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In January, Science reported that actual rises in sea level in recent years followed the uppermost limit of the range predicted by computer models of climate change — meaning that past studies had understated the rise. As a result, the study found that the sea is likely to rise higher than most previous forecasts — to between 50 centimeters and 1.4 meters by the year 2100 (and then continuing from there). Science Express, the online edition of Science, reported last month that the world’s several hundred thousand glaciers and small ice caps are thinning more quickly than people realized. “At the very least, our projections indicate that future sea-level rise maybe larger than anticipated,” the article declared.


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1月に、『サイエンス』誌は、近年の海面の実際の上昇が気候変化のコンピューターモデルによって予言された範囲の最上部の限界に続くと報告しました。ーこれは過去の研究がその上昇を少なめに述べていたことを意味します。その結果、その研究で海がどの先行予測よりも高く上昇するだろうーすなわち、2100年までに50センチメートルから1.4メーターの範囲まで上昇するだろう(そして、その後もそこから継続するだろう)、ということが分かりました。 『サイエンス』のオンライン版『科学急行』は先月、世界の数十万の氷河や小さな氷冠は、人々が実感したより速く薄くなるつつある、と報告しました。「極めて少なめに見ても、私たちの(現行を基とした)予測は、おそらく、将来の海面上昇が予想されたよりも大きな値になることを示しています」と、その記事は宣言しました。





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    If we learned that Al Qaeda was secretly developing a new terrorist technique that could disrupt water supplies around the globe, force tens of millions from their homes and potentially endanger our entire planet, we would be aroused into a frenzy and deploy every possible asset to neutralize theat. Yet that is precisely the threat that we’re creating ourselves, with our greenhouse gases. While there is still much uncertainty about the severity of the consequences, a series of new studies indicate that we’re cooking our favorite planet more quickly than experts had expected. The newly published studies haven’t received much attention, because they’re not in English but in Scientese and hence drier than the Sahara Desert. But they suggest that ice is melting and our seas are rising more quickly than most experts had anticipated. The latest source of alarm is the news, as reported by my Times colleague Andrew Revkin, that sea ice in the northern polar region just set a new low — and it still has another month of melting ahead of it. At this rate, the “permanent” north polar ice cap may disappear entirely in our lifetimes.

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    In case you missed the May edition of “Geophysical Research Letters,” an article by five scientists has the backdrop. They analyze the extent of Arctic sea ice each summer since 1953. The computer models anticipated a loss of ice of 2.5 percent per decade, but the actual loss was 7.8 percent per decade — three times greater. The article notes that the extent of summer ice melting is 30 years ahead of where the models predict. Three other recent reports underscore that climate change seems to be occurring more quickly than computer models had anticipated: Science magazine reported in March that Antarctica and Greenland are both losing ice overall, about 125 billion metric tons a year between the two of them — and the amount has accelerated over the last decade. To put that in context, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (the most unstable part of the frosty cloak over the southernmost continent) and Greenland together hold enough ice to raise global sea levels by 40 feet or so, although they would take hundreds of years to melt. We hope.

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    The diffculties and disputes which attended the first revival of science have recurred in the present century in consequence of the growth of geology. It is in truth only the old question over again-precisely the same point of theology which is involved, although the difficulties which present themselves are fresh. The school books of the present day, while they teach the child that the earth moves, yet [they] assure him that it is a little less than six thousand years old and that it was made in six days. On the other hand, geologists of all religious creeds are agreed that the earth has existed for an immense series of years-to be [to be=it should be] counted by millions rather than by thousands:and that indubitably more than six days elapsed from its first creation to the appearance of man upon its surface. By this broad discrepancy between old and doctrine is the modern mind startled, as were the men of the sixteenth century [startled] when [they were] told that the earth moved.

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    Factoring in these emissions, Indonesia had quickly become the world’s third-leading producer of carbon emissions that scientists believe are responsible for global warming, ranked after the United States and China, according to a study released in December by researchers from Wetlands International and Delft Hydraulics, both in the Netherlands. “It was shocking and totally smashed all the good reasons we initially went into palm oil,” said Alex Kaat, a spokesman for Wetlands, a conservation group. Biofuals, long a cornerstone of the quest for greener energy, may sometimes create more harmful emissions than fossil fuels, scientific studies are finding. As a result, politicians in many countries are rethinking the billions of dollars in subsidies that have indiscriminately supported the spread of all of these supposedly eco-friendly fuels for vehicles and factories. The 2003 European Union Biofuels Directive, which demands that all member states aim to have 5.75 percent of transportation run by biofuel in 2010, is now under review.

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    Some large clothing retailers are starting to take notice of the environmental questions and are exploring options. “Our research shows that customers are getting very concerned about environmental issues, and we don’t want to get caught between the eyes,” said Mike Barry, head of corporate social responsibility at Marks & Spencer, one of Britain’s largest retailers, which helped pay for the Cambridge study. Consumers spend more than $1 trillion a year on clothing and textiles, an estimated one-third of that in Western Europe, another third in North America, and about a quarter in Asia. In many places, cheap, readily disposable clothes have displaced hand-me-downs as the mainstay of dressing. The result, women’s clothing sales in Britain rose by 21 percent between 2001 and 2005 alone to about £24 billion ,or $47.6 billion, spurred by lower prices, according to the Cambridge report.

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    In one respect the theory of Hugh Miller agrees with that advocated by Dr. Buckland and Archdeacon Pratt. Both these theories divest the Mosaic narrative of real accordance with fact; both assume that appearances only, not facts, are described, and that in riddles, which would never have been suspected to be such, had we not arrived at the truth from other sources. It would be difficult for controversialists to cede more completely the point in dispute, or to admit more explicitly that the Mosaic narrative does not represent correctly the history of the universe up to the time of man. At the same time, the upholders of each theory see insuperable objections in details to that of their allies, and do not pretend to any firm faith in their own. How can it be otherwise when the task proposed is to evade the plain meaning of language, and to introduce obscurity into one of the simplest stories ever told, for the sake of making it accord with the complex system of the universe which modern science has unfolded? The spectacle of able and, we doubt not, conscientious writers engaged in attempting the impossible is painful and humiliating. They evidently do not breathe freely over their work, but shuffle and stumble over their difficulties in a piteous manner; nor are they themselves again until they return to the pure and open fields of science.

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    和訳お願いします。 Data from clinical studies and from basic research laboratories, made possible by the use of sophisticated instruments that detect and record neuronal activity, have given us a complex if still rudimentary understanding of the myriad processes that give rise to consciousness.

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    One limitation of study 2 is that it was hypothetical in nature and assessed people’s likelihood of joining and /predictions about completion rather than actual persistence.

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    Dr. Mark Jacobson is a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Stanford University. He focuses his research on the causes of atmospheric changes and the most feasible ways of reducing global warming. Aircraft vapor trails (also known as “contrails,” as they are trails of condensed vapor) have long been thought of as being harmful as they have a lot of CO2 and are placed in a fragile part of the atmosphere. Dr. Jacobson and his team made a model that used atmospheric traits such as air composition and cloudiness, and aircraft emission characteristics such as soot. They then gathered data for 2004 and 2006, applied the data to the model, and calculated the warming that was due to commercial flights. After that, they made a nine-year simulation of data beginning from 2004, fine-tuned to the atmospheric conditions in different areas of the world. Their model predicts that vapor trails cause 4-8% of the rise in surface temperatures overall, but perhaps 20% of the warming over the Arctic. The study further suggests that reducing the soot in vapor trails will stop the warming effect those trails create. In addition, the soot-free vapor trails may actually promote a slight cooling effect by preventing the formation of heat-trapping cirrus clouds in some areas. But for now, vapor trails seem to be a big problem. よろしくお願いしますorz

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    " Thus it is that philosophy can supply no demonstrative refutation of idealism, even of the most extravagant form. Common sense, however, universally feels that analogy is here a safer guide to truth than the sceptical demand for impossible evidence; so that if the objective existence of other organisms and their activities is granted — without which postulate comparative psychology, like all the other sciences, would be an unsubstantial dream— common sense will always and without question conclude that the activities of organisms other than our own, when analogous to those activities of our own which we know to be accompanied by certain mental states, are in them accompanied by analogous mental states."