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Even in non-democratic societies where property rights are embraced, standards of living improve. But democracies with a free press and protection of minority rights have proved the most effective form to safeguard property rights, largely because democracies rarely allow discontent to rise to a point that leads to explosive changes in economic regimes. Capitalism under authoritarian rule, on the other hand, is inherently unstable because it forces aggrieved citizens to seek redress outside the law.


  • 英語
  • 回答数2
  • ありがとう数0


  • 回答No.2
  • keiser
  • ベストアンサー率30% (22/71)

財産権が認められていれば、非民主主義社会であっても、生活水準は向上する。しかし表現の自由と少数派の権利を保護する民主主義社会が、財産権の保護をするのにもっとも効果的な形であるとわかってきた。その主な理由は、民主主義社会がめったに、経済体制に爆発的な変化をもたらすほどの不満を募らせることがないからである。一方、独裁制下の資本主義となると、本質的に不安定なのである。なぜなら、しいたげられた民衆に、法によらない変革を強制することになるのであるから。 財産権が認められていれば、民主主義も非民主主義も、個人の生活は向上する。しかし、非民主主義社会は、民衆の不満をためやすく、不安定な変動しやすい社会であるので、民主主義社会のほうが、財産権保護の面でも優れていると判ってきた、ということでしょう。


  • 回答No.1
  • ddeana
  • ベストアンサー率74% (2977/4020)




  • 英文和訳をお願いします

    Regrettably, the notion of rights of ownership of capital and other income-earning assets remains conflicted, especially in societies that still believe that profit seeking is not quite moral. A key purpose of property rights, after all, is to protect assets in order to use them to profit or personally benefit. Such rights are not supportable in a society that holds any significant remnant of the view of property as “theft.” That notion embraced by Karl Marx rests on the presumption that gained wide acceptance in the first half of the twentieth century that wealth created under a division of labor is produced jointly, and hence should be owned collectively.

  • 英文和訳をお願いします。

    While the debate over property rights and democracy will doubtless persist, I was taken with an observation made by Amartya Sen , the Nobel Prize winner in economics : “In the terrible history of famines in the world, no substantial famine has ever occurred in any independent and democratic country with a relatively free press. We cannot find exceptions to this rule, no matter where we look.”I agree. With the media in authoritarian regimes tending toward self-censorship, marker interventionist policies-the most prevalent cause of disrupted distribution of food-go unreported and uncorrected until too late.

  • 英文和訳お願いします。

    As living requires physical property-food, clothing, homes- people need the legal protection to own and dispose of such property without the threat of arbitrary confiscation by the state or mobs in the street. To be sure, people have to, and do survive, in totalitarian, centrally planned societies where individual property rights are de minimis. But theirs is a lesser existence. 4行目のde minimis はラテン語で「最小限に」という意味です

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします。

    But he postulated a change of human nature fostered by communism. It took many generations to prove him wrong. With the exception of a few diehards, none of today’s communist leaders hold to that orthodoxy. In the West, the moral validity of property rights is accepted, or at least acquiesced in, by virtually the whole of the population. This is true even in societies which are disdainful of competition. Attitudes toward property ownership are passed from one generation to the next through family values and education. These attitudes derive from the deepest values governing social interaction that people hold.

  • 英文解釈について

    english Instead of rushing to respond to the human rights flavor of the month -be it protecting the elderly or defending the peasants-liberal democracies should support institutions and treaties that embody the ideals that inspired the human rights movement in the first place. 質問部分 -be it protecting the elderly or defending the peasants- この部分がよくわかりません。 それ以外はわかります。 解答よろしくお願いします

  • この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

    I have chosen to begin this book with a description of the life of this one individual because he typifies what so many observers regard as the social "problem" of old age. In his case we would find it impossible to ignore the crucial facts of bereavement, absence of children and other relatives, infirmity, and virtual social ostracism. If we mean anything by isolation from society he must be the sort of person we keep in mind. But is he exception or rule? Are there many others like him in our society? Many sociologists and administrators believe there are. One administrator expressed it in these terms: Provision for old age has emerged as a "problem" largely because of the loosening of family ties and insistence on individual rights and privileges to the exclusion of obligations and duties which has developed so markedly in recent years. Whereas families used to accept responsibility for their old people they now expect the State to look after them. The care and attention which the family used to provide for them must be provided in some other way. The separation from kin is supposed to be one of the features which serves to differentiate the industrial from the so-called primitive societies. But do old people in Britain lose touch with their married children and lead an isolated life? Are the bonds of kinship of little or no consequence especially in urban areas? We have only to pose these questions to realize the meed for more facts. What few there are do not confirm many current suppositions. Sheldon, in a pioneering study, drew attention to the important part played by relatives of old people in Wolverhampton and said that too little was known about their role.

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします。

    英文の和訳をお願いします。  Explosive growth has occurred in online social communication (Madden, 2006), with youths disproportionately affected by this new technology (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2009). As online use increases, so too do debates about how internetbased interaction may compare with historical face-to-face ways of communicating (Bargh & McKenna, 2004; Tyler, 2002). One argument posits that internet interaction is often of lower quality than is face-to-face interaction, because constraints inherent in the online medium hinder relationships. Furthermore, use of online communication may be positively correlated with adjustment problems because (a) socially inept youths are drawn to online interaction and (b) the almost inevitably poor quality of online communication increases maladjustment. An alternative argument postulates that the internet is merely a new medium for youths to display the same long-standing patterns as they do using modes other than online forms of communication, such that there is correspondence between face-to-face and online interaction styles and friendship quality. In contrast to the first argument, use of online communication may be negatively correlated with adjustment problems, because socially competent youths treat the online environment as yet another place in which to interct with existing friends and broaden their social circle. 長文ですみません(>_<)

  • この英文の和訳をお願いします。

    次の文章の和訳をお願いします。経済について書かれたものなのですが、翻訳機能を利用して翻訳してみてもいまいちわかりません。どなたか和訳お願いします。 Third , the Memoranda strategy must , in literally no time , turn the living standards of a euro-periphery country to that of a Balkan or even a Third World economy . Only with such a rapid devaluation of the value of labour-power and a corresponding increase in the exploitation of labour can profitability recover . It is only in this way (i.e. through a large depreciation of capital and a simultaneous increase in its profitability ) , that Greek capitalism can emerge from its crisis and resume the process of capital accumulation (i.e .economic growth ). But , as already explained , this requires a deep recession of a long duration . In addition , the restart of economic growth does not mean the end of austerity but the opposite . In order to sustain the capital profitability , austerity should be continued and deepened . Otherwise the recovery of capitalist accumulation will stop again and recession will return . Finally , even when the process of capitalist accumulation restarts , this will happen with the Greek capitalism downgraded and weakened within the international capitalist system . Summarising , the whole project is very ambitious and risky because economic activities and social balances are violently disrupted . This turns the crisis from primarily economic to social and political , which can lead , at any time ( even in phase where normal economic growth might seem restored ) , to uncontrolled socio-political explosions . Nevertheless , the Greek and EU ruling classes know there is no alternative . The Keynesian view of anti-cyclical policy and mild austerity -because even Keynesian scenarios (at least the serious ones ) provide for some kind of austerity -has already been used at the outbreak of the global crisis and shown that it cannot resolve the crisis .

  • 英文和訳です

    Understanding Animal Research (the successor organization to the Research Defence Society, a group mentioned in the article) is dedicated to educating the public about animal research policies and procedures. Animal rights activists are represented by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), a group who states that it “focuses its attention on the four areas in which the largest numbers of animals suffer the most intensely for the longest periods of time : on factory farms, in laboratories, in the clothing trade, and in the entertainment industry.” Another group, the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME), states its mission as “the total elimination of the need for any laboratory animal procedures, through the development, validation, and acceptance of replacement alternative methods.” Debate between public organizations such as those listed above has reduced the use of animals in experiments, led to refinements in procedures, and may well lead to the total replacement of animal models. Some extremists on the animal rights side, unfortunately, are not patient enough to work through this process. They “liberate” animals from research facilities, destroy labs and records, burn down houses of researchers and pharmaceutical company executives, and threaten further violence. The level of violence on the European continent increased in the first decade of the 21st century, and it is not clear if a crackdown on animal rights extremists in the UK contributed to this increase. よろしくお願いします^^;

  • 英文の和訳で困っています 和訳を教えてください

    英文の和訳で困っています 和訳を教えていただきたいです よろしくお願いします!! The new Soviet High Commissioner, Vladimir Semenov, had instructions from Moscow according to which the SED leadership should show more flexibility. On 28 May 1953 the GDR Council of Ministers still announced a general increase of norms of production , thus fuelling discontent and further encouraging people to flee. Only after increased pressure from Moscow did the Pankow regime make economic concessions towards their own population and were forced to anoounce a ‘new course’, introducing relaxations in the pressure of production, a cancellation of price increases and improvements in the consumer sector.