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日本語訳を! 6-(7)

お願いします。 (13) 1.First stop for the dead is tge Place of Washing, which the Egyptians called Ibu. After a good washing, the embalmers performed a ceremony with Nile water and a kind of salt found in the waters of the Nile called natron. The ceremony symbolizes rebirth. For more reasons than one―secrecy and stench, to name two―Ibu is not close to town. (14) 2.Next stop is Per-nefer, the House of Mummification. Herodotus reports what went on there: "They take first a crooked piece of iron, and with it draw out the brain through the nostrils." Then the embalmers flush out the skull with water and lay it on its side to drain while they "cut along the flank... and take out the whole contents of the abdomen." The heart is left inside the body because the Egyptians believe this to be the most important organ. A few things are tossed because they are considered so unimportant―the brain, for one. The rest of the internal organs are cleaned and storedin jars so that the spirits have a complete home when the time comes to reoccupy the body. Fingernails and toenails are wrapped with twine to keep them from falling off when the skin shrinks. The body is stuffed, covered with natron, which is even better than sand for drying, and left to dry for 40 days.


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(13) 1. 死者が、最初に止まるのは、洗浄の場です、この場所を、エジプト人は、イブと呼びました。 良く洗浄した後、死体防腐処理人は、ナトロン(ソーダ)と呼ばれるナイル川の水の中に見つかる一種の塩で、儀式を行いました。 その儀式は、再生を象徴します。 一つならぬ理由で、― 2つについて言えば、秘密を守るためと悪臭があるために ― イブは、町の近くにはありません。 (14) 2. 次に止まる場所は、ペルーネフェル、すなわち、ミイラ作りの家です。ヘロドトスは、そこで行われたことを報告しています: 「彼らは、まず、曲がった鉄の針金を取り、それを使って、鼻孔から脳を引き出します。」 それから、死体防腐処理人は、頭蓋骨を水で洗浄して、水が流れ出す様に、頭蓋骨を横にします、その間に、彼らは、「脇腹に沿って切開し」 ... そして、腹部から内臓を取り出します。」 心臓は、体内に残されます、と言うのは、エジプト人は、これが最も重要な臓器であると信じているからです。2,3の臓器は、捨てられます、なぜならば、それらは、重要だと思われていないからです ― 脳みそ等はこれに当たります。 残りの内臓は、時が訪れて、霊魂が、体を再び占めるようになるとき、完全な家(人体のこと)を持つように、きれいにされて、壺に保管されます。指の爪と足の爪は、皮膚が縮むとき、それらが、剥がれ落ちないようにするために、ひもで包まれます。 遺体に詰め物が施され、ナトロン(ソーダ)でおおわれます。ナトロンは、乾燥させるためには、砂よりさらによいのです、それから、40日間、乾かすために放置されます。





  • 日本語訳を! 1-(2)

    お願いします。  Without the Nile you wouldn't have much of a kingdom to rule. Strutting might seem a bit silly. Egypt would be home to nothing more than a few wandering bands of nomads passing through the red land, dusty and dragging from the relentless heat, in search of the rare oasis. The Nile, however, the glorious Nile, brought a narrow band of life to Egypt. It carried rich, black dirt and spread it over the floodplains, creating fields for the Egyptians to plant their seeds. The Egyptians called it khemet―the black land. The change from red land to black land was so abrupt you could straddle the border, standing with one foot in red earth and the other in black.  The ancient Egyptians knew tha without the Great River they would have no villages, no fields of wheat, and no cattle. To them the water was sacred. They believed it flowed from paradise and could heal the sick. They wrote songs to the Nike―praising its life-giving force. The Hymn to the Nile began "Hail to thee O, Nile!" and praised the Great River for coming "to give life to Egypt." It may seem as if the ancients got carried away with their praise when they sang, "If you cease your toil and your work, then all that exists is in anguish." But if the Nile did "cease its toil," the people would starve. Maybe they weren't so carried away after all.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(8)

    お願いします。 (15) 3.Next stop Wabet, the House of Purification. Here the embalmers remove the stuffing from the body cavity and repack it with sawdust, rags, natron, or sometimes even plants. They rub the skin with oils to restore its softness. Once the body looks its best, the wrapping begins. It can take two weeks to wrap a body and nearly 500 square yards of linen. The family of the deceased spends the next 40 days while the body is drying collecting anything that can be torn into strips to supply the embalmers with wrappings. To help the Ka and Ba recognize their body under all those rags, an artist paints a mummy mask that look like the dead person's face. (16) From start to finish, embalmers chanted spells and performed rituals. The whole process took on average 70 days―unless, of course, you went for the economy option, and then the embalmers had you in and out in 7 days. And that's a wrap.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(3)

    お願いします。  There are challenges to living in a country that is mostly desert. By the time the Old Kingdom rolled around, about 2700 BCE, Egyptians were up to meeting those challenges―the most obvious would concern water. Although the derert continually tried to push in on the farmland along the edge of the Nile, the Egyptians had learned how to push back. They coaxed the waters of the Nile inland, filling the buckets of their shadufs and emptying them into channels they had dug through their gardens. Not only were they irrigating their farmlands, they were expanding them. Farmers grew more food than the people could possibly eat. The king's granaries filled. The government organized and financed massive irrigation projects. When you grow more food than you can possibly eat you are left with something to trade with other nations―grain. What Egyptians didn't have they could now get through trade.  A challenge less obvious to those nnt used to surviving in a desert environment is the lack of wood. There are no tall trees in a desert. Actually, there are no trees at all, with the exception of what grew right along the edge of the Nile and in the occasional oasis. Egyptians needed wood―a lot of wood―especially for boats and coffins. They had their eye on the cedar that grew to the northeast, in the land that we now call Lebanon. It was ideal for both boats and coffins because cedar resists rot, and a rotting boat or a rotting coffin can be a problem. And so it began―we've got grain, we need wood, you've got wood, you need grain, let's trade. It was not much different, in principle, from trading baseball cards.

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    お願いします (6) The Hyksos army was made up of professional soldiers. They drove chariots, wore body armor and leather helmets, and wielded bows designed to shoot arrows farther than ordinary wooden bows. It's no surprise that the Hyksos beat the Egyptians in those first battles. But the Egyptians learned from the encounters. They stole the ddsign of the chariot from the Hyksos and then improved upon it. The Egyptians made the chariot lighter. The redesign positioned the driver over the axle and they covered the wooden axle with metal so that it turned more smoothly. These changes made it easier for the horse to pull the chariot. The driver stood, holding onto straps for balance, with a soldier at his side. The soldier held a shield and was armed with a bow and arrows, a sword, and a javelin. The back of the chariot was open so that the charioteers could jump out with ease and engage in hand-to-hand combat with the enemy. (7) The Egyptians trained. They held battle competitions in front of the king. Archers shot at targets. Wrestlers grappled with one another. Swordsmen clashed blades. What had once been a rag-tag scrabble of men became an organized military. But they still had work to do on their style of waging war. Before a battle, the Egyptians notified the enemy which day they planned to attack and where. If the enemy wasn't ready, the Egyptians rescheduled. And if the enemy retreated into their fortress, rather than rudely barging in, the Egyptians would patiently wait outside hoping to starve them out. Unfortunately, Egypt's enemies weren't always as courteous.

  • 日本語訳を! 1-(4)

    お願いします。  At first the Egyptians simply marked the riverbank to measure the height of the Nile. But it wasn't long before the Egyptians invented measuring devices. We call them nilometers. Some looked like a giant yardstick made from marble. Other nilometers were even more elaborate. Workers dug staircases into wells and erected engraved pillars marked to gauge how high the water rose.  After the flood months, when the water finally receded and left behind rich, black earth, farmers scattered their seeds, the first of several plantings. The second season―peret―had begun. Farmers lifted water from the steady flowing river with shadufs, devices that looked like catapults. With a bucket for dipping on one end of a pole, and a counterweight to make lifting easy on the other, the shadufs creaked and groaned while farmers raised and pivoted the buckets to fill channels that snaked through their gardens.  Farmers tended their fields with care into the third season―shemu. During shemu the level of the Nile dropped, and many side channels dried up. The land parched and the desert seemed to close in. The red sands inched toward the villages. Near the end of shemu, Egyptians began to fret and worry. Would the Nile ever rise again? Had the gods forgotten to release the waters? They sang, "they dread him who creates the heat," and they sacrificed birds and gazelles for the return of the Nile's floodwaters. And then the cycle repeated. "Hail to thee, O Nile! Who...comes to give life to Egypt!"

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    (4) Considering that 19 types of excrement are mentioned in the cures, from fly excrement to ostrich excrement, it's no surprise Egyptian doctors had a problem with disgruntled patients. They handled malpractice efficiently, though. Diordorus writes,  If they follow the rules of this law as they read them in the sacred book and yet are unable to save their patient, they are absolved from any charge; but if they go contrary to the law's prescriptions they must submit to a trial with death as the penalty. If you're a physician and you follow the rules, all's well. But get creative with your treatments and you won't be treating anyone, unless it's in the afterlife. (5) Just as medical doctors do today, in ancient Egypt doctors specialized. The Greek historian Herodotus writes, "The practice of medicine is so divided among them that each physician treats one disease and no more. There are plenty of physicians everywhere. Some are eye-doctors, some deal with the head, others with the teeth or the belly, and some with hidden maladies...." The Ebers Papyrus even had a section on psychiatry, directing doctors on how to diagnose and treat depression. (6) The Egyptians had a cure for the common cold that was probably as good as anything you can find in a pharmacy today. It required a dose of the milk of a mother who had given birth to a boy, while chanting the spell, "May you flow out...who causes the seven openings in the head to ache." The Egyptians understood injuries caused by an accident, or in battle. They understood parasites and worms such as tapeworms, which they called "snakes in the belly." But for germs that couldn't be seen, Egyptians believed demons were responsible. There's nothing like a good spell to rid the body of evil spirits. The Ebers Papyrus states, "Magic is effective together with medicine. Medicine is effective together with magic." And so many medical treatments were odd combinations of science and magic.

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    お願いします (14) It is no wonder Herodotus thought that Egyptians were obsessed with their appearance. Tomb walls show their dedication to grooming. A nobleman who lived nearly 4,500 years ago is shown getting a pedicure. At Deir el-Bahri there is scene after scene of royal cosmetic rituals. The number and quality of cosmetic containers ane palettes found in tombs is more evidence of the importance Egyptians placed on good grooming. One fabulous makeup jar was carved so delicately that the alabaster is nearly transparent. This 6th dynasty (about 2345-2180 BCE) cosmetic container is in the shape of a female monkey cradling her baby in such a way that it looks as if it is in her womb. (15) The Ebers Papyrus also has practical advice on how to manage body odor. "To expel stinking of the body of man or woman: ostrich-egg, shell of tortoise and gallnut from tamaris are roasted and the body is rubbed with the mixture." For those looking for a simpler deodorant, the trend was to roll incense into a ball and mash it into your armpits. From body oils to body paint, Egyptians had a bounty of beauty hints―honey for anti-wrinkle cream, mint for fresh breath, beeswax for hair gel. (16) If ancient Egyptians had an advice columnist, it would likely be "Dear Bes." Bes was the mischievous god of the family. Picture a god that is part dwarf, part lion―stocky, with a big head, bugged-out eyes, sticking his tongue out at you. That's Bes. Bes rarely walked. He skipped, hopped, or danced―and nome too gracefully―while playing his tambourine. Everyone loved Bes.  Dear Bes,  "I am a free woman of Egypt. I have raised eight children, and have provided them with everything suitable to their station in life. But now I have grown old and behold, my children don't look after me anymore." What should I do?         Sincerely,         Geezer from Giza

  • 日本語訳を! 1-(3)

    お願いします。  Life in Egypt revolved around the Great River. Our seasons come and go, marked by weather changes, but not so in Egypt, where the sun always shines. In Egypt the seasoms were marked by changes in the Nile. The first of the three seasons began in July. Egyptians called it akhet. During akhet, heavy rain in Ethiopia poured down from the highlands, swelling streams that fed the Nile. The banks of the Nile overflowed. Flooding may not sound like a good thing, but to the Egyptians it was a very good thing. Those floods left behind that black earth for planting. During the floods, farmlands were covered with water. Everyone uneasily watched the water rise. Would there be enough water? Would the Nile bring enough of that rich, black earth for farmers to plant their seeds? Or would there be too much water? Would whole villages be washed away? It was a delicate balance. If you were the supreme ruler, it would be your job to work it out with the gods so that things went well. You worked with Hapi, the god of the Great River, and more importantly, with the god in charge of the floods, the one with the ram's head―Khnemu. It was your job to be sure there was ma'at, or balance―not too much, not too little.  The Egyptians watched the flood levels obsessively. They measured the water and recorded it. They compared their measurements to the good years. They compared their measurements to the bad years. Everywhere you went, people would have had an opinion on this year's flood level. People talked in the market place. People talked along the roads, over dinner, while washing clothes at the riverbank. Would this be a good year? Would the granaries be full? Or would this be a bad year? Would they suffer the anguish they sang about in The Hymn to the Nile?

  • 日本語訳を! 4-(1)

    お願いします。  Humans are fascinated by firsts. Who was the first to step on the moon, the first to cross the sea―the first to write? Until recently, scientists thought the earliest writers were the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (which today is Iraq). But 300 pieces of pots no bigger than postage stamps are suggesting that writing began just as early in Egypt.  Scientists have been digging for decades in Abydos, an ancient royal cemetery west of the Nile, 300 miles south of Cairo. The ancient Egyptians buried their first kings in Abydos because they believed the mouth to the canyon there was the entrance to the next world. In a tomb that could be King Scorpion's, scientists are finding hundreds of pieces of pottery with some of the earliest writings in the world.  What words inspired some ancient Egyptian to invent writing? Were the words poetic? Were they wise? Did they reveal the true meaning of life? Did they point the way to the nearest watering hole? Nothing quite so meaningful―the inscriptions on the clay jars and vases are records of oil and linen deliveries. There was no money 5,300 years ago. Taxes were paid in goods. Sometimes they were paid with oil and linen. These very early written words were tax records. There is a saying that nothing in life is certain―except death and taxes. Maybe it's fitting that some of the earliest writings are tax records found in a cemetery.  We take writing for granted. In those first school years we carefully learn to draw the letters. We recite the sound each letter makes. But suppose no one had writtin before us, no teacher to show us what a letter looks like, no sound to go with it. How would you begin to write? The Egyptians began with pictures.

  • 日本語訳を! 1-(1)

    お願いします。  Imagine you are the king of Egypt. Strut about a bit, you can. After all, you're the supreme ruler―the Pharaoh, the Great One. You command armies. If you say fight, they fight to the death. You have thousands of servants―a few just to fan you with ostrich feathers when you're feeling a tad overheated. Your brothers and sisters, parents, teachers, and friends have to do what you order. YOU have inherited the right to make laws and dole out punishments. They had better behave. When you walk by, people fall to their knees and press their noses into the dirt. Some tremble when you pass―who knows what you might say to the gods the next time you speak to them? The crops grow because you say so. The Great River flows because you convince the gods it must. Now imagine wielding all that power when you are only six years old. That's how old you would be if you were the Pharaoh Pepi II in Egypt 4,000 years ago.  If you were Pepi II, your kingdom would have looked a lot like the barren, red landscape of Mars if it weren't for one thing―the Great River, a river we now call the Nile. Flowing north, the Nile cuts throtgh the deshret, or the red land. Limestone cliffs rise above the river like castle walls. The ancient Egyptians said the gods put those cliffs there to protect them. In fact, your entire kingdom is surrounded by natural barriers that protect it. To the east and west, the desert keeps out invaders. To the north, before the Nile dumps into the sea, it branches out into a triangle of marshland we call the Delta (it would be hard for your enemies to march through a swamp). And to the south the Nile protects your kingdom again, this time with a series of rocky rapids called the Cataracts.