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日本語訳を! 6-(6)

お願いします。 (11) In the beginning nature preserved the bodies. The Egyptians buried their dead in the sand, on their sides, with their knees curled into their chest, facing the setting sun in the direction their spirits were headed. The hot, dry desert sucked the body fluids away. The skin hardened into a leathery shell, keeping everything in place. Ironically, concern for the corpse was what created problems. To keep sand from getting into the dead person's eyes and mouth, the Egyptians began to put a basket over the body's head. Then, a basket on the head didn't seem good enough. Trays were woven for above and below the corpse to keep sand off the whole body. Soon, brick-lined pits were being built for the dead. The problem was that without the sand to wick away the moisture, the bodies were rotting. That would never do. Without the entire body, the spirits could not lounge in the Field of Reeds. Haunting was happening. And so the Egyptians experimented and gradually developed the process of mummification during the Old Kingdom period. (12) Because everyond wanted their loved ones preserved, the funeral trade was a good one. The embalmers, who prepared the dead for burial, guarded their money-making secrets, passing their skills down from father to son. What we know about making a mummy comes from the Greek historians Herodotus, who wrote during the 5th century BCE, and Diodorus Siculus, who wrote during the 1st century BCE. The Greeks were fascinated by Egypt, as they were with many foreign cultures, and wrote about both the country and its history. Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus describe three mummy options: one for the very rich, one for the not so rich, and one for the poor. From their writings, we have the following recipe for a mummy (in this case, a top-of-the-line mummy):

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(11) 始めのうちは、自然が、遺体を保存しました。 エジプト人は、砂の中に、横向きに、彼らの胸に彼らのひざを曲げて抱え込むように、そして、彼らの霊魂が向かう方向に沈む太陽に顔を向ける様に、死者を埋葬しました。 熱い、乾いた砂漠は、遺体の体液を吸い取りました。 皮膚は、革の甲羅ように固まりました、そして、すべてを所定の位置に保ちました。 皮肉にも、死体に対する懸念が、問題を生じさせるものとなりました。砂が、死者の目や口に入らないようにするために、エジプト人は、遺体の頭の上にかごを置き始めました。 それから、頭の上のかごは、十分に良いように思えなくなりました。 全身から砂を防ぐために、死体の上下に、受け皿が、編まれました。 間もなく、レンガを並べた大きな穴が、死者のために作られるようになりました。問題は、湿気を取り除く砂がないと、遺体が、腐敗したということでした。 それでは、全く役に立ちません。 完全な遺体がないと、霊魂は、葦の草原でくつろぐことができませんでした。 幽霊になってさまようことが、起こります。 それで、エジプト人は、実験を重ねて、古王国時代に、徐々にミイラ作りの手順を開発しました。 (12) 誰もが、彼らの愛する人々が、保存されることを望んだので、葬儀の商売は良い商売でした。 死体防腐処理人は、死者に埋葬の準備を施しましたが、彼らは、自分たちの金儲けの方法の秘密を守りました。そして、父から息子へと彼らの技術を伝えました。 我々が、ミイラ作りについて知っていることは、紀元前5世紀に書き記した、ギリシアの歴史家ヘロドトスと紀元1世紀に書き記した、ディオドロス・シクルスから得られたものです。ギリシア人は、彼らが多くの外国の文化に接していたので、エジプトに魅了されました、そして、その国(エジプト)とその歴史について書きました。 ヘロドトスとディオドロス・シクルスは、3つのミイラの選択肢について述べています: 大金持ちのための選択肢、それほど金持ちでない人々のための選択肢、貧乏人のための選択肢です。 彼らの著作から、我々には、ミイラの次の様な作り方があります(この場合は、最高級のミイラです):

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  • 日本語訳を! 5-(1)

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  • 日本語訳を! 6-(5)

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  • 日本語訳を! 6-(1)

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  • 日本語訳を! 5-(7)

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  • 日本語訳を! 8-(2)

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