国軍の砲兵隊がドイツ軍前線塹壕への打ち込みのために前進する準備ができた。 ※この段落、各種砲弾などの専門用語について誤訳があるかも知れませんが、その節はどうぞ悪しからず。 >The right-hand battalion advanced ~ before pausing to re-organise. ⇒右側の大隊はガス幕を突き抜けてドイツ軍の小火器砲火をくぐり、鉄線がうまく切断されているのを発見してすぐにドイツ軍の塹壕に入ったが、駐屯軍からの組織的な抵抗はほとんどなかった。大隊は通信塹壕、北面塹壕、および南面塹壕に沿って前方爆撃し、午前7時頃に城塞壕塹壕に到着したが、犠牲者はそれ以上ほとんど増えなかった。大隊の軍隊は城塞壕8、近くの作業小屋および集積場に向かって進み、ドイツ軍はオシー(ホーエンツォルレン砦)方面に向かって退却したので、英国軍は午前7時30分までにスリー・キャバレーに到着し、再編成で一時停止するが、その前に城塞壕の東にあるコロン塹壕を占領した。 >The left-hand battalion ~ having been well cut. ⇒左側大隊は、リトル・ウィリー塹壕でガスと煙が目的地に向かって移動するのを10分間待ったが、午前6時40分にその中を突き進んだ。英国軍が煙幕の中から飛び出てきたとき、彼らはマダガスカル(「マッド」)ポイントから左側への砲撃で応戦し、最前列の歩兵隊に多くの損失を与えた。(大隊の)前進が加速し、リトル・ウィリーに潜入し、鉄線を完全に切断した。 >The Germans firing from Mad Point, ~ had many casualties. ⇒マッド・ポイントから発砲したドイツ軍は、標的を左側の第28旅団に変更することを余儀なくされ、そのポイントに向かって直接攻撃していた。これにより、大隊は午前7時10分に城塞壕塹壕に到達するのに十分な時間が与えられた。右側の大隊がその先の工兵舎を攻略し、午前7時45分までに集積場の北にあるスリー・キャバレーとコロン・ド・ペキンに到着した。この大隊は多くの死傷者を出したので、それを強化するために支援大隊が前進したが、マッド・ポイントから発砲した機関銃に捕らえられて多くの死傷者が出た。





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    The British captured Kut in February 1917 on their way to the capture of Baghdad sixteen days later on 11 March 1917. The humiliation the British faced due to the loss of Kut had been partially rectified. The Ottoman government was forced to end its military operations in Persia and try to build up a new army to prevent the British from moving on to capture of Mosul. Sepoy Chatta Singh of the 9th Bhopal Infantry was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions at the battle.

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    Soon after, Lalor's company had been forced back to The Nek and the Turks were threatening to recapture Russell's Top, and at 10:15 Maclagen reported to Bridges his doubts over being able to hold out. In response Bridges sent part of his reserve, two companies from the 2nd Battalion (Gordon's and Richardson's), to reinforce the 3rd Brigade. At 11:00 Swannell's company arrived at the foot of Baby 700, joining the seventy survivors of Robertson's and Lalor's companies. They immediately charged and chased the Turks back over the summit of Baby 700, then stopped and dug in. The two 2nd Battalion companies arrived alongside them, but all the companies had taken casualties, among the dead being Swannell and Robertson. By this time most of the 3rd Brigade men had been killed or wounded, and the line was held by the five depleted companies from the 1st Brigade. On the left, Gordon's company 2nd Battalion, with the 11th and 12th Battalion's survivors, charged five times and captured the summit of Baby 700, but were driven back by Turkish counter-attacks; Gordon was among the casualties. For the second time Maclagen requested reinforcements for Baby 700, but the only reserves Bridges had available were two 2nd Battalion companies and the 4th Battalion. It was now 10:45 and the advance companies of the 1st New Zealand Brigade were disembarking, so it was decided they would go to Baby 700.[90]The New Zealand Brigade commander had been taken ill, so Birdwood appointed Brigadier-General Harold Walker, a staff officer already ashore, as commander. The Auckland Battalion had landed by 12:00, and were being sent north along the beach to Walker's Ridge on their way to Russell's Top. Seeing that the only way along the ridge was in single file along a goat track, Walker ordered them to take the route over Plugge's Plateau. As each New Zealand unit landed they were directed the same way to Baby 700. However, in trying to avoid Turkish fire, they became split up in Monash Valley and Rest Gully, and it was after midday that two of the Auckland companies reached Baby 700. At 12:30 two companies of the Canterbury Battalion landed and were sent to support the Aucklands, who had now been ordered back to Plugge's Plateau, and were forming on the left of the 3rd Brigade. The Canterbury companies moved into the line on the Aucklands' left, waiting for the rest of their brigade to land.

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    The Germans were prevented from advancing further by Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI)'s counter-attacks and a night move by the 10th Brigade. The PPCLI held the line at a steep cost; their 700-man force was reduced to 150, who were in no shape to fight. After this, their unofficial motto—"Holding up the whole damn line"—is still used today. Battle of Bellewaarde (24–25 May) On 24 May the Germans released a gas attack that hit Shell Trap Farm and to the area around the north west, which was affected the most by the attack. A report of the event by Captain Thomas Leahy, of the 2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers, shows that their C.O. Lieutenant Colonel Arthur Loveband suspected a gas attack and had warned all company officers. Later the Germans threw up red lights over their trench, which would signal a gas release. We had only just time to get our respirators on before the gas was over us. — Captain Thomas Leahy German forces managed to advance and occupy the British line to north and left of the Battalion. The Battalion was now under heavy fire from the German forces. But with shellfire and the aid from the 9th Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders they managed to hold their trenches to the end. Germans advancing under cover of enfilade fire, in small parties, finally occupied Battalion line by 2.30pm. Shelling ceased but rifle and M.G. fire remained accurate and constant, whenever a target presented itself, until dusk. — The War Diary By the end of the battle the Ypres salient was compressed, with Ypres closer to the line. The city, bombarded by artillery fire, was demolished. Although poison gas had been used on the Eastern Front, it surprised the Allies and about 7,000 gas casualties were transported in field ambulances and treated in casualty clearing stations. In May and June, 350 British deaths were recorded from gas poisoning. Both sides developed gas weapons and counter-measures, which changed the nature of gas warfare; the French and British used gas at the Battle of Loos in late September. Gas protection was somewhat improved with the issue of improvised respirators made from cotton waste pads impregnated with sodium hyposulphite, sodium bicarbonate and glycerin. The respirators made little difference, however, due to lack of training and the use of local contraptions and poorly made items imported from Britain. The "P helmet" (or "Tube Helmet") soaked in sodium phenate was issued by December 1915, and the PH helmet (effective against phosgene) was issued in early 1916.

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    Metzeral fell several days later and on 22 June, the Germans retired from the west bank of the Fecht to a line from Mühlbach east to the Hilsenfirst. The French suffered 6,667 casualties and the 19th Reserve Division with attached units suffered 3,676. An attack on the Barrenkopf and Reichsackerkopf from 20 to 22 July failed but the Lingekopf was captured on 27 July; local fighting went on at the Barrenkopf into August. The supporting attacks had minimal artillery support, took less ground than the Tenth Army and cost another 37,500 casualties, about 40 percent of the casualties incurred in Artois. On 9 May, five French corps had attacked two German divisions on a 16 mi (25 km) front and advanced 2 mi (4 km) on the front of the 5th Bavarian Reserve Division between the Lorette Spur and La Targette. The 77th Division and the DM of XXXIII Corps penetrated between Carency and Neuville, overran Landwehr Regiment 39 and captured Hill 145, the highest point on Vimy Ridge The DM was then repulsed by local counter-attacks from Bavarian Infantry Regiment 7, which had been rushed forward from reserve. From 9 to 12 May the Tenth Army made the largest advance since trench warfare began, using the new tactics which caused the German defenders great difficulty, even on the flanks where the attacks were repulsed. The extent and tempo of the French plans proved too ambitious, given the material constraints affecting the Tenth Army and French munitions production. XXXIII Corps was forced off Vimy Ridge by German artillery-fire and flanking fire from Souchez and Neuville. Foch wrote a report in early August in which he explained that the failure to hold Hill 145 was due to XXXIII Corps and the Tenth Army reserves being too distant and not deployed according to a proper reinforcement plan. At the beginning of the attack the XXXIII Corps reserve was a brigade of the DM, with a regiment at Mont St Éloi, 2 mi (3 km) behind the front and a regiment at Acq 4 mi (6 km) back, to keep them out of German artillery range. Three battalions were sent forward at 1:00 p.m., half a battalion at 3:30 p.m. and the rest of the battalion at 4:00 p.m. to assist in consolidation and to be ready to defeat German counter-attacks, not to press on. The nearest Tenth Army reserve was the 18th Division, 7 mi (12 km) away. Foch wrote that no-one had expected the DM to advance 2 mi (4 km) in an hour. The slow and piecemeal arrival of reserves was made worse by the failure of the supporting attack to the north by the British First Army, which was defeated on 9 May at the Battle of Aubers Ridge, after which the British offensive was postponed until 16 May (the Battle of Festubert). The British Second Army was engaged against the German 4th Army, in the Second Battle of Ypres from 21 April to 25 May, which diverted British resources from the First Army.

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    (On 20 April, the 11th Regiment was relieved but the rest of the 33rd Division remained until 1 May.) The 16th Division on the left of VIII Corps, consolidated during 18 April. At 1:00 a.m. on 18/19 April, another counter-attack was repulsed on the right of the VIII Corps area by the 34th Division. Later in the morning, the reserve battalions of the 34th Division captured part of the south end of the Düsseldorf communication trench and all of Offenburg Trench but were repulsed from Hönig Trench. Further up the hill, the French held a trench descending from the summit and the southern crest of Mont Cornillet, the east end of Flensburg Trench and the summit of Mont Blond. The French took 491 prisoners two field guns, eight mortars and eighteen machine-guns. Aubérive redoubt fell at dawn, to attacks by the XII Corps divisions and at 3:30 p.m., Aubérive was found abandoned and swiftly occupied by detachments of the 24th Division, which had crossed from the right bank of the Suippes and by Territorials of the 75th Regiment; the Germans had withdrawn to a redoubt south of Vaudesincourt. In the centre, Posnanie and Beyrouth trenches and the Labyrinth redoubt were still occupied by German troops, in front of the Main Boyau trench, the last defensive position running down from the Moronvilliers Hills to the Suippes south of Vaudesincourt.[19] In the XVII Corps area, part of Fosse Froide Trench was captured by the 45th Division, which endangered the communications of the German garrison on Mont Perthois.

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    The attack at Longueval and Delville Wood had lacked sufficient power to capture all of the wood and village, where II Battalion, BIR 16 was reinforced by II Battalion, IR 26 of the 7th Division and a battalion of RIR 99 during the day. The relative success of the defenders inhibited the British from ordering a bolder exploitation further west. Opposite the 7th and part of the 3rd Division the Germans were found to have disappeared by 10:00 a.m. and some British officers walked up to High Wood unchallenged. Watts suggested sending the 91st Brigade from reserve to occupy the wood but was ordered to wait for the cavalry and Haldane was told to keep his reserve brigade ready to receive counter-attacks.

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    The landing has been commemorated in song on several occasions. Two of the best-known songs contain historical contradictions that confuse the landings at Suvla and Anzac. A song "Suvla Bay," which is believed to have been written during World War I but first copyrighted and published in 1944, has been recorded by many artists. It tells the story of an Australian girl who receives the news that her sweetheart or husband has been killed at Suvla. However, in a recurring line the song implies that he was killed in April, four months before the Suvla landing. He might have been killed at some point after the April landing at Anzac, but not at Suvla; there was no one there who had "played their part" in April. Suvla Bay is ostensibly the setting for the song And the Band Played Waltzing Matilda, written by Eric Bogle in 1971, although Bogle admits to having changed the location from Anzac Cove to Suvla, for several reasons, one of them being that he found many Australians mistakenly believed that the ANZAC landing had taken place at Suvla. The song has been recorded by numerous artists, including the Clancy Brothers, Joan Baez and the Pogues. In the climax of the Peter Weir movie Gallipoli, the third and final wave of Australian troops at the Battle of the Nek is ordered into a suicidal advance, supposedly to divert Ottoman and German attention from the landing at Suvla, despite rumours that the landing has been successfully completed. The fictional character General Gardiner orders the advance reconsidered, with the line "at Suvla ... the [English] officers are sitting on the beach drinking cups of tea". In fact, the Australian attack at the Nek was a diversion for the New Zealanders' attack on Sari Bair, not the British landing at Suvla. The Dreadnoughts' album track "The Bay of Suvla" commemorates the battle, although where the men described in the song originate from is not absolutely clear. Suvla is briefly mentioned in the Irish song "The Foggy Dew", which commemorates the 1916 Easter Rising, and in the song "The Last of the Diggers", by the Australian rock band Midnight Oil on their album The Real Thing.

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    The British would gain observation of the southern slope of Menin Ridge at the west end of the Gheluvelt plateau, ready for a larger offensive in the Ypres Salient. The front line around Ypres had changed relatively little since the end of the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April – 25 May 1915). The British held the city, while the Germans held the high ground of the Messines–Wytschaete Ridge to the south, the lower ridges to the east and the flat ground to the north. The Ypres front was a salient bulging into the German lines but was overlooked by German artillery observers on the higher ground. The British had little ground observation of the German rear areas and valleys east of the ridges. The ridges ran north and east from Messines, 264 feet (80 m) above sea-level at its highest point, past "Clapham Junction" at the west end of the Gheluvelt plateau, 2.5 miles (4.0 km) from Ypres at 213 feet (65 m) and Gheluvelt which was above 164 feet (50 m) to Passchendaele, 5.5 miles (8.9 km) from Ypres at 164 feet (50 m) above sea-level, declining from there to a plain further north. Gradients varied from negligible, to 1:60 at Hooge and 1:33 at Zonnebeke. Underneath the soil was London clay, sand and silt. Since the First Battle of Ypres in 1914, much of the drainage in the area had been destroyed by artillery-fire, although some repairs had been achieved by army Land Drainage Companies brought from England. The area was considered by the British to be drier than Loos, Givenchy and Plugstreet Wood further south.

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    On 8 July, German counter-barrage on the lines of the 36th Brigade west of Ovillers, caused many casualties but at 8:30 a.m., the British attacked behind a creeping barrage and quickly took the first three German trenches. Many prisoners were taken in the German dug-outs, where they had been surprised by the speed of the British advance. The three German battalions lost 1,400 casualties and withdrew to the second German trench behind outposts; Infantry Regiment 186, II Battalion, Guard Fusiliers and Recruit Battalion 180, had many casualties and withdrew into the middle of the village.

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    At 10:00 a.m. the infantry attack began in bright dry weather. Three of the trench lines on the Lorette Spur were captured by Chasseurs and supporting infantry of XXI Corps with many casualties. A fortified post in the centre of the German line was not captured and German artillery near Angres bombarded the lost trenches, as machine-guns in Ablain swept the French infantry. Fighting continued after dark and the French began to dig in. The German front trenches at Carency were captured and against orders, the French tried to continue into the village but fire from a strong point to the east stopped the French advance. XXI Corps had managed to advance 220 yd (200 m) through the maze of fortifications on the Lorette Spur and IX Corps beyond made a little progress. On the northern flank of XXXIII Corps, the 70th Division attacked Ablain, Carency and Souchez and strong points at Bois 125 and the sugar refinery. The division reached the fringes of the villages but the repulse of the right-hand regiment led the most advanced troops to withdraw to a line 660 yd (600 m) forward of the start-line. In the XXXIII Corps area, the Division Marocaine (DM) attacked with two waves of "shock troops", who were lightly-equipped and pushed forward as quickly as possible, leaving isolated German positions to the Nettoyeurs (cleaners) following them. The German wire was found to be well cut and by 11:30 a.m., the advanced troops reached point 140 on Vimy Ridge and dug in, having made an advance of over 4,300 yd (2.4 mi; 3.9 km), supported soon after by the arrival of machine-gun teams. Divisional reserves were ordered forward at 10:15 a.m. and at 1:30 p.m. d'Urbal ordered the 18th Division to move up but it had been stationed 5.0 mi (8 km) back to be out of German artillery range. Reserve units had great difficulty in advancing through German artillery fire, which left the DM in a narrow salient and under fire from all directions. During the afternoon, the DM was counter-attacked and forced off the ridge, managing to take several guns, machine-guns and 1,500 German prisoners with them. The 77th Division reached Givenchy-en-Gohelle, the cemetery at Souchez, Château de Carleul and took c. 500 prisoners and thirty machine-guns but was soon forced back to the Souchez–Neuville road, by German artillery-fire and counter-attacks. The French infantry also suffered many casualties and found that artillery support had diminished, as the field artillery was firing at the limit of its range. German communication trenches between Carency and Souchez were blocked, which cut off Carency except via Ablain.