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お願いします (5) Carter's thrill at finding the tomb of this little known king quickly turned to dismay. The seals revealed that Carter wasn't the first to discover Tutankhamen's resting place. "In the upper part of this sealed doorway traces of two distinct reopenings and successive reclosings were apparent." This could mean only one thing―tomb robbers! With so much wealth heaped inside the royal tombs, it was impossible to keep thieves out. The priests of Amun had tried. They sealed the doors and filled the passageways with limestone chips, but still the robbers tunneled through. (6) After Carter passed through the first doorway, he found another descending passageway much like the first. Carter and his crew dug their way down the passage, every bucketful of rubble they removed bringing them closer to the second doorway. They must have wondered as they worked, would this be another disappointment? Would this be another once-glorious treasure-house, destroyed by thieves? What would they find? (7) Sunday, November 26  After clearing...the descending passage...we came upon a second sealed doorway, which was almost the exact replica of the first. It bore similar seal impressions and had similar traces of successive reopenings and reclosings in the plastering. The seal impressions were of Tut.ank.Amen... Feverishly we cleared away the remaining last scraps of rubbish on the floor of the passage before the doorway, until we had only the clean sealed doorway before us....we made a tiny breach in the top left hand corner to see what was beyond.... Perhaps another descending staircase...? Or maybe a chamber? Candles were procured―the all important tell-tale for foul gases when opening an ancient subterranean excavation―I widened the breach and by means of the candle looked in....


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(5) このほとんど知られていない王の墓を発見したカーターのワクワクした気持ちは、すぐに、失望に変わりました。 封印は、カーターが、ツタンカーメンの墓を発見した最初の人物でないことを明らかにしました。 「この封印された戸口の上部に、再び開けられて、その後再び閉じられた2か所のはっきりとした痕跡があることは、明らかでした。」これは、ただ一つのことを意味しているのかもしれません ― 墓泥棒です! 王の墓の内部には大変多くの財宝が収められているので、泥棒を中に入れないようにすることは不可能でした。 アメン神の神官たちは、試みていました。 彼らは扉に封印をして、通路を石灰岩の破片で埋めました、しかし、それでも泥棒たちは、トンネルを掘り抜いたのでした。 (6) カーターが最初の戸口を通り抜けたあと、彼は、最初の通路とよく似たもう一つの下に降りて行く通路を見つけました。 カーターと彼の助手たちは、その通路を下に掘り進んで行きました、粗石をバケツに入れて彼らが取り除くたびに、彼らは、第二の戸口に近づいて行きました。作業中も、彼らは疑問に思ったにちがいありません、今回もまた失望するのだろうか? これもまた、墓泥棒に壊された、かつて栄華を極めた宝物庫なのだろうか? 自分たちは、何を見つけるのだろうか? (7) 11月26日、日曜日 その下に降りて行く通路を ... 掃除した後 ... 我々は、第2の封印された戸口にやって来た。その戸口は、ほとんど最初の戸口の正確な複製と言えるものであった。 それには、同じ様な封印の紋様が付いており、漆喰には、その後再び開けて、再び閉じたよく似た痕跡があった。封印の紋様は、ツタンカーメンであった ... 熱に浮かされたように、我々は、その戸口の前の通路の床の上の残っている最後の瓦礫を取り除いた、すると、またしても我々の前にはきれいな封印をされた戸口があった ... この先に何があるのか調べるために、我々は、左上の隅に小さな穴を開けた ... 恐らく、再び下に降りて行く階段だろうか ...? あるいは、部屋があるのだろうか? ロウソクが用意された ― 古代の地下を発掘する時有毒なガスを検知するための非常に重要な道具であった ― 私は、その穴を広げて、そのロウソクを使って中を覗いた ...





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    お願いします It was sometime before one could see, the hot air escaping caused the candle to flicker, but as soon as one's eyes became accustomed to the glimmer of light the interior of the chamber gradually loomed before one, with its strange and wonderful medley of extraordinary and beautiful objects heaped upon one another. (8) The room Carter peered into was packed to the ceiling. A jumble of chests piled on top of chairs, piled on top of chariots. Statues, beds, game boards, and pottery littered the floor. Everything the king would need in the next life had been crammed into the small space. The tomb robbers must have been scared away before they could do much damage. Carter writes, "we had found the monarch's burial place intact save certain metal-robbing." (9) But what was it they had found? If this was a tomb, where was the tomb resident? There were no mummies in sight. Carter writes, "A sealed doorway between the two sentinel statues proved there was more beyond, and with the numerous cartouches bearing the name of Tut.ankh.Amen on most of the objects before us, there was little doubt that there behind was the grave of the Pharaoh." The doorway to the burial chamber had been broken into as well. Carter writes that the hole was "large enough to allow a small man to pass through, but it had been carefully reclosed, plastered, and sealed. Evidently the tomb beyond had been entered―by thieves!" Would they find King Tut?

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    お願いします (1) Today when the body of a dead boy turns up, a team of specialists is sent to the scene. By examining the body, scientists can learn a great deal about that person's life, and often the cause of death. But in 1922, when archaeologist Howard Carter found Tutankhamen, no one thought a dead body had much to tell. In fact, people had so little regard for mummies that locals used them for firewood. Archaeologists sipped their afternoon tea by the fire with human bones―even skulls―at their feet. For scientists then, it was all about the tomb. (2) When Carter uncovered the first step to an ancient sunken stairway, he knew he had discovered the entrance to a tomb. But whose? On Sunday, November 5, 1922, Carter wrote in his diary, "The seal-impressions suggested that it belonged to somebody of high standing but at that time I had not found any indications as to whom." (3) When the workmen finished clearing the stairway on Friday, November 24, Carter wrote, "reached as far as the first doorway. There proved to be sixteen steps." After examining the first doorway, Carter found "various seal impressions bearing the cartouche of Tut-ankh-Amen." He had discovered King Tut's tomb. (4) Not much is known about Tutankhamen. He had taken the throne when he was only ten years old, and guided by his advisers, had set out to restore Egypt. But his father was probably the despised Akhenaten, the king who had robbed Egypt of its gods, and so Tutankhamen was guilty by association. The kings who followed him tried to erase the whole family from history.

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    お願いします (1) Ising of war and of that man who first came in exile from the shores of Troy to the coast of Italy. He was battered on land and sea by divine violence,... He had to suffer much in war until he built a city.... From him came the Latin people,...and the high walls of Rome. (2) With his homeland in enemy hands and his city in flames, Prince Aeneas, son of the goddess Venus, led a small group of Trojans to sea. After many months of being tossed about by fierce winds and storms, the travelers finally anchored their ships near the mouth of the Tiber River in Italy. Yet no sooner had they landed than the men began to plan another voyage. (3) This appalled the Trojan women. As the Greek historian Dionysius records the story, a noblewoman named Roma secretly took the women aside and suggested that they take matters into their own hands. “Tired of wandering,”the others listened eagerly. “Roma stirred up the... Trojan women”and suggested a simple plan. They all agreed, and “together, they set fire to the ships.” (4) At first the men were furious, but pretty soon they realized that the women had done the right thing. They had landed in a perfect spot. With mild weather and beautiful countryside―a cluster of hills just 15 miles from the sea―why should they leave? The men were so pleased that they named the place after Roma, the rebellious wife.

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    お願いします (13) Carter pulled back the bolts on the innermost shrine's doors. Barely breathing, he swung open the doors. Inside, filling the entire shrine, was King Tut's stone sarcophagus. Winged goddesses carved into the yellow quartzite at each corner protectively embraced the sarcophagus and what lay within. The lid, however, was made from pink granite. Someone had painted it yellow to match the base. Had the original lid broken? This lid had cracked, too. The crack had been disguised with plaster and paint. (14) When Carter hoisted the lid to the sarcophagus, the likeness of Tutankhamen looked up at him from the seven-foot humanshaped coffin. The symbols of Upper and Lower Egypt―the cobra and the vulture―seemed to sprout from Tut's forehead. And around the crown someone had lovingly placed a tiny flower wreath. The wreath was made of olive leaves, blue water-lily petals, and cornflowers. (15) When the workmen raised the coffin's cover, Carter began to worry. The coffin nested inside had been damaged by water. What if King Tut were badly damaged? Fearing the lid was too fragile to lift, Carter decided to remove the whole coffin. But when the workmen hoisted it, it was much heavier than it should have been. It wasn' until Carter opened the second coffin that he found out why. The third and innermost coffin was made of solid gold. It weighed 250 pounds. (16) When the last lid to the last coffin was finally raised, three years after the discovery of that first step sliced into the valley floor, Carter and King Tut were at last face to face. Later, when Carter tried to put down on paper how he felt at that moment, he found he couldn't. There were no words to ddscribe his intense emotions. He was overhelmed by the realization that it had been more than 3,000 years since another human being had looked into the golden coffin.

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    お願いします (1) It was 493 BCE, and Rome's wealthy landowners were in a panic. They had held the reins of government of the new Republic while the workers (also called plebeians─or plebs, for short) farmed the land. The workers claimed that the rich were useless─that they did nothing except wait for the hardworking poor to feed and serve them. The landowners ignored these complaints at first. (2) But the plebeians began to abandon their plows and move into the city. There they became craftsmen, traders, and hired workers. As city folk, they no longer had to depend completely upon the landowners for survival. Now they were free to complain and demand greater equality between rich and poor. Justice, they believed, should be the same for everyone. And so they took action. They left the city in huge number and went to the Sacred Mount, a hilltop several Miles northeast of Rome. This got the landowners' attention! (3) Suddenly, the fear of war loomed large. What if an enemy attacked Rome? The landowners, also called patricians, could provide the generals to lead an army. But what good is a general with no men to command, no soldiers to fight? What’s more: with the workers gone, who would make sandals, weave cloth, tend chickens, and sell fish? Who would run the roadside inns, bake bread, drive mules, load wagons, and dye cloth for beautiful clothes? Rome couldn't survive without the work of ordinary citizens, and the aristocrats knew it. (4) The historian Livy tells how Rome's leaders solved the crisis of the workers' walkout. They sent Agrippa Menenius, a smooth talker who was popular with the people, to the Sacred Mount to talk to the rebels. Menenius told them a story about an imaginary time when each body part had its own ideas and could talk to one another. But the body parts didn't always agree and sometimes refused to work together. For example, the hands of this strange body sometimes argued with the feet, and the mouth sometimes disagreed with the teeth.

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    お願いします (7) Tiberius was elected a tribune of the people in 133 BCE. This office was first established to protect the plebeians, but later tribunes used it to advance their own careers. And as soon as Tiberius took office, he set to work for the rights of the plebes. The aristocrats in the Senate claimed that he was interested only in his own glory, but Tiberius denied it. He said that a trip through northern Italy had showed him how desperate the peasants really were. “The men who fight and die for Italy have only air and light. Without house or home, they wander with their wives and children in the open air.... They fight and die for the luxury and riches of others.” Tiberius insisted that Rome should give the land it gained through war to the poor. Conquered territory became state land. Technically, it belonged to Rome, but if wealthy citizens paid a small tax, they were allowed to farm it as their own. In this way most of the conquered territory passed into the hands of those who needed it least─the rich. Some aristocrats, including many senators, got tens of thousands of acres in this way. They used slave labor to work the land and made huge profits. (8) Tiberius made up his mind to change this law. He proposed that no one─no matter who his ancestors were─should be allowed to keep more than 300 acres of state land. The rest should be given to the poor. Once the homeless had land, he reasoned, they would be able to support themselves. They would no longer roam the cities in angry, hungry mobs. And, as landowners, they would be eligible to serve in the army. This would help the people, help the army, and help Rome─a “win” for everyone. But most of the senators stood against Tiberius, and it's easy to see why. His proposed law would rob them of the huge profits that they had enjoyed for so long.

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    More and more these days we are interacting socially through indirect contact using new technologies like email and instant messaging, or texting. Many psychologists, linguists, and sociologists have lined up to condemn this new kind of communication, primarily because, as the American philosopher and linguist Jerrold Katz once articulated it. “To type is not to be human, to be in cyberspace is not to be real; all is pretense and alienation, a poor substitute for the real thing." You can't get more emphatic than that! Skeptics of the new technologies also argue that they encourage isolation, making it difficult for us to form genuine friendships. As Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) psychologist Sherry Turkle wrote recently, “The little devices most of us carry around are so powerful that they change not only what we do, but also who we are We've become accustomed to a new way of ‘being alone together.

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    In preparation for the attack, the divisional artillery had pre-selected targets and at 09:30 the Leicestershire, Inverness-shire and Somerset Batteries of the Royal Horse Artillery and B Battery, Honourable Artillery Company began a 30-minute preparatory barrage. Under cover of this, the attacking troops began their advance, and by 09:45 they had approached to within 2,000 yards (1,800 m) of the Ottoman entrenchments. As the 1st Light Horse Brigade advanced from the direction of El Gubba, westward towards El Magruntein and the "C" group of redoubts, they encountered heavy machine-gun and shrapnel fire from German and Ottoman guns. To the south, the Imperial Camel Brigade advanced towards the B4 redoubt, and at 10:30 the 5th Mounted Brigade was ordered "to demonstrate against the works further west."

  • 日本語訳を! 4-(1)

    お願いします。  Humans are fascinated by firsts. Who was the first to step on the moon, the first to cross the sea―the first to write? Until recently, scientists thought the earliest writers were the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (which today is Iraq). But 300 pieces of pots no bigger than postage stamps are suggesting that writing began just as early in Egypt.  Scientists have been digging for decades in Abydos, an ancient royal cemetery west of the Nile, 300 miles south of Cairo. The ancient Egyptians buried their first kings in Abydos because they believed the mouth to the canyon there was the entrance to the next world. In a tomb that could be King Scorpion's, scientists are finding hundreds of pieces of pottery with some of the earliest writings in the world.  What words inspired some ancient Egyptian to invent writing? Were the words poetic? Were they wise? Did they reveal the true meaning of life? Did they point the way to the nearest watering hole? Nothing quite so meaningful―the inscriptions on the clay jars and vases are records of oil and linen deliveries. There was no money 5,300 years ago. Taxes were paid in goods. Sometimes they were paid with oil and linen. These very early written words were tax records. There is a saying that nothing in life is certain―except death and taxes. Maybe it's fitting that some of the earliest writings are tax records found in a cemetery.  We take writing for granted. In those first school years we carefully learn to draw the letters. We recite the sound each letter makes. But suppose no one had writtin before us, no teacher to show us what a letter looks like, no sound to go with it. How would you begin to write? The Egyptians began with pictures.

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    During the three days of fighting the 1st and 2nd Brigade of the 8th Tudzha Division suffered on average 21% casualties and abandoned many of their artillery guns which further weakened them despite that they managed to retreat to a new position around Lerin. Their defeat forced the western parts of the right wing of the Bulgarian First Army also to retire and thus opened the way for further Allied attacks that would develop in the three-month-long Monastir Offensive.