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お願いします (1) Today when the body of a dead boy turns up, a team of specialists is sent to the scene. By examining the body, scientists can learn a great deal about that person's life, and often the cause of death. But in 1922, when archaeologist Howard Carter found Tutankhamen, no one thought a dead body had much to tell. In fact, people had so little regard for mummies that locals used them for firewood. Archaeologists sipped their afternoon tea by the fire with human bones―even skulls―at their feet. For scientists then, it was all about the tomb. (2) When Carter uncovered the first step to an ancient sunken stairway, he knew he had discovered the entrance to a tomb. But whose? On Sunday, November 5, 1922, Carter wrote in his diary, "The seal-impressions suggested that it belonged to somebody of high standing but at that time I had not found any indications as to whom." (3) When the workmen finished clearing the stairway on Friday, November 24, Carter wrote, "reached as far as the first doorway. There proved to be sixteen steps." After examining the first doorway, Carter found "various seal impressions bearing the cartouche of Tut-ankh-Amen." He had discovered King Tut's tomb. (4) Not much is known about Tutankhamen. He had taken the throne when he was only ten years old, and guided by his advisers, had set out to restore Egypt. But his father was probably the despised Akhenaten, the king who had robbed Egypt of its gods, and so Tutankhamen was guilty by association. The kings who followed him tried to erase the whole family from history.


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(1) 今日、少年の遺体が発見されると、専門家のチームが、現場に派遣されます。 遺体を調べることによって、科学者は、その人の人生や、しばしば死因について非常に多くを知ることができます。 しかし、1922年に、考古学者ハワード・カーターが、ツタンカーメンを発見したとき、誰もその遺体が多くを語るとは思いませんでした。実際、人々はミイラにほとんど敬意を払っていなかったので、地元の人々は、それらを薪代わりに使っていました。 考古学者たちは、彼らの足元にある人骨 ― 頭蓋骨でさえも ― で、おこした火でいれた午後の紅茶をすすっていました。 当時の科学者にとって、関心はもっぱら墓に向けられていました。 (2) カーターが、古代の埋もれた階段の一段目を発見したとき、彼は墓に至る入口を発見したことが分かりました。 しかし、誰の墓でしょうか? 1922年、11月5日、日曜日、カーターは、日記に次の様に書いています「封印の紋様は、それが身分の高い人物のものであることを示していたが、当時、私は、その人物を特定するものを何も見つけてはいなかった。」 (3) 11月24日金曜日に作業員たちが、階段の掃除を終えたとき、「最初の戸口まで到達した。16段あることがわかった。」とカーターは書いています。 最初の戸口を調べた後、カーターは「様々な封印の紋様にツタンカーメンと言うカルトゥーシュ(王名枠:古代エジプトにおける、象形文字で記された王の名を囲む、装飾用の楕円形の枠。)がついていること」に気付きました。 彼は、ツタンカーメンの墓を発見していたのでした。 (4) ツタンカーメンについては、あまりわかっていません。わずか10才の時に、彼は王に即位し、顧問の助言を受けながら、彼はエジプトの復興に着手したのでした。 しかし、彼の父親は、多分、エジプトからその神々を奪った王の軽蔑されたアクエンアテンであったと思われ、それ故、ツタンカーメンは、連想によれば罪があるのでした。 彼を継承した王たちは、その家族全員を歴史から消し去ろうとしました。




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  • 回答No.1

1. 今日では死んだ子供の遺体が見つかれば、その現場に専門家が派遣される。検死することで、科学者はその人の人生について多くを知ることができ、しばしば死の原因まで解ります。しかし1922年において、考古学者のカーターがツタンカーメンを発見したとき、死体がそんなにたくさん何かを語るなど思いもしませんでした。実際、当時人々は地元の人達が死体をまきの代わりに燃やすもの程度にしか関心を払いませんでした。当時の考古学者は人間の骨、骸骨や足の骨などをを燃やして午後のお茶を沸かして飲んでいたのです。科学者に取ってその当時はなにはともあれ墓だけにしか関心がなかったのです。 2. カーターが埋もれていた最初のステップを見つけたとき、かれは墓への入口を発見したことを理解しました。しかし”だれだというのだ”1922年11月5日、日曜日にカーターは日記に書きました。”封印から察するになにか位の高い人物であったようだが、だれの墓かということに関しては何も発見できませんでした。 3.11月24日金曜日作業員が階段を通れるようにしたとき、カーターは”最初のドアに通じる廊下にたどり付つました、階段は最終的に16段あることが分かった”と書きました。最初のドアに通じる廊下を調べた後、カーターは”ツタンカーメンのカルトゥシュを有する様々な封印”を発見しました。つまりその時までにかれはツタンカーメン王の墓を発見していたのだ。(Tut = Tutankh-Amen) 4. ツタンカーメンに付いて今もほどんど知られていません。かれは10才の時に王位を継承し、彼のアドバイザーに導かれており、エジプトを復興しようとしていました。しかし彼の父はおそらく不人気なアケナテンだったでしょう。アケナテンとはエジプトの神を奪った王だったので、その関係者としてツタンカーメンもその罪を負うものでしので、彼以後の王たちは歴史からその家族全てを消し去ろうと試みました。



  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします It was sometime before one could see, the hot air escaping caused the candle to flicker, but as soon as one's eyes became accustomed to the glimmer of light the interior of the chamber gradually loomed before one, with its strange and wonderful medley of extraordinary and beautiful objects heaped upon one another. (8) The room Carter peered into was packed to the ceiling. A jumble of chests piled on top of chairs, piled on top of chariots. Statues, beds, game boards, and pottery littered the floor. Everything the king would need in the next life had been crammed into the small space. The tomb robbers must have been scared away before they could do much damage. Carter writes, "we had found the monarch's burial place intact save certain metal-robbing." (9) But what was it they had found? If this was a tomb, where was the tomb resident? There were no mummies in sight. Carter writes, "A sealed doorway between the two sentinel statues proved there was more beyond, and with the numerous cartouches bearing the name of Tut.ankh.Amen on most of the objects before us, there was little doubt that there behind was the grave of the Pharaoh." The doorway to the burial chamber had been broken into as well. Carter writes that the hole was "large enough to allow a small man to pass through, but it had been carefully reclosed, plastered, and sealed. Evidently the tomb beyond had been entered―by thieves!" Would they find King Tut?

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    お願いします (5) Carter's thrill at finding the tomb of this little known king quickly turned to dismay. The seals revealed that Carter wasn't the first to discover Tutankhamen's resting place. "In the upper part of this sealed doorway traces of two distinct reopenings and successive reclosings were apparent." This could mean only one thing―tomb robbers! With so much wealth heaped inside the royal tombs, it was impossible to keep thieves out. The priests of Amun had tried. They sealed the doors and filled the passageways with limestone chips, but still the robbers tunneled through. (6) After Carter passed through the first doorway, he found another descending passageway much like the first. Carter and his crew dug their way down the passage, every bucketful of rubble they removed bringing them closer to the second doorway. They must have wondered as they worked, would this be another disappointment? Would this be another once-glorious treasure-house, destroyed by thieves? What would they find? (7) Sunday, November 26  After clearing...the descending passage...we came upon a second sealed doorway, which was almost the exact replica of the first. It bore similar seal impressions and had similar traces of successive reopenings and reclosings in the plastering. The seal impressions were of Tut.ank.Amen... Feverishly we cleared away the remaining last scraps of rubbish on the floor of the passage before the doorway, until we had only the clean sealed doorway before us....we made a tiny breach in the top left hand corner to see what was beyond.... Perhaps another descending staircase...? Or maybe a chamber? Candles were procured―the all important tell-tale for foul gases when opening an ancient subterranean excavation―I widened the breach and by means of the candle looked in....

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    お願いします (13) Carter pulled back the bolts on the innermost shrine's doors. Barely breathing, he swung open the doors. Inside, filling the entire shrine, was King Tut's stone sarcophagus. Winged goddesses carved into the yellow quartzite at each corner protectively embraced the sarcophagus and what lay within. The lid, however, was made from pink granite. Someone had painted it yellow to match the base. Had the original lid broken? This lid had cracked, too. The crack had been disguised with plaster and paint. (14) When Carter hoisted the lid to the sarcophagus, the likeness of Tutankhamen looked up at him from the seven-foot humanshaped coffin. The symbols of Upper and Lower Egypt―the cobra and the vulture―seemed to sprout from Tut's forehead. And around the crown someone had lovingly placed a tiny flower wreath. The wreath was made of olive leaves, blue water-lily petals, and cornflowers. (15) When the workmen raised the coffin's cover, Carter began to worry. The coffin nested inside had been damaged by water. What if King Tut were badly damaged? Fearing the lid was too fragile to lift, Carter decided to remove the whole coffin. But when the workmen hoisted it, it was much heavier than it should have been. It wasn' until Carter opened the second coffin that he found out why. The third and innermost coffin was made of solid gold. It weighed 250 pounds. (16) When the last lid to the last coffin was finally raised, three years after the discovery of that first step sliced into the valley floor, Carter and King Tut were at last face to face. Later, when Carter tried to put down on paper how he felt at that moment, he found he couldn't. There were no words to ddscribe his intense emotions. He was overhelmed by the realization that it had been more than 3,000 years since another human being had looked into the golden coffin.

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    お願いします (19) In a small side room, along with the jars that held King Tut's internal organs, Carter found two tiny coffins holding two tiny mummified fetuses. They were the mummies of the children Tut would never have―his wife's miscarriages. The professor cracked open the skull of ome. The embalmers had removed the brain and stuffed the hollow with linen. The professor found a wire that had been used to push the linen up into the skull, the only embalming tool ever found inside a body―and the professor threw it away. (20) If a mummy is discovered today, a team of scientists is sent to he scene. Botanists could have told Carter in what month King Tut died by studying the funeral wreath―cornflowers bloom in March in Egypt. Radiologists could have told Carter that King Tut did not die from tuberculosis as many had guessed, but may have been murdered by a blow to the back of he head. Or he may have fallen and hit the back of his head on the ground. King Tut's eye sockets were fractured in way that is caused by the brain snapping forward when the head hits the ground in a backwards fall (or is clubbed from behind). Neurologists could have told Carter that the vertebrae in King Tut's neck were fused. When Tut turned his head, he had to turn his whole torso, too. Fibreoptic tubes with miniature cameras could have been inserted under the linen to take pictures and samples without ever having to unwrap Tut. Today scientists use DNA to reconstruct family trees. Computers re-create faces. And if we can learn that much more in the time since Carter discovered King Tut, imagine how much we will be able to learn in the future. The dead do tell tales. It's up to us to listen.

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    お願いします (17) The priests who performed Tut's funeral had poured sacred oils over the mummy and the coffin. The oils glued the two together. Carter tried to loosen the resin by warming it in the hot desert sun, but it was no use. Tut was stuck. They called in a professor of anatomy to perform the examination on Tut's remains. The professor sliced away the linen wrappings only to find that it wasn't just the wrappings stuck to the coffin. The body was stuck, too. First the professor tried to chisel away the body, and when that didn't work, he tried heated knives. Finally, he hacked the torso in half and removed the body by sections. How much would we have been able to learn using today's scientific methods had the body not been so brutally handled? (18) The arm and leg bones pulled from their joints allowed the professor to calculate King Tut's age. He was about 18 years old when he died. He was thin, and five feet six inches all. Cause of death was never bonsidered.

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    お願いします (13) By 50 BCE, the Triumvirate had ended. Crassus had been killed in battle, and Pompey had become very jealous of Caesar's military success and his great popularity. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, Julia, but when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two men was broken. Before Caesar returned from Gaul, Pompey sided wit the Senate to declare his former father-in-law an enemy of the State. The Senate demanded that Caesar give up his army and return to Rome. Knowing that he would be arrested if he obeyed, he refused. But now his life and career were at stake. Did he dare go back to Italy at all? (14) In January of 49 BCE, Caesar's forces were camped just north of the Rubicon, the river that marked the boundary between Gaul and Ital. As soon as Caesar heard the Senate's ruling, he slipped away from the camp with a few trusted men. It was night, and everyone else was feasting. No one noticed that he was missing. When he reached the banks of the Rubicon, he paused, thinking about his next step. After a moment, he declared, “The die is cast” and crossed the river. This was his way of saying that his mind was made up and wouldn't be changed. Now he was ready to meet his former ally, the great general Pompey, in battle. (15) Caesar was never one to stand around, waiting for someone else to do something. Decisive as always, he began his march right away. He set out in the dead of winter with a single legion of soldiers. He knew that by marching on Rome he would start a civil war. What he didn't know─and couldn't have known─was that this war would last for nearly two decades and destroy the Republic.

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    お願いします (23) In 31 BCE, Octavian's navy defeated Mark Antony in Greece. Morale sank among Antony's troops. Many soldiers deserted and joined Octavian. Supplies of food and water grew scarce for Antony's army. His forces suffered a fatal blow when Octavian crushed them in the Battle of Actium, a city on the western coast of Greece. Cleopatra, seeing the disaster from a distance, ordered her ships to return to Egypt. Antony saw her purple sails in retreat and ordered his sailors to follow. But Antony's ground forces continued to fight. They couldn't believe at first that their beloved leader had abandoned them. When they realized it was true, they simply laid down their weapons and surrendered. (24) The final battle between Antony and Octavian began near Alexandria on the first of August, 30 BCE. Antony ordered his fleet to attack, and his men obediently rowed toward the enemy ships. Then, instead of attacking, they saluted the enemy's leader: Octavian. Antony's cavalry deserted as well. Only the foot soldiers remained loyal to their general, but they were easily defeated. (25) Antony was infuriated that Cleopatra had ordered her troops to abandon the battle and return to Egypt. Plutarch writes that the defeated general “retreated into Alexandria, crying out in his rage that Cleopatra had betrayed him to the very men he had fought for her sake.” Cleopatra, fearing her lover's anger, hid in a huge, two-story tomb and sent a servant to tell Antony that she was dead. (26) When Antony heard the news, he was devastated. He said he had no reason to live. The war was lost and Cleopatra was dead. So he stabbed himself, by falling on his own sword. He was dying, but not yet dead, whenCleopatra's second messenger arrived, inviting Antony to come to her hiding place. The queen was alive after all. She had changed her mind and wanted to see Antony. But it was almost too late.

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    お願いします。  It was the summer of 327 BCE,and Ambhi,king of Taxila,was not a happy camper.For one thing,Taxila was no longer as powerful and wealthy as it had been when the Persians ruled there.He was glad the Persians had gone,of course.Every once in a while,they'd send someone around asking for taxes,but as long as he paid them,the Persians pretty much left King Ambhi and his people alone.Nevertheless,he probably wished that the powerful Persians army was still in town.He could have used its help.Taxila's neighbor to the southeast,King Porus,was a brave and intelligent man who wanted Ambhi's kingdom for himself.  Still,the gossip was that the Persian army itself had fallen on hard times.Some young Greek felkow named Sikander had popped up out of nowhere-Macedonia,actually,but that was as good as nowhere-and was busily conquering the whole world.The rumor was that this Sikanddr character had never lost a battle.Of course,you couldn't believe everything you heard.A young boy still in his 20s couldn't possibly have conquered everything from the Nile River to Afghanistan,not to mention the mighty Persians-but still...the stories might be true.  King Ambhi's heart must have sunk when a messenger arrived with news of the horrible defeat of one of Taxila's neighbors.When the Greek Sikander and his troops had arrived in his kingdom,the neighboring king had foolishly tried to fight.But resistance had been futile.Not only had the king lost,but his city had been burned and looted.And that,the messenger would have told King Ambhi,was no rumor.He'd seen the terrible scene himself.Now Sikander's army was on the move again.Next stop:Taxila.  For one desperate moment,King Ambhi must have wished that he and his people could somehow jump out of Sikander's way.And then he realized that,in a way,they could.

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    Many of the defenders had retreated from the line, and those who remained were captured. Parts of the regiment continued to pursue beyond the main defensive line until 13:35, when Colonel Dobrev ordered them to halt. When it was realized that this was not fort 8 he ordered his infantry to cut the retreat routes of that fort, but the Romanians managed to prevent this with artillery fire. By the afternoon of 5 September the forts of the main defensive line in Sector II had all fallen into the hands of the attackers.

  • 日本語訳お願いします(;_;)

    He knew it was only a matter of time before Susan could ride the bus by herself. matter of time…時間の問題 もう一問お願いします(>_<) She was scared but she had to make the trip on her own. make the trip…仕事に行く