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On 1 January, a German attack took Hope Post near Beaumont Hamel, which was lost to a British attack on 5 January. On the night of 10/11 January, a British attack captured the Triangle and Muck Trench, covering the flank of an attack on Munich Trench during the day; British troops edged forward over Redan Ridge for the rest of the month. A fall in temperature added to German difficulties, by freezing the mud in the Ancre valley, making it much easier for infantry to move. On 3 and 4 February, British attacks towards Puisieux and River trenches succeeded, despite German counter-attacks on 4 February. On 7 February, British attacks threatened the German hold on Grandcourt and Serre. Each small advance uncovered to British ground observers another part of the remaining German defences. A bigger British attack began on 17 February, to capture Hill 130 and gain observation over Miraumont and the German artillery positions behind Serre.

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>On 1 January, a German attack took Hope Post near Beaumont Hamel, which was lost to a British attack on 5 January. On the night of 10/11 January, a British attack captured the Triangle and Muck Trench, covering the flank of an attack on Munich Trench during the day; British troops edged forward over Redan Ridge for the rest of the month. ⇒1月1日に、ドイツ軍の攻撃はボーモント・ハーメル近くのホープ哨戒基地を奪取したが、1月5日に英国の攻撃で失った。1月10/11日の夜、英国軍の攻撃は「三角形とゴミ」塹壕を捕らえた。そして、11日の昼間にミュンヘン塹壕への(他国軍の)攻撃の側面を掩護した。英国軍は、その月の残りの間にレダン・リッジ(凸角堡)の前方にじりじり進んだ。 >A fall in temperature added to German difficulties, by freezing the mud in the Ancre valley, making it much easier for infantry to move. On 3 and 4 February, British attacks towards Puisieux and River trenches succeeded, despite German counter-attacks on 4 February. ⇒温度の低下は、アンクル渓谷の泥が凍ることによって、歩兵連隊の移動が非常に簡単となるので、ドイツ軍にとっては困難が増えた。2月3日と4日に、「ピュイズィエと川」塹壕に向かった英国の攻撃は、2月4日のドイツ軍の反撃にもかかわらず、成功した。 >On 7 February, British attacks threatened the German hold on Grandcourt and Serre. Each small advance uncovered to British ground observers another part of the remaining German defences. A bigger British attack began on 17 February, to capture Hill 130 and gain observation over Miraumont and the German artillery positions behind Serre. ⇒2月7日、英国軍の攻撃はグランクールとセーレのドイツ軍占拠地を脅かした。各々の小さな前進の都度、英国軍の地上監視員がドイツ防衛隊の残りの分隊を見つけた。英国軍のより大きな攻撃が2月17日に始まって、130番ヒルを攻略したことで、ミローモンとセーレ背後のドイツ軍の砲兵隊陣地に対する観察地点を獲得した。

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  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The last part of Puisieux Trench was captured in the morning at 11:30 a.m., with 671 British casualties and 176 German prisoners taken. Grandcourt on the south bank of the Ancre, had been made untenable and was abandoned by the Germans overnight, which led the British to bring forward an attack on Baillescourt Farm, late on 7 February by the 63rd Division. The division captured the farm and south of Grandcourt, part of Folly Trench was taken by the 18th Division. On 10 February the 32nd Division threatened Serre with an advance of 600 yards (550 m), capturing the rest of Ten Tree Alley east of the road from Beaumont to Serre. The temperature was still below freezing but slightly warmer than earlier, which made movement relatively easy for the 97th Brigade battalions, which attacked on a front of 1,100 yards (1,000 m).

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    British attacks in January 1917, had taken place against exhausted German troops holding poor defensive positions left over from the fighting in 1916; some troops had low morale and showed an unusual willingness to surrender. The army group commander Generalfeldmarschall Crown Prince Rupprecht, advocated a withdrawal to the Siegfriedstellung on 28 January, which was initially refused but then authorised on 4 February and the first "Alberich day" was set for 9 February. The British attacks in the Actions of Miraumont from 17–18 February and anticipation of further attacks, led Rupprecht on 18 March to order a withdrawal of about 3 miles (4.8 km) on a 15-mile (24 km) front of the 1st Army to the R. I Stellung, from Essarts to Le Transloy on 22 February. The withdrawal caused some surprise to the British, despite the interception of wireless messages from 20–21 February.

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    German bombardments continued during the night of 4/5 March, before an attack on the British right flank, which captured a trench block and about 100 yards (91 m) of Fritz Trench to the north, before a local counter-attack recovered the recaptured ground. German artillery-fire continued all day and at 7:30 p.m., German infantry seen massing on the right flank, were dispersed by SOS artillery and machine-gun barrages before they could attack; German bombardments continued on 6 March, before slowly diminishing. The operation cost the British 1,137 casualties, 217 German prisoners and seven machine-guns were captured and "exceedingly heavy" German casualties inflicted, according to surveys of the vicinity, after the German withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line (Siegfriedstellung).

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    Total British losses from January to March 1917 in France were given as 67,217, French losses given were 108,000 and German losses were 65,381. The first attack of the Nivelle Offensive by the British First and Third armies came at Arras, north of the Hindenburg Line on 9 April and inflicted a substantial defeat on the German 6th Army, which occupied obsolete defences on forward slopes. Vimy Ridge was captured and further south, the greatest depth of advance since trench-warfare began was achieved, surpassing the success of the French Sixth Army on 1 July 1916. German reinforcements were able to stabilise the front line, using both of the defensive methods endorsed in the new German training manual and the British continued the offensive, despite the difficulties of ground and German defensive tactics, in support of the French offensives further south and then to keep German troops in the area while the Messines Ridge attack was being prepared. German casualties were c. 85,000, against British losses of 117,066 for the Third and First armies.

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    The second German withdrawal on 11 March, took place during the British bombardment preparatory to an attack and was not noticed until the night of 12 March, when British patrols found the line empty between Bapaume and Achiet le Petit and strongly held on either flank. A British attack on Bucquoy at the north end of R. I Stellung on the night of 13/14 March was a costly failure. German withdrawals on the Ancre spread south, beginning with a retirement from the salient around St Pierre Vaast Wood. On 16 March, the main German withdrawal to the Siegfriedstellung began. The retirement was conducted in a slow and deliberate manner, through a series of defensive lines over 25 miles (40 km) at the deepest point, behind rear-guards, local counter-attacks and the demolitions of the Alberich plan.

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    As a preliminary to capturing the Loupart Wood line (another British term for R. I Stellung), Gough intended the Fifth Army to continue the process of small advances in the Ancre valley, by attacking Hill 130, the Butte de Warlencourt, Gueudecourt, Serre and Miraumont, before attacking the Loupart Wood line three days before the Third Army offensive at Arras. The capture of Hill 130, would command the southern approach to Miraumont and Pys, exposing German artillery positions behind Serre to ground observation, while attacks on the north bank took ground overlooking Miraumont from the west, possibly inducing the Germans to withdraw voluntarily and uncover Serre. II Corps planned to attack on 17 February with the 2nd, 18th and 63rd divisions, on a 3,000-yard (2,700 m) front.

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    Three divisions attacked after a three-day artillery bombardment using the new fuze 106. A thaw set in on 16 February, which with the Germans alerted to the attack by a deserter, led to the attack on the south bank advancing only 1,000 yards (910 m) at most and to the capture Boom Ravine (Baum Mulde). The attack on the north bank, to gain observation over Miraumont from the west, succeeded despite the weather and the Germans being forewarned. On the Fourth Army front, fewer attacks took place while the French line was being taken over in stages, southwards to the Amiens–Roye road. On 27 January, the 29th Division took 368 prisoners in an advance of only 400 yards (370 m) and on 1 February, an Australian attack on Stormy Trench was repulsed by a German counter-attack. A second attack on 4 February succeeded. On 8 February, a battalion of the 17th Division took a trench overlooking Saillisel and held it, despite German counter-attacks that continued on 9 February.

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