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Consider, for example, that the existence of a single human thought requires the highly complex interaction of hundreds of neurons. In order to separate mind from brain, it would be necessary to think of each neuron as something distinct from its function, which is a little like trying to separate the seawater that provides the substance of an ocean wave from the energy that gives the wave its shape and motion. The existence of the wave requires both elements: without energy, the wave would fall flat; without water, the wave energy would have no expression. In the same sense, it is not possible to separate individual neurons from their functions; if it were possible, then a thought could be feed from its neurological base, and the mind could be seen as something separate from the brain, a free-floating consciousness that could be considered a “soul “.

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  • Nakay702
  • ベストアンサー率80% (9636/11975)

以下のとおりお答えします。 複雑な文章ですので、2とおり(直訳と意訳)に訳してみます。 (直訳)  例えば、単一の人間の思考の存在は、何百もの神経細胞の非常に複雑な相互作用を必要とすると考えてください。心を脳から切り離すためには、各神経細胞をその機能とは別のものと考える必要があります。それは、海洋波の実体を提供する海水を、波に形と動きを与えるエネルギーから切り離そうとすることに少し似ています。波の存在には両方の要素が必要です。エネルギーがなければ、波は平らになります。水がなければ、波のエネルギーは表現を持たないでしょう。同じ意味で、個々の神経細胞をそれらの機能から分離することは不可能です。それが可能であれば、思考はその神経学的基盤から摂取することができ、心は脳とは別の何か、すなわち「魂」と考えられる自由に浮かんでいる意識として見ることができます。 (意訳)  例えば、一人の人間の思考が成立するためには、たくさんの神経細胞が極めて複雑に絡み合って相互作用することが必要になる、と考えてください。脳の働きから精神作用を切り離すためには、各神経細胞がその機能とは別のものだと考える必要があります。それは、海の波を作っている海水と、その波に形や動きを与えるエネルギーとを切り離そうとすることにも似ています。波ができるためには両方の要素が必要です。つまり、エネルギーがなければ、波は平らになります。水がなければ、エネルギーは波を表現できないでしょう。同じような意味で、個々の神経細胞とその機能とを分離するのは不可能なのです。もしそれが可能ならば、思考はその神経組織の基盤から取り出すことができ、精神作用は脳とは別の何か、すなわち「魂」とでも見なされるような、自由に浮遊する意識として見ることができる、ということになるでしょう。

  • togurin
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例えば、単一の人間の思考の存在は、何百ものニューロンの非常に複雑な相互作用を必要とすると考えてください。心を脳から切り離すためには、各ニューロンをその機能とは別のものと考える必要があります。これは、波を与えるエネルギーから海洋波の実体を提供する海水を形と動き。波の存在には両方の要素が必要です。エネルギーがなければ、波は平らになります。水がなければ、波のエネルギーは表現を持たないでしょう。同じ意味で、個々のニューロンをそれらの機能から分離することは不可能である。可能であれば、思考はその神経学的基盤から摂取することができ、心は脳とは別の何か、すなわち「魂」と考えられる自由に浮かんでいる意識として見ることができます。 powered by Google


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    この英文を日本語訳にうまく訳すことができません。お願いします。 Some critics wonder if removing sea water from the seaweed as it\'s converted to fuel would require a large amount of energy that reduces its environmental benefits, though supporters say sun-drying could be used.

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    Nivelle agreed to a proviso that if the first two parts of the operation failed to lead to a breakthrough, they would be stopped so that the British could move their main forces north for the Flanders offensive, which Haig argued was of great importance to the British government. Haig wrote on 23 January that it would take six weeks to move British troops and equipment from the Arras front to Flanders and on 14 March he noted that the attack on Messines Ridge could be made in May. On 21 March, he wrote to Nivelle that it would take two months to prepare the attacks from Messines to Steenstraat but that the Messines attack could be ready in 5–6 weeks. On 16 May, Haig wrote that he had divided the Flanders operation into two phases, one to take Messines Ridge and the main attack several weeks later. British determination to clear the Belgian coast took on more urgency after the Germans resumed unrestricted submarine warfare on 1 February 1917. On 1 May 1917, Haig wrote that the Nivelle Offensive had weakened the German army but that an attempt at a decisive blow would be premature. An offensive at Ypres would continue the wearing-out process, on a front where the Germans could not refuse to fight. Even a partial success would improve the tactical situation in the Ypres salient, reducing the exceptional "wastage" which occurred even in quiet periods. In early May, Haig set the timetable for the Flanders offensive, with 7 June the date for the preliminary attack on Messines Ridge. Ypres is overlooked by Kemmel Hill in the south-west and from the east by a line of low hills running south-west to north-east. Wytschaete (Wijtschate) and Hill 60 are to the east of Verbrandenmolen, Hooge, Polygon Wood and Passchendaele (Passendale).

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    その一 While there are good reasons to believe that the approximate equations should, in many circumstances, give answers close to those given by the true equations, approximations — like translations — always miss something. その二・この一文のさまになる訳を教えてください。 Understanding requires context; insight must be anchored. 以下の文脈です。 Everyone knew that things could move, but what about the arena within which the motion took place? Well, that's space, we'd all answer. But, Newton would reply, what is space? Is space a real physical entity or is it an abstract idea born of the human struggle to comprehend the cosmos? Newton realized that this key question had to be answered, because without taking a stand on the meaning of space and time, his equations describing motion would prove meaningless. Understanding requires context; insight must be anchored.

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    The Allied Powers agreed that the German withdrawal from Luxembourg would be observed by the United States, and that the USA would receive the honour of liberating the captive country. On 18 November, General John Pershing issued a proclamation to the people of Luxembourg, stating that the United States' newly formed Third Army would move through Luxembourg to occupy the German Rhineland, but that the Americans would come as allies and as liberators:

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    This single reporting scale may maintain its analytic orientation in that the overall characterization of level description may consist of a weaving together of stands relating to separate aspects of performance. の翻訳をお願いします。辞書などを使って訳してみたんですが、良く分からない文章になってしまったので、英語が出来る方お願いします!!

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    Haig wanted reserve formations of infantry, artillery, cavalry and tanks to be ready to extend a successful attack. Gough and Plumer replied over the next couple of days, that they felt that Haig's proposals were premature and that exploitation would not be feasible until Passchendaele ridge had been captured from Passchendaele northwards to Westroosebeke. Gough and Plumer thought that this would probably take two more steps at three-day intervals and then another four days to repair roads over the captured ground. Haig considered that although a collapse of the German defence was a condition for exploitation of the attack due on 10 October which was not certain, he desired the arrangements to be made, since they would be available for a later date. At another conference on 2 October, Haig announced that operations at Ypres would continue for as long as the weather permitted, that six fresh divisions were being moved from quiet fronts to the Fifth Army and that the Canadian Corps was being moved to the Second Army. The arrangements to be made for immediate exploitation, should the attack intended for 10 October be as successful as hoped, were that each attacking division was to keep its reserve brigade lightly equipped and accompanied by two 60-pounder batteries, two 6-inch howitzer batteries and four field artillery brigades. If the infantry brigades conducting the morning attack reported a big success, their reserve brigades would continue the advance in the afternoon. The reserve brigades of the attacking divisions of I and II Anzac corps were to reach Drogenbroodhoek in the south, 3,000 yd (2,700 m) beyond Broodseinde, Passchendaele station on the Morslede road in the centre and gain touch with the Fifth Army on the Westroosebeke road north of Passchendaele. A reserve division of each corps was to be ready behind the front, which the Director-General of Transportation Major-General Nash, undertook to have on the battlefield in  3   1⁄2–4 hours, if given three hours' notice. The divisions in corps reserve would be ready by the following morning to advance beyond the reserve brigades, if German resistance crumbled.

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    Falkenhayn wrote in his memoir that he sent an appreciation of the strategic situation to the Kaiser in December 1915, The string in France has reached breaking point. A mass breakthrough—which in any case is beyond our means—is unnecessary. Within our reach there are objectives for the retention of which the French General Staff would be compelled to throw in every man they have. If they do so the forces of France will bleed to death. — Falkenhayn The German strategy in 1916 was to inflict mass casualties on the French, a goal achieved against the Russians from 1914 to 1915, to weaken the French Army to the point of collapse. The French Army had to be drawn into circumstances from which it could not escape, for reasons of strategy and prestige.

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    Two great issues lay as impediments to convocation of a multilateral convention to plan the economic reconstruction of Europe. One was the issue of reparations, regarded as the primary matter of contention between the Triple Entente powers of France and Great Britain in the postwar era. At issue was whether the terms of economic reparations in the Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I, were to be enforced or amended. On the one hand was the British view that massive reconstruction costs laid upon Germany would undermine European economic recovery and thereby the market for British exports of manufactured goods. The French, on the other hand, believed that if Germany were allowed to skirt the severe financial obligations detailed in the peace treaty, its economic rise would be massively accelerated and its political and military hegemony on the European continent rapidly restored. France, among the main battlegrounds of the European conflagration, was particularly hard-hit and in need of external funds for reconstruction; Germany, on the other hand, was seen as having largely escaped the destruction of infrastructure and economic capacity during the war and currently engaged in systematic underestimation of their ability to pay. The political and economic weakness of Germany was emphasized by its new Weimar government, which effectively made the argument that it would be unable to maintain the specified payment schedule. Germany's position came to be regarded as an axiomatic truth by political decision-makers in London and Washington, DC, as well as elsewhere throughout, despite quiet indications from some German authorities themselves that some substantial portion of the reparations bill could be safely managed. German politicians sought to minimize the country's tax burden through the acquisition of foreign loans and the reduction of the overall reparations bill. British, American, and Swiss bankers were for their own part adamant that necessary loans would not be available until a final, achievable reparations bill and repayment schedule could be agreed upon by all main parties in the dispute. In the meantime, German authorities attempted to raise the foreign currency necessary for reparations by dumping paper currency unbacked by gold on the market, triggering a hyperinflation paralyzing the country's economy, which had a desired subsidiary effect of helping make the case that the current schedule of reparations was untenable. It was hoped by Germany, Britain, and the United States and feared by France that the Genoa Conference would provide an opportunity for downward revision of the reparations schedule set forth by treaty.

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    お願いします (1) Ancient Egyptians didn't worry about ending up on the worst-dressed list. No one appeared in carvings on the temple walls with a blurry blob over his face to mask the identity of a "fashion don't." But that't not because Egyptians weren't into grooming. The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that they were obsessed with it. The Egyptians weren't concerned about what to wear because, unlike today, where styles change every season, Egyptian fashion remained the same for thousands of years. (2) So what would an Egyptian fashion magazine look like (other than the fact it would be written on papyrus, need only one issue every 1,000 years or so, and could only be read by a few people since only about 1 percent of Egyptians could read)? (3) The cover girl's head would be shown in profile―that was how Egyptian artists drew people. She would be wearing a simple linen tube called a kalasiris that fell loosely to just above her ankles. If a man posed for the cover, he'd be dressed in a linen skirt, or schenti, that wrapped around his hips. That's what people wore, rich or poor. How the outfit was made could be quite different, though. If you happened to be royalty, your kalasiris or schenti would be woven from the finest plants, called flax, into a sheer, flowing, baby-soft linen. Weavers might then embroider the linen with thread of spun gold. If you happened to be an unskilled laborer, your clothes would be a bit scratchy because the fabric was woven from coarse vegetable fibers. (4) An ancient fashion magazine would certainly have ads for jewelry. Ancient Egyptians loved their jewelry, especially rings. They wore two or three on every finger. Even the poorest class wove grass and wildflowers for necklaces, bracelets, and rings. Jewelry wasn't just for women. Men were just as fashion conscious. Many male mummies have pierced ears. The king awarded his soldiers and faithful followers with large hoop earrings and gold jewelry known as "Gold of the Brave."

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    日本語訳を教えてください(>_<)お願いします。 During the eighteenth century, the Ptolemaic view of the universe finally collapsed. In its place, there emerged a new picture of a universe operating according to strict, rational, and impersonal laws that could, in principle, be discovered by science. God may have created it, perhaps in time; perhaps, in some sense, out of time. But then he left it to run almost entirely according to its own logic and rules. Newton assumed that both time and space were absolutes, providing the ultimate frames of reference for the universe. It was widely accepted that both might be infinite, and thus the universe had neither a definable edge nor a time of origin. In this way, God was moved further and further away from the story of origins.