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Additionally, Germany and France have been the drivers of a more united Europe. That was the lofty ambition championed in the 1980s and 1990s by Germany's Helmut Kohl and France's Francois Mitterrand — continental Europe's dominant leaders of that era. They shared a common vision of using economic unity as a safeguard against another tragedy like the Second World War. But in this era where the global economy makes countries interdependent as never before, some have begun to question whether Europe needs such rigid economic ligatures to ensure that the continent never again plunges into war.

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その上、ドイツとフランスは、より統合されたヨーロッパの推進役でした。それは、その時代の大陸ヨーロッパの有力なリーダーであった、ドイツのヘルムート・コールとフランスのフランソア・ミッテランによって1980年代と1990年代に支持された非常に崇高な志でした。彼らは、第二次世界大戦のようなもう一つの悲劇に対する予防手段として経済統一を使うという共通の構想を分かち合っていました。 しかし、グローバル経済が、諸国を今までになく相互依存させているこの時代に、(ヨーロッパ)大陸が二度と戦争に突入しないことを確実にするためにその様な堅固な経済的きずなを必要とするのかどうか疑問を呈し始めた国々もあります。

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  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    The British military historian Correlli Barnett claimed that the Treaty of Versailles was "extremely lenient in comparison with the peace terms that Germany herself, when she was expecting to win the war, had had in mind to impose on the Allies". Furthermore, he claimed, it was "hardly a slap on the wrist" when contrasted with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that Germany had imposed on a defeated Russia in March 1918, which had taken away a third of Russia's population (albeit of non-Russian ethnicity), one-half of Russia's industrial undertakings and nine-tenths of Russia's coal mines, coupled with an indemnity of six billion marks. Eventually, even under the "cruel" terms of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany′s economy had been restored to its pre-war status. Barnett also claims that, in strategic terms, Germany was in fact in a superior position following the Treaty than she had been in 1914. Germany′s eastern frontiers faced Russia and Austria, who had both in the past balanced German power. Barnett asserts that its post-war eastern borders were safer, because the former Austrian Empire fractured after the war into smaller, weaker states, Russia was wracked by revolution and civil war, and the newly restored Poland was no match for even a defeated Germany. In the West, Germany was balanced only by France and Belgium, both of which were smaller in population and less economically vibrant than Germany. Barnett concludes by saying that instead of weakening Germany, the treaty "much enhanced" German power. Britain and France should have (according to Barnett) "divided and permanently weakened" Germany by undoing Bismarck's work and partitioning Germany into smaller, weaker states so it could never have disrupted the peace of Europe again. By failing to do this and therefore not solving the problem of German power and restoring the equilibrium of Europe, Britain "had failed in her main purpose in taking part in the Great War".The British historian of modern Germany, Richard J. Evans, wrote that during the war the German right was committed to an annexationist program which aimed at Germany annexing most of Europe and Africa. Consequently, any peace treaty that did not leave Germany as the conqueror would be unacceptable to them. Short of allowing Germany to keep all the conquests of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Evans argued that there was nothing that could have been done to persuade the German right to accept Versailles. Evans further noted that the parties of the Weimar Coalition, namely the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the social liberal German Democratic Party (DDP) and the Christian democratic Centre Party, were all equally opposed to Versailles, and it is false to claim as some historians have that opposition to Versailles also equalled opposition to the Weimar Republic.

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    As foreign minister Briand formulated an original proposal for a new economic union of Europe. Described as Briand's Locarno diplomacy and as an aspect of Franco-German rapprochement, it was his answer to Germany's quick economic recovery and future political power. Briand made his proposals in a speech in favor of a European Union in the League of Nations on 5 September 1929, and in 1930, in his "Memorandum on the Organization of a Regime of European Federal Union" for the Government of France. The idea was to provide a framework to contain France's former enemy while preserving as much of the 1919 Versailles settlement as possible. The Briand plan entailed the economic collaboration of the great industrial areas of Europe and the provision of political security to Eastern Europe against Soviet threats. The basis was economic cooperation, but his fundamental concept was political, for it was political power that would determine economic choices. The plan, under the Memorandum on the Organization of a System of European Federal Union, was in the end presented as a French initiative to the League of Nations. With the death of his principal supporter, German foreign minister Gustav Stresemann, and the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, Briand's plan was never adopted but it suggested an economic framework for developments after World War II that eventually resulted in the European Union.

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    Colonies and dependencies Main article: German colonial empire Europe Upon its founding in 1871, the German Empire controlled Alsace-Lorraine as an "imperial territory" incorporated from France after the Franco-Prussian War. It was held as part of Germany's sovereign territory. Africa Germany held multiple African colonies at the time of World War I. All of Germany's African colonies were invaded and occupied by Allied forces during the war. Cameroon, German East Africa, and German Southwest Africa were German colonies in Africa. Togoland was a German protectorate in Africa.

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    As for choosing the microcosm of my father's life and of my relations with my father, I want to state at the outset that no matter how personal and idiosyncratic our experience have been, they are also characteristic of an era. 父の人生と父との私の関係の小世界を選択することに関して、どんなに個人的に特有な経験をされてきたにしても、彼らはまた、時代の特徴であるというのを冒頭で述べたい。 正しい英文訳を教えてください have beenがどこの文章にかかっているかいまいち分かりません。 オススメの文法構文の参考書があれば教えてくださったら有難いです。

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