• ベストアンサー
※ ChatGPTを利用し、要約された質問です(原文:英文を和訳して下さい。)

Failed Attempt to Send Korean Delegation and the Impact on Korean Independence at the Paris Peace Conference

  • A failed attempt by the Korean National Association to send a delegation to the Paris Peace Conference had significant implications for Korean independence.
  • However, a delegation of Koreans from China and Hawaii managed to attend the conference, led by a representative from the Korean Provisional Government in Shanghai, Kim Kyu-sik.
  • Despite the support of some Chinese leaders, the Koreans were not taken seriously due to Korea's status as a Japanese colony, effectively ending the possibility of foreign support and recognition for Korean independence.


  • ベストアンサー
  • Nakay702
  • ベストアンサー率80% (9740/12121)

>After a failed attempt by the Korean National Association to send a three-man delegation to Paris, a delegation of Koreans from China and Hawaii did make it there. Included in this delegation, was a representative from the Korean Provisional Government in Shanghai, Kim Kyu-sik. They were aided by the Chinese, who were eager for the opportunity to embarrass Japan at the international forum. Several top Chinese leaders at the time, including Sun Yat-sen, told U.S. diplomats that the peace conference should take up the question of Korean independence. ⇒「韓国国家協会」がパリに3人の代表団を派遣しようとして失敗した後、中国やハワイからの韓国人代表団がそこに行った。この代表団には、上海の「韓国暫定政府」からの代表キム・キュ‐シク(金桂植?)が参加した。彼らは、国際フォーラム(公開討論)で日本を困惑させる機会を切望していた中国人の支援を受けた。ソン・ヤ‐セン(孫元山?)を含む当時の中国最高指導者たちは、米国の外交官に、平和会議は韓国の独立問題を取り上げるべきだと語った。 >Beyond that, however, the Chinese, locked in a struggle against the Japanese themselves, could do little for Korea. Apart from China, no nation took the Koreans seriously at the Paris conference because of its status as a Japanese colony. The failure of the Korean nationalists to gain support from the Paris Peace Conference ended the possibility of foreign support.  Following the Conference's decision to separate the former Arab provinces from the Ottoman Empire and to apply the newly conceived mandate-system to them, the Zionist Organization submitted their draft resolutions for consideration by the Peace Conference on 3 February 1919. ⇒しかしそれ以上に、中国人は日本人との闘いに縛られていたので、韓国のためにはほとんど何もできなかった。この中国を別にすれば、日本の植民地としての地位のため、パリ会議で韓国問題を真剣に取り上げた国はなかった。韓国の民族主義者が「パリ平和会議」からの支援を得ることに失敗したことで、外国からの支援の可能性は終った。  旧アラブ諸国をオスマン帝国から分離し、新たに構想された委任統治制度をそれに適用するという会議の決定に続いて、「シオニスト組織(体)」が1919年2月3日の「平和会議」で検討してもらうための決議案を提出した。 >Zionist state as claimed at the Paris Peace Conference  British memorandum on Palestine ahead of the Peace Conference  The statement included five main points:  Recognition of the Jewish people's historic title to Palestine and their right to reconstitute their National Home there.  The boundaries of Palestine were to be declared as set out in the attached Schedule  The sovereign possession of Palestine would be vested in the League of Nations and the Government entrusted to Great Britain as Mandatory of the League. ⇒「パリ平和会議」で主張されたシオニスト国家  「平和会議」に先立つ、パレスチナに関する英国の覚書  この声明には、以下のような、5つの主要条項が含まれていた。  パレスチナにユダヤ民族の歴史的称号と、彼らの「国家的本拠」を再構築する権利の認知。  パレスチナの境界は、添付のスケジュールに定めたとおり宣言されることとなった  パレスチナの主権所有は国際連盟に帰属し、その政府は連盟の委任統治国としての英国に委託されるものとする。 > Other provisions to be inserted by the High Contracting Parties relating to the application of any general conditions attached to mandates, which are suitable to the case in Palestine.  The mandate shall be subject also to several noted special conditions, including promotion of Jewish immigration and close settlement on the land and safeguarding rights of the present non-Jewish population  a Jewish Council representative for the development of the Jewish National Home in Palestine, and offer to the Council in priority any concession for public works or for the development of natural resources ⇒権益に付随する一切の一般的な条件の適用に関しては、「主席締約国」によって挿入されるその他の規定がパレスチナ問題に適合されるものとする。  この権益は、ユダヤ人の移民と土地への緊密な定着の促進、および現在の非ユダヤ人住民の保護の権利を含む、特記されたいくつかの特別条件にも従わなければならない  パレスチナにおける「ユダヤ国家の本拠」発展のため、「ユダヤ人評議会」の代表者(の選出を容認し)、公共事業または天然資源の開発のための優先権を評議会に与える






  • 和訳をお願いします。

    On 17 April 1964, The Times of London published excerpts from a secret memorandum that had been prepared by the Political Intelligence Department of the British Foreign Office for the British delegation to the Paris peace conference. The reference to Palestine said: "With regard to Palestine, H.M.G. are committed by Sir Henry McMahon's letter to the Sherif on October 24, 1915, to its inclusion in the boundaries of Arab independence ... but they have stated their policy regarding the Palestine Holy Place and Zionist colonization in their message to him of January 4, 1918." Another document, which was a draft statement for submission to the peace conference, but never submitted, noted: "The whole of Palestine ... lies within the limits which H.M.G. have pledged themselves to Sherif Husain that they will recognize and uphold the independence of the Arabs."

  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    The Conference opened on 18 January 1919. This date was symbolic, as it was the anniversary of the proclamation of William I as German Emperor in 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles, shortly before the end of the Siege of Paris - a day itself imbued with significance in its turn in Germany as the anniversary of the establishment of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. The Delegates from 27 nations (delegates representing 5 nationalities were for the most part ignored) were assigned to 52 commissions, which held 1,646 sessions to prepare reports, with the help of many experts, on topics ranging from prisoners of war to undersea cables, to international aviation, to responsibility for the war. Key recommendations were folded into the Treaty of Versailles with Germany, which had 15 chapters and 440 clauses, as well as treaties for the other defeated nations. The five major powers (France, Britain, Italy, the U.S., and Japan) controlled the Conference. Amongst the "Big Five", in practice Japan only sent a former prime minister and played a small role; and the "Big Four" leaders dominated the conference. The four met together informally 145 times and made all the major decisions, which in turn were ratified by other attendees. The open meetings of all the delegations approved the decisions made by the Big Four. The conference came to an end on 21 January 1920 with the inaugural General Assembly of the League of Nations. Five major peace treaties were prepared at the Paris Peace Conference (with, in parentheses, the affected countries): the Treaty of Versailles, 28 June 1919, (Germany) the Treaty of Saint-Germain, 10 September 1919, (Austria) the Treaty of Neuilly, 27 November 1919, (Bulgaria) the Treaty of Trianon, 4 June 1920, (Hungary) the Treaty of Sèvres, 10 August 1920; subsequently revised by the Treaty of Lausanne, 24 July 1923, (Ottoman Empire/Republic of Turkey). The major decisions were the establishment of the League of Nations; the five peace treaties with defeated enemies; the awarding of German and Ottoman overseas possessions as "mandates", chiefly to members of the British Empire and to France; reparations imposed on Germany, and the drawing of new national boundaries (sometimes with plebiscites) to better reflect the forces of nationalism. The main result was the Treaty of Versailles, with Germany, which in section 231 laid the guilt for the war on "the aggression of Germany and her allies". This provision proved humiliating for Germany and set the stage for very high reparations Germany was supposed to pay (it paid only a small portion before reparations ended in 1931)

  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    It was named the Dunsterforce. The military goal of Dunsterforce was to reach the Caucasus via Persia while the Persian Campaign was active. The British planned to organize an army to be recruited from the Armenians and other pro-Allied elements that still existed in the Caucasus. On 10 February 1918, the Sejm gathered and made the decision to establish independence. On 24 February 1918, the Sejm proclaimed the Transcaucasia as independent under the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. The Transcaucasian Commissariat was anti-Bolshevik in its political goals and sought the separation of Transcaucasia from Bolshevik Russia. On 27 January 1918, the British mission Dunsterforce set out from Baghdad with officers and instructors to the region. Dunsterforce was ordered to keep the Caucasus-Tabriz front intact and put a stop to Enver Pasha's plans. On 17 February, Dunsterforce arrived at Enzeli; here they were denied passage to Baku by local Bolsheviks, who cited the change in the political situation. On 3 March 1918, the Grand Vizier Talat Pasha signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Russian SFSR. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk stipulated that the border be pulled back to prewar levels and that the cities of Batum, Kars, and Ardahan be transferred to the Ottoman Empire. Between 14 March – April 1918, the Trabzon peace conference was held between the Ottoman Empire and the delegation of the Sejm. On 30 March 1918, the tenth day of Trabzon peace conference, the news of the internecine conflict & massacre of Azerbaijanis and other Muslims in Baku and adjacent areas of the Baku Governorate arrived. The following days witnessed the inter-ethnic warfare referred to as the March Days. It resulted in the massacre of up to 12,000 Azerbaijanis by the Bolsheviks and armed Dashnaks in the city of Baku and other locations in the Baku Governorate. While before the "March Days" Azerbaijani leaders claimed autonomy within Russia, after these events they demanded only independence and placed their hopes no longer in the Russian Revolution, but in support from Ottoman Empire. On 5 April 1918, Akaki Chkhenkeli of the Transcaucasian delegation to the Trabzon peace conference accepted the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk as a basis for more negotiations and wired the governing bodies urging them to accept this position. The mood prevailing in Tiflis (where the assembly located) was very different. Tiflis acknowledged the existence of a state of war between themselves and the Ottoman Empire.

  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    The Armistice was the result of a hurried and desperate process. The German delegation headed by Matthias Erzberger crossed the front line in five cars and was escorted for ten hours across the devastated war zone of Northern France, arriving on the morning of 8 November. They were then taken to the secret destination aboard Ferdinand Foch's private train parked in a railway siding in the forest of Compiègne. Foch appeared only twice in the three days of negotiations: on the first day, to ask the German delegation what they wanted, and on the last day, to see to the signatures. The Germans were handed the list of Allied demands and given 72 hours to agree. The German delegation discussed the Allied terms not with Foch, but with other French and Allied officers. The Armistice amounted to complete German demilitarization (see list below), with few promises made by the Allies in return. The naval blockade of Germany was not completely lifted until complete peace terms could be agreed upon. There was no question of negotiation. The Germans were able to correct a few impossible demands (for example, the decommissioning of more submarines than their fleet possessed), extended the schedule for the withdrawal and registered their formal protest at the harshness of Allied terms. But they were in no position to refuse to sign. On Sunday 10 November, they were shown newspapers from Paris to inform them that the Kaiser had abdicated. That same day, Ebert instructed Erzberger to sign. The cabinet had earlier received a message from Hindenburg, requesting that the armistice be signed even if the Allied conditions could not be improved on. The Armistice was agreed upon at 5:00 a.m. on 11 November, to come into effect at 11:00 a.m. Paris time (noon German time), for which reason the occasion is sometimes referred to as "the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month". Signatures were made between 5:12 a.m. and 5:20 a.m., Paris time. Allied Rhineland occupation Main article: Occupation of the Rhineland The occupation of the Rhineland took place following the Armistice. The occupying armies consisted of American, Belgian, British, and French forces. Prolongation The Armistice was prolonged three times before peace was finally ratified. During this period it was also developed. • First Armistice (11 November 1918 – 13 December 1918) • First prolongation of the armistice (13 December 1918 – 16 January 1919) • Second prolongation of the armistice (16 January 1919 – 16 February 1919) Trèves Agreement, 17 January 1919 • Third prolongation of the armistice (16 February 1919 – 10 January 1920) Brussels Agreement, 14 March 1919 Peace was ratified at 4:15 pm on 10 January 1920.

  • 英文翻訳をお願いします。

    From early 1919, Belgium engaged in a propaganda campaign to promote its vision of annexation. At the Paris Peace Conference, the Belgian delegation argued in favour of the international community allowing Belgium to annex Luxembourg. However, fearing loss of influence over the left bank of the Rhine, France rejected Belgium's overtures out of hand, thus guaranteeing Luxembourg's continued independence.

  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    The French Mandate was settled at the San Remo Conference. Comprising the region between the Euphrates River and the Syrian Desert on the east, and the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and extending from the Alma Dagh Mountains on the south to Egypt on the south; Area of territory about 60,000 sq mi (160,000 km2) with a population of about 3,000,000. Lebanon and an enlarged Syria, which were later assigned again under League of Nations Mandate. The region was divided under the French into four governments as follows: Government of Aleppo from the Euphrates region to the Mediterranean; Great Lebanon extending from Tripoli to Palestine; Damascus, including Damascus, Hama, Hems, and the Hauran; and the country of Mount Arisarieh. Faisal ibn Husayn, who had been proclaimed king of Syria by a Syrian National Congress in Damascus in March 1920, was ejected by the French in July of the same year. Kingdom of Hejaz The Kingdom of Hejaz was granted international recognition. Estimated area of 100,000 sq mi (260,000 km2), and population of about 750,000. The biggest cities were the Holy Places of Makka, with a population of 80,000, and Medina, with a population of 40,000. It had constituted the vilayet of Hejaz, but during the war became an independent kingdom under British influence. The terms of the Treaty of Sèvres were far more severe than those imposed on the German Empire by the Treaty of Versailles. France, Italy, and Great Britain had secretly begun the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire as early as 1915. The open negotiations covered a period of more than fifteen months, beginning at the Paris Peace Conference. They continued at the Conference of London, and took definite shape only after the premiers' meeting at the San Remo conference in April 1920. The delay occurred because the powers could not come to an agreement which, in turn, hinged on the outcome of the Turkish national movement. The Treaty of Sèvres was annulled in the course of the Turkish War of Independence, and the parties signed and ratified the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 and 1924. Not all signatories of the Treaty of Sèvres were parties to the Treaty of Lausanne, nor was there a valid international act of annulment of the Treaty of Sèvres. Therefore, the Treaty of Sèvres remains a valid instrument of international law, although the Lausanne signatories have chosen not to implement it. While the treaty was under discussion, the Turkish national movement under Mustafa Kemal Pasha split with the monarchy based in Constantinople, and set up a Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara in April 1920. On 18 October, the government of Damat Ferid Pasha was replaced by a provisional ministry under Ahmed Tevfik Pasha as Grand Vizier, who announced an intention to convoke the Senate with the purpose of ratification of the Treaty, provided that national unity were achieved. This required seeking for cooperation with Mustafa Kemal.

  • 英文の和訳で困っています 和訳を教えてください

    英文の和訳で困っています 和訳を教えていただきたいです よろしくお願いします!! In fact, Moscow’s readiness to take part in negotiations in Western capitals was minimal, even though the events in the GDR before 17 June were seen to reflect completely the Soviet intention of pressing for a Four Power conference on the German question. The actual losers were the weakest element in the game: the Germans behind the Iron Curtain and all those who had hoped for the restoration of Germans unity. The planned summit of the Big Three in 1953 was reduced to a conference of the three Western foreign ministers. He had been convinced that the West could negotiate with the Soviets based on a ‘position of strength’ in order to ward off the danger of an nuclear war.

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    The Treaty of Versailles (French: Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919 in Versailles, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand which directly led to World War I. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I signed separate treaties. Although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919. Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required "Germany [to] accept the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage" during the war (the other members of the Central Powers signed treaties containing similar articles). This article, Article 231, later became known as the War Guilt clause. The treaty required Germany to disarm, make ample territorial concessions, and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. In 1921 the total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion marks (then $31.4 billion or £6.6 billion, roughly equivalent to US $442 billion or UK £284 billion in 2018). At the time economists, notably John Maynard Keynes (a British delegate to the Paris Peace Conference), predicted that the treaty was too harsh—a "Carthaginian peace"—and said the reparations figure was excessive and counter-productive, views that, since then, have been the subject of ongoing debate by historians and economists from several countries. On the other hand, prominent figures on the Allied side such as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch criticized the treaty for treating Germany too leniently. The result of these competing and sometimes conflicting goals among the victors was a compromise that left no one content: Germany was neither pacified nor conciliated, nor was it permanently weakened. The problems that arose from the treaty would lead to the Locarno Treaties, which improved relations between Germany and the other European powers, and the re-negotiation of the reparation system resulting in the Dawes Plan, the Young Plan, and the indefinite postponement of reparations at the Lausanne Conference of 1932. Although it is often referred to as the "Versailles Conference", only the actual signing of the treaty took place at the historic palace. Most of the negotiations were in Paris, with the "Big Four" meetings taking place generally at the Quai d'Orsay.

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    Territorial claims The Japanese claim to Shantung was disputed by the Chinese. In 1914 at the outset of World War I Japan had seized the territory granted to Germany in 1897. They also seized the German islands in the Pacific north of the equator. In 1917, Japan had made secret agreements with Britain, France, and Italy that guaranteed their annexation of these territories. With Britain, there was a mutual agreement, Japan also agreeing to support British annexation of the Pacific islands south of the equator. Despite a generally pro-Chinese view on behalf of the American delegation, Article 156 of the Treaty of Versailles transferred German concessions in Jiaozhou Bay, China to Japan rather than returning sovereign authority to China. The leader of the Chinese delegation, Lou Tseng-Tsiang, demanded that a reservation be inserted before he would sign the treaty. The reservation was denied, and the treaty was signed by all the delegations except that of China. Chinese outrage over this provision led to demonstrations known as the May Fourth Movement. The Pacific islands north of the equator became a class C mandate administered by Japan.Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos took part in the Paris Peace Conference as Greece's chief representative. President Woodrow Wilson was said to have placed Venizelos first in point of personal ability among all delegates gathered in Paris to settle the terms of Peace. Venizelos proposed the Greek expansion on Thrace and Asia Minor (lands of the defeated Kingdom of Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire), Northern Epirus, Imvros and Tenedos, aiming to the realization of the Megali Idea. He also reached an agreement with the Italians on the cession of the Dodecanese (Venizelos–Tittoni agreement). For the Greeks of Pontus he proposed a common Pontic-Armenian State. As a liberal politician, Venizelos was a strong supporter of the Fourteen Points and of the League of Nations. Chinese approach The Chinese delegation was led by Lou Tseng-Tsiang, accompanied by Wellington Koo and Cao Rulin. Before the Western powers, Koo demanded that Germany's concessions on Shandong be returned to China. He further called for an end to imperialist institutions such as extraterritoriality, legation guards, and foreign leaseholds. Despite American support and the ostensible spirit of self-determination, the Western powers refused his claims, transferring the German concessions to Japan instead. This sparked widespread student protests in China on 4 May, later known as the May Fourth Movement, eventually pressuring the government into refusing to sign the Treaty of Versailles. Thus the Chinese delegation at the Paris Peace Conference was the only one not to sign the treaty at the signing ceremony.

  • 英文翻訳をお願いいたします。

    The greatest source of conflict was the 1917 Balfour Declaration, a letter from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour to Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, a leader of the British Jewish community, stating that: "His Majesty's government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object ..." Balfour wrote a memorandum from the 1919 Paris Peace Conference in which he noted that: " ... the literal fulfilment of all our [the Allies] declarations is impossible, partly because they are incompatible with each other and partly because they are incompatible with facts ..." Although, in his view, the Allies had implicitly rejected the Sykes–Picot agreement by adopting the system of League of Nations mandates, which allowed for no annexations, trade preferences, or other advantages, Balfour declared that: "The four Great Powers are committed to Zionism. And Zionism, be it right or wrong, good or bad, is rooted in age-long traditions, in present needs, in future hopes, of far profounder import than the desires and prejudices of the 700,000 Arabs who now inhabit that ancient land". Eighty-five years later, in a 2002 interview with New Statesman, British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw observed "A lot of the problems we are having to deal with now, I have to deal with now, are a consequence of our colonial past. ... The Balfour Declaration and the contradictory assurances which were being given to Palestinians in private at the same time as they were being given to the Israelis—again, an interesting history for us but not an entirely honourable one."