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The Second Battle of the Somme of 1918 was fought during the First World War on the Western Front from late August to early September, in the basin of the River Somme. It was part of a series of successful counter-offensives in response to the German Spring Offensive, after a pause for redeployment and supply. The most significant feature of the 1918 Somme battles was that with the first Battle of the Somme of 1918 having halted what had begun as an overwhelming German offensive, the second formed the central part of the Allies' advance to the Armistice of 11 November. On 15 August 1918, British Field Marshal Douglas Haig refused demands from Supreme Allied Commander Marshal Ferdinand Foch to continue the Amiens offensive during World War I, as that attack was faltering as the troops outran their supplies and artillery, and German reserves were being moved to the sector. Instead, Haig began to plan for an offensive at Albert, which opened on 21 August. The main attack was launched by the British Third Army, with the United States II Corps attached. The second battle began on 21 August with the opening of the Second Battle of Bapaume to the north of the river itself. That developed into an advance which pushed the German Second Army back over a 55 kilometre front, from south of Douai to La Fère, south of Saint-Quentin, Aisne. Albert was captured on 22 August. On 26 August, the British First Army widened the attack by another twelve kilometres, sometimes called the Second Battle of Arras. Bapaume fell on 29 August. The Australian Corps crossed the Somme River on the night of 31 August, and broke the German lines at the Battle of Mont St. Quentin and the Battle of Péronne. The British Fourth Army's commander, General Henry Rawlinson, described the Australian advances of 31 August – 4 September as the greatest military achievement of the war. On the morning of 2 September, after a heavy battle, the Canadian Corps seized control of the Drocourt-Quéant line (representing the west edge of the Hindenburg Line). The battle was fought by the Canadian 1st Division, 4th Division, and by the British 52nd Division. Heavy German casualties were inflicted, and the Canadians also captured more than 6,000 unwounded prisoners. Canada's losses amounted to 5,600. By noon that day the German commander, Erich Ludendorff, had decided to withdraw behind the Canal du Nord. By 2 September, the Germans had been forced back to the Hindenburg Line, from which they had launched their offensive in the spring. The Second Battle of the Somme 第二次ソンムの戦い

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>The Second Battle of the Somme of 1918 was fought during the First World War on the Western Front from late August to early September, in the basin of the River Somme. It was part of a series of successful counter-offensives in response to the German Spring Offensive, after a pause for redeployment and supply. ⇒8月下旬から9月上旬にかけて、第一次世界大戦中の西部戦線、ソンム川流域で1918年「第二次ソンムの戦い」が戦われた。それは、再布陣と供給のための休止後、ドイツ軍の「春攻勢」に対応してなされた一連の成功反撃の一部であった。 >The most significant feature of the 1918 Somme battles was that with the first Battle of the Somme of 1918 having halted what had begun as an overwhelming German offensive, the second formed the central part of the Allies' advance to the Armistice of 11 November. On 15 August 1918, British Field Marshal Douglas Haig refused demands from Supreme Allied Commander Marshal Ferdinand Foch to continue the Amiens offensive during World War I, as that attack was faltering as the troops outran their supplies and artillery, and German reserves were being moved to the sector. Instead, Haig began to plan for an offensive at Albert, which opened on 21 August. The main attack was launched by the British Third Army, with the United States II Corps attached. ⇒1918年のソンム戦の最も重要な特徴は、1918年の「第一次ソンムの戦」でドイツ軍の圧倒的な攻勢として始まった戦闘を止めたことで、第二次では連合国軍が11月11日の停戦協定へもっていくための中軸を成したことである。1918年8月15日、英国軍のダグラス・ヘイグ陸軍元帥は、連合国軍最高司令官フェルディナン・フォッシュによる第一次世界大戦中のアミアン攻勢を継続するための要請を拒否した。その襲撃は、軍隊の供給と砲撃が衰弱気味になった上、ドイツ軍の予備軍がその地区に移動しかかっていたからであった。代りに、ヘイグはアルベールでの攻撃を計画し始め、8月21日それに取りかかった。主な攻撃は、英国第3方面軍によって開始され、配属の米国第II軍団がこれに随伴した。 >The second battle began on 21 August with the opening of the Second Battle of Bapaume to the north of the river itself. That developed into an advance which pushed the German Second Army back over a 55 kilometre front, from south of Douai to La Fère, south of Saint-Quentin, Aisne. Albert was captured on 22 August. On 26 August, the British First Army widened the attack by another twelve kilometres, sometimes called the Second Battle of Arras. Bapaume fell on 29 August. The Australian Corps crossed the Somme River on the night of 31 August, and broke the German lines at the Battle of Mont St. Quentin and the Battle of Péronne. The British Fourth Army's commander, General Henry Rawlinson, described the Australian advances of 31 August – 4 September as the greatest military achievement of the war. ⇒第2の戦闘は8月21日に始まり、「第2次バポームの戦い」が川の北側で繰り広げられた。それはドイツ軍の第2方面軍をドゥーエの南からサン・カンタン、エーヌの南にあるラフェールまで55キロ先に押し戻す進軍となった。アルベールが8月22日に攻略された。8月26日、英国第1方面軍は攻撃をさらに12キロ拡大したが、時にそれは「第二次アラスの戦い」と呼ばれた。バポームは8月29日に陥落した。8月31日の夜、オーストラリア軍団はソンム川を渡り、「モン・サン・カンタンの戦い」と「ペロンヌの戦い」でドイツ軍戦線を破壊した。英国第4方面軍の司令官、ヘンリー・ローリンソン将軍は、この戦争の最大の軍事的成果として、8月31日‐9月4日のオーストラリア軍の進軍をあげた。 >On the morning of 2 September, after a heavy battle, the Canadian Corps seized control of the Drocourt-Quéant line (representing the west edge of the Hindenburg Line). The battle was fought by the Canadian 1st Division, 4th Division, and by the British 52nd Division. Heavy German casualties were inflicted, and the Canadians also captured more than 6,000 unwounded prisoners. Canada's losses amounted to 5,600. By noon that day the German commander, Erich Ludendorff, had decided to withdraw behind the Canal du Nord.  By 2 September, the Germans had been forced back to the Hindenburg Line, from which they had launched their offensive in the spring. ⇒重苦しい戦闘の後、9月2日の朝、カナダ軍団は、(ヒンデンブルク戦線の西端を意味する)ドロクール=ケアン戦線の支配権を掌握した。この戦闘には、カナダ軍第1、第4師団、英国軍第52師団が参戦した。ドイツ軍は重大な死傷者を被り、その上カナダ軍は6,000人以上の負傷していない捕虜を捕獲した。カナダ軍の損失は5,600人に達した。正午までに、ドイツ軍の司令官エーリッヒ・ルーデンドルフは、カナル・デュ・ノール(北の運河)の背後に撤退することを決定した。  9月2日までに、ドイツ軍は、春に攻撃を開始した(起点の)ヒンデンブルク戦線に戻ることを余儀なくされた。

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