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第一次世界大戦におけるドイツの戦略転換と防御方法の効果

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  • 第三次イープルの戦いの終わりまでに、1917年に導入された防御方法の効果は低下し、西部での防御戦略の継続は不可能になりました。
  • ロシアの敗北により、ドイツの指導者には敗北を回避する最後の機会が与えられました。彼らは連合国の数的・産業的な優位性との競争ではなく、大西洋での経済戦争やヒンデンブルク計画、補助サービス法、軍からの熟練労働者の一時的な非徴兵など、国内の取り組みを通じて敗北を回避しようとしました。
  • 第一次世界大戦の戦傷者統計の正確性は議論があります。利用可能な戦傷データは、ウィンストン・チャーチルの『世界危機』(1923-29)に示される西部戦線の総計を示しており、直接的にヒンデンブルク線へのドイツの撤退や「通常の消耗」と見なされる損失を指していません。これらの損失は、特定の軍事作戦ではなく、西部戦線の存在そのものによって生じるものです。

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  • Nakay702
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回答No.1

>By the end of the Third Battle of Ypres in November 1917, the effectiveness of the methods of defence introduced in 1917 had been eroded and continuation of a defensive strategy in the west was made impossible. The defeat of Russia gave the German leadership a final opportunity to avoid defeat, rather than the attempts to compete with Allied numerical and industrial superiority, through economic warfare in the Atlantic and the domestic initiatives of the Hindenburg Programme, the Auxiliary Service Law and temporary demobilisation of skilled workers from the army. ⇒1917年11月の第3回「イープルの戦い」の終りまでに、1917年に導入された防御方法の有効性が侵食されて減衰し、西部戦線における防御戦略の継続は不可能になった。ロシア軍の敗北は、大西洋や国内で主導権を発揮していたヒンデンブルク計画に基づく経済戦争、「補助兵役法」、および方面軍からの熟練労働者の一時的な復員などを通じて、連合国軍と数的優勢や産業上の優勢を争う試み(もさることながら、それ)よりもむしろ、敗北を避けるための最終的な機会を、ドイツ軍指導部に与えたのである。 >The accuracy of Great War casualty statistics is disputed. Casualty data available refer to Western Front totals as shown in Winston Churchill's The World Crisis (1923–29) and do not refer directly to the German withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line (Siegfriedstellung) or losses which would be considered "normal wastage", occurring as a consequence of the existence of the Western Front, rather than to particular military operations. ⇒大戦における犠牲者統計の正確さについては、議論のあるところである。利用できる犠牲者データは、ウィンストン・チャーチルの「世界の危機」(1923–29年)に示されているように、西部戦線の合計(数値)を示しているが、ヒンデンブルク戦線(ジークフリート陣地)へのドイツ軍の撤退、あるいは「通常の浪費」と考えられる損失などについては、それらが特定の作戦行動によるというよりもむしろ西部戦線の存在の結果として起こったものなので、直接言及されてはいない。

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