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日本語訳を! 1-(1)

お願いします。  Imagine you are the king of Egypt. Strut about a bit, you can. After all, you're the supreme ruler―the Pharaoh, the Great One. You command armies. If you say fight, they fight to the death. You have thousands of servants―a few just to fan you with ostrich feathers when you're feeling a tad overheated. Your brothers and sisters, parents, teachers, and friends have to do what you order. YOU have inherited the right to make laws and dole out punishments. They had better behave. When you walk by, people fall to their knees and press their noses into the dirt. Some tremble when you pass―who knows what you might say to the gods the next time you speak to them? The crops grow because you say so. The Great River flows because you convince the gods it must. Now imagine wielding all that power when you are only six years old. That's how old you would be if you were the Pharaoh Pepi II in Egypt 4,000 years ago.  If you were Pepi II, your kingdom would have looked a lot like the barren, red landscape of Mars if it weren't for one thing―the Great River, a river we now call the Nile. Flowing north, the Nile cuts throtgh the deshret, or the red land. Limestone cliffs rise above the river like castle walls. The ancient Egyptians said the gods put those cliffs there to protect them. In fact, your entire kingdom is surrounded by natural barriers that protect it. To the east and west, the desert keeps out invaders. To the north, before the Nile dumps into the sea, it branches out into a triangle of marshland we call the Delta (it would be hard for your enemies to march through a swamp). And to the south the Nile protects your kingdom again, this time with a series of rocky rapids called the Cataracts.

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Imagine you are the king of Egypt. 自分がエジプト王だと想像してください。 Strut about a bit, you can.少しふんぞり返って歩く——そうしてもいいですよ。 After all, you're the supreme ruler―the Pharaoh, the Great One.何といっても、あなたは至高の支配者、偉大なるファラオなのですから。 You command armies. If you say fight, they fight to the death.あなたは軍の指揮官です。あなたが軍に戦えと言えば、彼らは死ぬまで戦います。 You have thousands of servants―a few just to fan you with ostrich feathers when you're feeling a tad overheated.召使いは何千人もいます。ちょっと暑いなと思えば、ダチョウの羽で扇ぐ専用の召使いが数名います。 Your brothers and sisters, parents, teachers, and friends have to do what you order. あなたの兄弟姉妹、両親、教師、友人といえども、あなたが命じたことをしなければなりません。 YOU have inherited the right to make laws and dole out punishments. 法律を作り、処罰を与える権利は、あなたが先王から継承しているわけですから。 They had better behave. 彼らだって(あなたの前では)いい子にしてないと怖いのです。 When you walk by, people fall to their knees and press their noses into the dirt.あなたが歩いて行くと、人々はひざまずいて、鼻を地面に埋め込むように押しつけます。 Some tremble when you pass―who knows what you might say to the gods the next time you speak to them? 震える者たちもいます——あなたが次に神々に話しかける時、何があなたの口から出てくるか、誰も知らないからです。 The crops grow because you say so. 穀物が育つのは、あなたがそう言うからです。 The Great River flows because you convince the gods it must.大いなる河が流れるのは、あなたが神々をそのように説き伏せるからです。 Now imagine wielding all that power when you are only six years old.さあ想像してみて下さい——あなたがわずか6歳でこうしたすべての権力を揮うところを。 That's how old you would be if you were the Pharaoh Pepi II in Egypt 4,000 years ago.それがまさに、もしあなたが4千年前のエジプトのペピ2世だったとしたら、あなたが何歳であったかという答えなのです。  If you were Pepi II, your kingdom would have looked a lot like the barren, red landscape of Mars if it weren't for one thing―the Great River, a river we now call the Nile. もしあなたがペピ2世だったとしたら、あなたの王国は、火星の不毛の赤茶けた国土にとてもよく似ていたでしょう。でも1つ違いがありました。あなたの王国には大いなる河——今、ナイルと呼ばれている河があります。 Flowing north, the Nile cuts through the desert, or the red land. ナイルは砂漠のような赤い大地を切り裂くように北に流れています。 Limestone cliffs rise above the river like castle walls. 石灰岩の崖が河の両岸に城壁のようにそびえています。 The ancient Egyptians said the gods put those cliffs there to protect them. 古代エジプト人は、神々が、彼らエジプト人を守るために、その崖を創ったと言っていました。 In fact, your entire kingdom is surrounded by natural barriers that protect it.実際、あなたの王国全体が、王国を守る自然の障壁に囲まれていました。 To the east and west, the desert keeps out invaders. 東と西には砂漠があり、侵入者を寄せ付けません。 To the north, before the Nile dumps into the sea, it branches out into a triangle of marshland we call the Delta (it would be hard for your enemies to march through a swamp). 北では、ナイルが海に注ぐ少し前のところで枝分かれし、今ではデルタ地帯と呼ばれている三角形の沼沢地を形成しています。(敵がこの沼地を行進するのは難しいでしょう。) And to the south the Nile protects your kingdom again, this time with a series of rocky rapids called the Cataracts.そして南では、ここでもまたナイルがあなたの王国を守ってくれています。今度は、瀑布と呼ばれる、岩盤を流れ落ちる幾つもの連続した急流によってです。

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関連するQ&A

  • 日本語訳を! 1-(2)

    お願いします。  Without the Nile you wouldn't have much of a kingdom to rule. Strutting might seem a bit silly. Egypt would be home to nothing more than a few wandering bands of nomads passing through the red land, dusty and dragging from the relentless heat, in search of the rare oasis. The Nile, however, the glorious Nile, brought a narrow band of life to Egypt. It carried rich, black dirt and spread it over the floodplains, creating fields for the Egyptians to plant their seeds. The Egyptians called it khemet―the black land. The change from red land to black land was so abrupt you could straddle the border, standing with one foot in red earth and the other in black.  The ancient Egyptians knew tha without the Great River they would have no villages, no fields of wheat, and no cattle. To them the water was sacred. They believed it flowed from paradise and could heal the sick. They wrote songs to the Nike―praising its life-giving force. The Hymn to the Nile began "Hail to thee O, Nile!" and praised the Great River for coming "to give life to Egypt." It may seem as if the ancients got carried away with their praise when they sang, "If you cease your toil and your work, then all that exists is in anguish." But if the Nile did "cease its toil," the people would starve. Maybe they weren't so carried away after all.

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  • 日本語訳を! 7-(2)

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  • 日本語訳を! 8-(3)

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  • 日本語訳を! 1-(5)

    お願いします。  Most Egyptians centered their lives around the Nile, but a few explored the countries surrounding Egypt. When Pepi II was nearly nine years old, he wrote to a man who had started his career when he was a young boy just like Pepi II. The man's name was Harkhuf. Harkhuf came from a family of explorers and had traveled with his father before making journeys on his own. Harkhuf led donkey caravans south across the desert to explore inner Africa. The details of Harkhuf's journeys are engraved just to the right of the entrance to his tomb located near the First Cataract of the Nile in Aswan. The long inscription begins high overhead on a chalkboard-sized area of the wall and continues down to waist level. Harkhuf begins his inscription with a little bragging about how he behaved in life. "I was excellent," he says, and goes on to tell of how his family loved and praised him. He writes about returning with 300 donkeys loaded with gifts for the Pharaoh. How would you like someone bringing you 300 donkeys loaded down with gifts, O Great One?  Clearly, Harkhuf is proud of a letter written to him by the boy-king Pepi II. The letter would have turned to dust long ago if Harkhuf hadn't been so honored by it that he carved it in stone. The letter from Pepi II is addressed to Harkhuf, calling him the chief of the desert rangers, the caravan conductor, and is dated:"Royal seal, year 2, third month of the first season, day 15." This shows us that Pepi II wrote to Harkhuf toward the end of the flood season in the second year of his reign, about 2276 BCE. The letter has tones of the royal-ness Pepi II must have been developing even at his young age, but it also shows that when you're only eight years old, it's hard to escape being a kid―even if you are a supreme ruler.