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国連の世界貿易レポートを読んでいるのですが、イマイチ理解できません。 大変長い文章ですが、和訳していただけませんでしょうか。 どうかよろしくお願いします。 As noted above, GVC participation – or the role that individual countries play in international production networks – is driven by many different factors, from size of the economy to industrial structure and level of industrialization, composition of exports and positioning in value chains, policy elements, and others. As a result, countries with very different characteristics may be very similar in the ranking of GVC participation (figure IV.9). The GVC participation of many countries relates substantially to GVC interactions within their respective regions. Instead of a global reach, most value chains have a distinctive regional character, as shown in figure IV.10. North and Central American value chain links are especially strong, as are intra- European Union ones. The largest extraregional bilateral GVC flows are between Germany and the United States, China and Germany, and Japan and the United States, in that order. The share of global value added trade captured by developing economies is increasing rapidly. It grew from about 20 per cent in 1990, to 30 per cent in 2000, to over 40 per cent in 2010. As a group, developing and transition economies are capturing an increasing share of the global value added trade pie (figure IV.11). As global trade grows, developed economies appear to rely increasingly on imported content for their exports, allowing developing countries to add disproportionately to their domestic value added in exports. Some of the larger emerging markets, such as India, Brazil, Argentina and Turkey, have relatively low GVC participation rates. These countries may have lower upstream participation levels, both because of the nature of their exports (natural resources and services exports tend to have less need for imported content or foreign value added) and because larger economies display a greater degree of self-sufficiency in production for exports. They may also have lower downstream participation levels because of a focus on exports of so-called final-demand goods and services, i.e. those not used as intermediates in exports to third countries. Investment and trade are inextricably intertwined. Much of trade in natural resources is driven by large cross-border investments in extractive industries by globally operating TNCs. Market-seeking foreign direct investment (FDI) by TNCs also generates trade, often shifting arm’slength trade to intra-firm trade. Efficiency-seeking FDI, through which firms seek to locate discrete parts of their production processes in low-cost locations, is particularly associated with GVCs; it increases the amount of trade taking place within the international production networks of TNCs and contributes to the “double counting” in global trade flows discussed in this report.


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上述した様に、GVC(グローバル・バリュー・チェーン)への参加 ― すなわち、国際的な生産ネットワークにおいて個々の国が果たす役割 ― は、経済規模、産業構造、工業化の進展程度、輸出品の構成、バリュー・チェーンにおける位置付け、政策的要素、その他、と言った多くの異なる要因が、その原動力となっています。結果的に、大変異なる特徴を持った国々が、GVCへの参加のランク付けにおいては、大変似かよった扱いになるかもしれません(図IV.9)。多くの国々のGVCへの参加は、それらの国々を含むそれぞれの地域内でのGVCの相互の影響に大いに関係します。海外進出に代わって、ほとんどのバリュー・チェーンは、図IV.10に示されている様に、はっきりとした地域的特徴を持っています。北米と中米のバリュー・チェーンの結びつきは、特に強く、欧州連合(EU)内の結びつきに似ています。最大の地域外相互GVCの流れが、大きいものから順に、ドイツーアメリカ、中国ードイツ、日本ーアメリカ、の間に存在します。 新興経済国によって獲得されるグローバル・バリューが付加された貿易の割合が、急速に増加しています。この割合は、1990年の20パーセントから、2000年には30パーセントに、さらに、2010年には、40パーセントに増えました。グループとして、発展途上で移行期にある経済国は、グローバル・バリューが付加された貿易の総額のますます多くの割合を獲得する様になっています(図IV.11)。世界規模の貿易が拡大するにつれて、先進経済国は、その輸出品を作るために輸入された部品等にますます頼るようになり、発展途上国が、輸出品に付加される彼らの国内的価値を不釣り合いなほどに増加させることを許すことになるように思われます。 インド、ブラジル、アルゼンチン、トルコと言った、規模のより大きい新興市場の中には、GVCへの参加率が比較的低い市場もあります。これらの国々は、バリュー・チェーン上流への参加率が低いかもしれません、理由は、彼らの輸出品の性質(天然資源やサービスの輸出は、輸入品や外国の付加価値に対する需要をそれほど持たない傾向があります。)によるため、そして、比較的大きい経済国は、輸出品の生産においてより大きな自給自足率を示すためです。これらの国々は、また、バリュー・チェーン下流への参加率も低いかもしれません、なぜならば、いわゆる最終需要製品やサービス、すなわち、第3国への輸出品の中間物としては用いられない製品の輸出に焦点が当てられているからです。 投資と貿易は、切り離せないほどに絡み合っています。天然資源の貿易の多くは、国際的に業務を展開するTNC(= transnational corporation 多国籍企業)による採取産業(= 原油・天然ガス、鉱物資源の採掘産業)への大規模な国境を越えた投資によって推進されます。多国籍企業による市場追求型の対外直接投資(FDI)も、貿易を生み出し、しばしば、対等独立当事者間貿易を企業内貿易に変えます。企業が、その生産プロセスの別々の部分を低コストの地域に置く、効率を追求する海外直接投資は、特に、GVC(グローバル・バリュー。チェーン)に関連しています;これは、多国籍企業の国際的な生産ネットワーク内で行われる貿易量を増加させ、このレポートで論じられる国際貿易の流れにおける「ダブル・カウンティング(重複勘定)」の一因となっています。 <参考> * OECD東京センター http://www.oecdtokyo.org/pub/aaa/922007051p1.html



  • 【和訳】和訳をお願いできませんでしょうか。

    国連の世界貿易レポートを読んでいるのですが、イマイチ理解できません。 大変長い文章ですが、和訳していただけませんでしょうか。 どうかよろしくお願いします。 Thus, while developing countries (25 per cent) have a lower share of foreign value added than the world average (28 per cent), their foreign value added share is significantly higher than in the United States and Japan – or than in the EU, if only external trade is taken into account. Among developing economies, the highest shares of foreign value added in trade are found in East and South-East Asia and in Central America (including Mexico), where processing industries account for a significant part of exports. Foreign value added in exports is much lower in Africa, West Asia, South America and in the transition economies, where natural resources and commodities exports with little foreign inputs tend to play an important role. The lowest share of foreign value added in exports is found in South Asia, mainly due to the weight of services exports, which also use relatively fewer foreign inputs. The average foreign value added share of exports and the degree of double counting in global exports of an industry provide a rough indication of the extent to which industries rely on internationally integrated production networks, as it proxies the extent to which intermediate goods and services cross borders until final consumption of the industry’s output. Clearly, GVCs do not equate with industries. A value chain for a given product may incorporate value added produced by many different industries (e.g. manufactured products incorporate value added from services industries). The global average shares by industry of foreign value added ignore the fact that each industry may be part of and contribute to many different value chains. The value and share of developing-country exports that depend on GVCs, because of either upstream links (foreign value added in exports) or downstream links (exports that are incorporated in other products and re-exported) is quite significant (figure IV.8). East and South-East Asia remains the region with the highest level of GVC participation, reflecting its primacy as the most important region for exportoriented manufacturing and processing activities. Central America (including Mexico) also has a high participation rate, but whereas it ranked equal with South-East Asia in terms of foreign value added in exports, it has a lower downstream participation rate, reflecting the fact that it exports relatively more to the United States domestic market rather than for onward exports.

  • 難文の和訳をお願いします。

    国連の世界貿易レポートを読んでいるのですが、イマイチ理解できません。 大変長い文章ですが、和訳していただけませんでしょうか。 どうかよろしくお願いします。 On the basis of these macro-indicators of international production and firm-level evidence, UNCTAD estimates that about 80 per cent of global trade (in terms of gross exports) is linked to the international production networks of TNCs, either as intra-firm trade, through NEMs (which include, among others, contract manufacturing, licensing, and franchising), or through arm’s-length transactions involving at least one TNC (figure IV.14 and box IV.3). The total TNC network of the 52 foreign affiliates in Thailand comprises some 6,000 co-affiliates located in 61 countries around the world (the sum of affiliates of all 35 business groups). About 27 per cent of the foreign value added used by individual affiliates in Thailand (of the 75 per cent of foreign value added in exports) is sourced intra-firm from within their own TNC networks or business groups. On the downstream side, an estimated 65 per cent of foreign affiliate exports is absorbed by firms within their own network. Downstream linkages are more concentrated, with potential intra-firm export connections limited to some 850 co-affiliates.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    自分で訳してみると内容はなんとなく分かるのですが、いざ日本語で書いてみようとするとうまく訳せず、訳せても日本語として成立していない(不自然な)文章になってしまいます。 多少、意訳が入っても結構ですので、どなたか和訳をお願いいたします。 Overall, the effects of a devaluation on the income of the devaluing country are ambiguous. Even if there are increased net exports earnings (which relies on the Marshall-Lerner condition being fulfilled) the negative terms of trade effect works to reduce national income. Even if income rises overall, it is still not clear what the implications of a or in income are for the current account, as this will depend upon the value of the marginal propensity to absorb. If this is less than unity then an increase in income generated by the increase in net exports leads to an improvement in the current account because income rises by more than absorption.

  • 和訳お願い致します。

    Agriculture could be hit severely. The document says that climate changes will affect crop yields and livestock management, putting farm incomes at risk in some areas where agriculture could become unviable. "Food production risks could become an issue in certain parts of Europe," the report said, "as heat waves, droughts and pests are likely to increase the incidence of crop failures. "As yield variability increases, also the global food supply will be at risk which might be further aggravated by the possible increase in the demand for biomass for energy production." In addition the document predicts that climate change will affect industries like construction and tourism which will need to restructure. Transport systems will need to made "climate proof" it says, adding:" Major infrastructure such as bridges, ports and motorways have lifetimes of 80-100 years so today's investments must take full account of the conditions projected for the end of the century." "Building and other infrastructure designed to last 20-50 years will also have to withstand future climates."

  • 日本語訳をお願いします。

    While barriers to entry are high, intangibility of the product is still a problem as is the inseparability of production and consumption, to some extent, as clients have to participate in the creation of tax returns, consulting reports, and other products of professional service firms. です。長い一文で、自分なりに和訳しようとしたのですが、as以下が全く検討もつきません。asの後にisがあって、そしてまたその後にasがきています。 どいういう構造になっているのでしょうか?よろしくお願いします。

  • 英文和訳をお願いします

    As for boosting farm output, it will come as no surprise that this newspaper believes that a big part of the answer is removing trade barriers and cutting subsidies. Lowering tariff walls round rich countries would increase poor farmers’ exports. An agreement to limit trade bans might make exporters think twice before disrupting world markets. Countries should scrap targets for biofuels which favour an expensive, environmentally damaging business that needlessly distorts food markets. America’s ethanol subsidy is a particularly egregious offender. Even opening up retailing to foreigners can help: companies such as Wal-Mart are good at getting food onto supermarket shelves rather than leaving it to rot in the fields.

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    Last year Marks & Spencer — Britain’s mainstay for products like underwear and shortbread — decided to go organic in its food business; it now sells only fair-trade coffee and teas, for example. Many executives regarded the shift as a foolish and risky decision, but the store found that sales jumped 12 percent. The store learned a lesson that executives think will apply to clothes. Part of the problem is that neither manufacturers nor customers understand much about how and when clothing purchases degrade the environment.Significant environmental impact occurs from the harvesting of cotton or the manufacturing of synthetic fibers ;the production , packaging and transportation of the clothes;clothes washing; and drying by the consumer , and disposal.

  • 訳願い

    But it is also possible( and useful) to think of this process in terms of a structure produced and sustained through the articulation of linked but distinctive moments - production, circulation, distribution/consumption, reproduction. This would be to think of the process as a 'complex structure in dominance', sustained through the articulation of connected practices, each of which, however, retains its distinctiveness and has its own specific modaliry, its own forms and conditions of existence. This second approach, homologous to that which forms the skeleton of commodity production offered in Marx's Grundrisse and in Capital, has the added advantage of bringing out more sharply how a continuous circuit-production-distribution-production - can be sustained through a 'passage of forms'. 和訳をお願いします。

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    Nuclear export of mRNAs is a crucial step in the regulation of gene expression, linking transcription in the nucleus to translation in the cytoplasm. Although important components of the mRNA export machinery are well characterized, such as transcription-export complexes TREX and TREX-2, recent work has shown that, in some instances, mammalian mRNA export can be selective and can regulate crucial biological processes such as DNA repair, gene expression, maintenance of pluripotency, haematopoiesis, proliferation and cell survival. Such findings show that mRNA export is an unexpected, yet potentially important, mechanism for the control of gene expression and of the mammalian transcriptome.

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    By the beginning of 1917, the strategic outlook for the Germans made a retirement inevitable. German divisions on the Western Front numbered 133 on 25 January 1917, reducing the German manpower shortage but not by enough to contemplate an offensive. Greater output of explosives, ammunition and weapons by German industry to provide the means to counter the Allied Materialschlacht (battle of equipment) was attempted in the Hindenburg Programme of August 1916. Production did not sufficiently increased over the winter, with only 60 percent of the programme expected to be fulfilled by the summer of 1917. The German Friedensangebot (peace initiative) of December 1916, had been rejected by the Entente and the Auxiliary Service Law of December 1916, intended to further mobilise the civilian economy, had failed to supply the expected additional labour for war production.