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As the Canadians began preparations for an assault, the Germans were in the process of executing an assault plan of their own. The XIII (Royal Württemberg) Corps spent six weeks planning and carefully preparing their attack on the Mount Sorrel, Tor Top (Hill 62) and Hill 61 peaks. Their objective was to take control of the observation positions east of Ypres and keep as many British units as possible pinned down in the area, to avoid them transferring to the Somme front and assisting with the observed build-up in that area. The Germans constructed practice trenches resembling the Canadian positions near Tor Top to rehearse the assault, well behind their own lines. Destroyed dugouts and shelters. Prior to the war, most of the terrain here was heavily wooded. In mid-May, aerial reconnaissance near Mont Sorrel indicated that German forces were preparing an attack.


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>As the Canadians began preparations for an assault, the Germans were in the process of executing an assault plan of their own. The XIII (Royal Württemberg) Corps spent six weeks planning and carefully preparing their attack on the Mount Sorrel, Tor Top (Hill 62) and Hill 61 peaks. ⇒カナダ軍が襲撃の準備を開始したとき、ドイツ軍は自らの襲撃計画を実行するところであった。第XIII(ロイヤル・ヴルテンブルク)軍団はソレル山、トル・トップ(ヒル62)およびヒル61への攻撃を計画して、慎重に準備することに6週間を費やしたのである。 >Their objective was to take control of the observation positions east of Ypres and keep as many British units as possible pinned down in the area, to avoid them transferring to the Somme front and assisting with the observed build-up in that area. ⇒彼らドイツ軍の目的は、イープル東の観察陣地の支配権を取ることであり、英国軍がソンム前線に移ってその地域で増強の手助けをするのを避けるために、できるだけ多くの英国軍部隊をその地域に釘付けにすることであった。 >The Germans constructed practice trenches resembling the Canadian positions near Tor Top to rehearse the assault, well behind their own lines. Destroyed dugouts and shelters. Prior to the war, most of the terrain here was heavily wooded. In mid-May, aerial reconnaissance near Mont Sorrel indicated that German forces were preparing an attack. ⇒ドイツ軍は、彼ら自身の戦線の陰にうまく隠れて襲撃を演習するためにトル・トップ近くのカナダ陣地に似た戦闘)実行用塹壕を造った。待避壕と避難所は破壊した。戦争の前、この地形の大部分は、かなり樹木が茂っていたのである。5月中旬に、ソレル山の近くの航空偵察調査隊が、ドイツ軍隊が攻撃を準備しているところであることを示した。





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    The operation was intended to engage as many German formations as possible and to prevent them from reinforcing the Ypres sector during the Third Battle of Ypres. Command of the Canadian Corps had only recently changed. A month earlier, Canadian Corps commander Julian Byng was promoted to General and replaced General Edmund Allenby as commander of the Third Army. Arthur Currie, the 1st Canadian Division commander, was promoted to Lieutenant-General and assumed command of the Canadian Corps. Currie regarded control of either Hill 70 or Sallaumines Hill as tactically more important than control of the city of Lens. Merely to occupy the city while the Germans held the high ground, would place the attackers in an unfavourably lower and more exposed position than the ones they occupied. At a conference of corps commanders, Currie persuaded the First Army commander General Henry Horne to make Hill 70, not Lens, the main objective of the limited offensive. Controlling Hill 70 would provide excellent observation over the German lines, in preparation for more offensives. Currie believed the Germans would attempt to counter-attack if Hill 70 were captured, largely because of its observational importance. Nevertheless, Currie believed that the advantageous observational position of Hill 70 would permit well directed artillery to effectively deal with any counter-attacks. The plan was therefore to occupy the high ground quickly, establish defensive positions and utilize combined small arms and artillery fire to repel expected counter-attacks and inflict as many casualties as possible. In an attempt to further deceive the Germans, minor operations were conducted in an effort to suggest a forthcoming attack by the British First Army south of La Bassée Canal. This included an attack by the 9th Canadian Brigade against units of the German 36th Reserve Division at Mericourt Trench and a British First Army poison gas attack north of Loos, both in late July 1917. Bad weather led to the postponement of the attack on Hill 70 from late July until mid-August.

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    After their partial defeat in the Christmas battles, the German 8th Army organized a counterattack to conquer back their lost positions. The Germans received strong reinforcements and many fresh divisions were stationed in Jelgava. In the early morning of 23 January a massive artillery barrage started, which was soon followed by an infantry attack along the whole battle line. The main German forces consisted of the 1st. Reserve division (1. Reserve-Division) and 2nd Infantry Division (2. Infanterie-Division). They attacked across Tirelis swamp against the Latvian and Russian positions. Latvian rifleman and Siberians desperately defended their positions for three days.

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    The Germans ordered a retreat on 20 July and were forced back to the positions from which they had started their Spring Offensives. They strengthened their flank positions opposite the Allied pincers and on the 22nd, Ludendorff ordered to take up a line from the upper Ourcq to Marfaux. Costly Allied assaults continued for minimal gains. By 27 July, the Germans had withdrawn their center behind Fère-en-Tardenois and had completed an alternative rail link. The Germans retained Soissons in the west. On 1 August, French and British divisions of Mangin's Tenth Army renewed the attack, advancing to a depth of nearly 5 miles (8.0 km). The Allied counterattack petered out on 6 August in the face of German offensives. By this stage, the salient had been reduced and the Germans had been forced back to a line running along the Aisne and Vesle Rivers; the front had been shortened by 28 miles (45 km).The Second Battle of the Marne was an important victory. Ferdinand Foch received the baton of a Marshal of France. The Allies had taken 29,367 prisoners, 793 guns and 3,000 machine guns and inflicted 168,000 casualties on the Germans. The primary importance of the battle was its morale aspect: the strategic gains on the Marne marked the end of a string of German victories and the beginning of a series of Allied victories that would in three months end the war. The Battle of Château-Thierry was fought on July 18, 1918 and was one of the first actions of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) under General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing. It was a battle in World War I as part of the Second Battle of the Marne, initially prompted by a German offensive launched on 15 July against the AEF, an expeditionary force consisting of troops from both the Army and Marine Corps, and the newest troops on the front. On the morning of 18 July 1918, the French (some of them colonial) and American forces between Fontenoy and Château-Thierry launched a counter-assault under the overall direction of Allied généralissime Ferdinand Foch against the German positions. This assault on a 40 km (25 mi) wide front was the first in over a year. The American army played a role fighting for the regions around Soissons and Château-Thierry, in collaboration with predominantly French forces. The allied forces had managed to keep their plans a secret, and their attack at 04:45 took the Germans by surprise when the troops went "Over the Top" without a preparatory artillery bombardment, but instead followed closely behind a rolling barrage which began with great synchronized precision. Château-Thierry シャトー=ティエリ

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    Battle of Doiran (1916) In the beginning of August 1916 three French and one British divisions with 45,000 men and 400 guns launched an offensive against the Bulgarian positions at Lake Dojran, defended by the Second Thracian Infantry Division. The attack began on 9 August with heavy artillery fire on the positions of the 27th Chepino Regiment and 9th Plovdiv Regiment. All four attacks that followed - on 10, 15, 16 and 18 August were repulsed by the Second division and the Allies were forced to retreat to their original positions with heavy casualties.Other sources state that the French took Tortoise Hill (Tortue) and Doldzeli, in total 30 square km, but at a very high cost. The British 7th Battalion of the Oxfordshire & Buckinghamshire Light Infantry took Horseshoe Hill.

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    As they made their way down a thick mist fell, causing a group to become disoriented and wander away from the main detachment. When the fog rose, Captain Fox's soldiers saw counter-attacking German troops in the distance wearing red fezzes, and, mistaking them for the similarly-uniformed French troops who had gone astray, did not initially engage them. The German force overwhelmed the British, killing three, including a doctor, capturing one, and forcing the rest to retreat back to Sava. The Germans lost one African soldier in this encounter. After returning from their first attack on the German positions, the British began building defenses on a hill near Sava, closer to Mora mountain, and Captain Fox requested that artillery be brought up from Nigeria. At this time, the small French force under Captain Ferrandi returned to Fort Lamy in French Equatorial Africa. The Allied attack having made them aware of the vulnerabilities of their position on the slopes of the mountain, the Germans relocated to the summit in early September. A German force at Fort Kusseri, under Lieutenant Kallmeyer, withdrew to Mora in late September, further strengthening von Raben's defences. Around 300 French troops under Lieutenant Colonel Brisett were also freed up after the Battle of Kusseri, and joined the British force at Mora, occupying several hills around the mountain. By late October 1914 the Allies had machine guns and artillery in position. The Germans prepared for the imminent siege by sending scavenging parties to gather as much food as possible, in which they were quite successful. On 29 October, Allied artillery began to pound the German positions while machine guns fired at the Schutztruppen. Two days later a French Senegalese unit attempted to storm the German positions atop the mountain, and was almost completely destroyed. Further waves of French troops continued to charge up the slopes, and were also cut down. One result of this action was that German troops were able to seize supplies from the Allied dead, including ammunition and even machine guns. A short truce ensued for the purpose of burying those who had died in the attacks. On 4 November, artillery bombarded German forward positions on the north side of Mora. A French infantry attack followed, which resulted in the death of two German officers and three soldiers, and the Allied occupation of the outpost. The remainder of the German force withdrew, but fighting continued throughout the night, until German forces under the command of an African sergeant stormed and retook the position.

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    The Battle of Mont Sorrel (Battle of Mount Sorrel, Battle of Hill 62) was a local operation in World War I by three divisions of the British Second Army and three divisions of the German Fourth Army in the Ypres Salient, near Ypres, Belgium, from 2 to 14 June 1916. In an effort to pull British resources from the observed build-up in the Somme, the XIII (Royal Württemberg) Corps and the 117th Infantry Division attacked an arc of high ground positions, defended by the Canadian Corps. The German forces initially captured the heights at Mount Sorrel and Tor Top before entrenching on the far slope of the ridge. Following a number attacks and counterattacks, two divisions of the Canadian Corps, supported by the 20th Light Division and Second Army siege and howitzer battery groups, recaptured the majority of their former positions.

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    200 troops were stationed around the town, 1,000 were kept as a mobile reserve to the west while another 1,000 were kept in reserve on the other side of a mountain. On 7 September 1916, the 3rd Infantry Division conducted a frontal assault on the defensive positions of the Schutztruppen. German Field Artillery and 4.1 inch (100 mm) guns, salvaged from the SMS Koenigsberg, blasted the South African formations. The 1st Mounted Brigade attempted to maneuver around the flank and prepared to assault on the German positions. However, the treacherous terrain, and loss of the radio linking them to 3rd Infantry Division, caused them to arrive on 8 September.

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    In early 1916, the Germans had more and better equipment for trench warfare, with good quality hand grenades, rifle grenades and trench mortars; the Germans made more effort to repair and improve defences and with a homogeneous army, found it easier to move artillery, ammunition and men along the front. A substantial cadre of the pre-war trained officers and conscripts remained, to lead the wartime recruits. British tunnellers achieved a superiority over their German equivalents but in ground operations, the number of operational machine-guns and the volume and accuracy of artillery fire, had more effect than individual skill and bravery; the quantity of heavy guns often determined the course of engagements. The success of a local attack left the victors vulnerable to a counter-attack and captured positions were often more costly to hold, than the previous positions.

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    Civilians, including children, aided in the effort as well, as "Carts drawn by oxen, water buffalo, and cows jammed the roads bringing food, provisions, ammunition, and volunteers from the vicinity" of Yerevan. Acting under Minister of War Enver Pasha's request, Miralay (Colonel) Kâzım Karabekir Bey's I Caucasian Corps and Mirliva Yakub Shevki Pasha's II Caucasian Corps put into action in the direction of Karakilisa (modern-day Vanadzor), Sardarabad, Tiflis (modern-day Tbilisi) and Yerevan on 20 May. While Karakilisa was selected as their main target, Tiflis and Yerevan were to be kept under pressure. The operations of the southern flank were given to the I Caucasian Corps and the task of capturing Karakilisa was given to the II Caucasian Corps. The Ottoman force reached Karakilisa on May 20 without resistance. Only a single combat action took place near the village of Karzakh. The detachment commanded by Zihni Bey, that advanced forward in Sardarabad area, reached the station of Alagöz (modern-day Aragats) and line of Mahtaka. On May 21, the detachment of Zihni Bey defeated an Armenian unit composed of 600 infantry and 250 cavalry, and then took Sardarabad. From there, their forces started advancing toward Yeghegnut. Armenian general Movses Silikyan ordered elements of the 5th Armenian Regiment under Poghos Bek-Pirumyan, a reserve guerrilla unit, and a special cavalry regiment to check the advance of the Ottoman army. An offensive was launched on May 22 and the Armenian forces were successful in halting the Ottomans in their tracks and forcing Yakub Shevki Pasha's forces into a general rout (retreating nearly 15-20 kilometers in a westerly direction). The Ottoman command, however, was able to recuperate from its losses and reorganized its forces near the mountain heights on the north-west bank of the Araks river. Repeated attempts to cross the river were met with fierce resistance by the 5th Armenian Regiment. On May 24, several more skirmishes took place between the Armenian and Ottoman forces. However, attempts to dislodge the Ottomans from their well-entrenched positions the following day by Poghos Bek-Pirumyan's and other commanders' forces were met with failure. On May 27, an Armenian force commanded by Colonel Karapet Hasan-Pashayan performed a flanking maneuver and struck the Ottoman positions from the rear while the rest of the Armenian forces pounded the main Ottoman positions.

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    The German force moving up the Reutelbeek valley into the area of the 23rd and 1st Australian divisions, was watched by the infantry for an hour, when at 7:02 p.m. a field artillery and machine-gun barrage fell on the Germans for an hour, stopping all movement towards the British positions, The 16th Bavarian Division was a high quality formation, but all the skill and dash in the world stood no chance in the face of the torrent of fire the British artillery could bring to bear at the critical points. — Sheldon a similar barrage for forty minutes in front of the 2nd Australian Division, on a regiment of the 236th Division advancing from Molenaarelsthoek and downhill from Broodseinde, stopped the counter-attack long before it came within range of the Australian infantry. On the southern edge of the plateau, German troops dribbling forward in the 39th Division area, managed to reinforce the garrison at Tower Hamlets, then tried twice to advance to the Bassevillebeek and were "smashed" by artillery and machine-gun fire. In the Fifth Army area, from 800 yd (730 m) south of the Ypres–Roulers railway, north to the Ypres–Staden railway, many Germans were seen moving west down Passchendaele ridge around 5:30 p.m., into the area held by the 55th, 58th and 51st divisions. In the 58th Division area, fire was opened on the Germans after half an hour, which forced the Germans to deploy into open order. When the Germans were 150 yd (140 m) from the first British strong point, the British defensive barrage arrived with such force that the German infantry "stampeded". No Germans were seen in the area until night, when patrols occupied an outpost. On the 55th Division front, "an extraordinarily gallant" German counter-attack by Reserve Infantry Regiment 459 (236th Division) from Gravenstafel, on Hill 37, through the positions of Reserve Infantry Regiment 91, was stopped by artillery and enfilade fire by machine-guns at Keir Farm and Schuler Galleries. A German attack down Poelcappelle spur at 5:30 p.m. towards the 51st Division, had much better artillery support and although stopped in the area of the Lekkerboterbeek by 7:00 p.m., pushed the British left back to Pheasant trench in the Wilhemstellung, before the British counter-attacked and pushed the Germans back to the line of the first objective, 600 yd (550 m) short of the final objective.