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People living in affluent societies today swim in a sea of redundant calories. Food is everywhere, and it is relatively inexpensive, accounting for about 10 percent of Americans' disposable income on average, Dr. Nestle said in an interview. "People who pay attention to calorie labels on menus are shocked, for example, to discover that a single cookie contains 700 calories," Dr. Nestle said. "You may want that cookie, but then you can't eat anything else. Cookies didn't used to be this big." The human body has a very complex and redundant system to make sure the brain gets the sugar calories it needs to function, Dr. Nestle and Dr. Nesheim explain in their book. At least 100 different hormones, enzymes and other chemicals - with more likely to be discovered - act to regulate appetite and to assure that people eat enough to maintain brain function. But it is these very systems that go into overdrive during starvation (translation: a reduced-calorie diet), making it so difficult for people to lose weight. As seductive as the current food environment is, it is still easier not to gain excess weight in the first place. Most people seriously underestimate how much they eat.


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今日の豊かな社会で暮らす人々は、過剰なカロリーの海で泳いでいる様なものです。食物は、到る所にあり、比較的安価なので、アメリカ人の可処分所得の平均して約10パーセントを食費が占めています。 「たとえば、メニューのカロリー表示に注意を払う人々は、たった1枚のクッキーが、700カロリーも含んでいることを知ってショックを受けます。」と、ネスレ博士は、語りました、「そのクッキーを食べたいかもしれませんが、そうすると、あなたは、他には何も食べられません。クッキーは、以前はこんなに大きくなかったのです。」 脳が機能するために必要な糖分から得られるカロリーを確実に脳が摂取できるようにするために、人体はとても複雑で過剰なシステムを備えているのですと、ネスレ博士とネサイム博士はその著書の中で解説しています。少なくとも100の異なるホルモン、酵素、その他の化学物質が、― さらに発見されそうなより多くの物質と共に ― 食欲を整え、人々が、脳の機能を維持するのに十分な食事をしていることを確かめるために働いています。 しかし、空腹(言いかえれば:カロリーを減らしたダイエット)の期間中に猛烈に働きだし、人々が、体重を減らすのをとても困難にするのは、正にこうしたシステムなのです。 現在の食物環境は魅惑的ですが、そもそも過度に体重を増やさない様にするほうがずっと楽です。ほとんどの人々は、自分がどれほど食べているかを深刻なほど過小評価しているのです。



  • 英文の和訳です。

    できるだけ、意訳を避けて訳していただけると助かります。 知らない化学物質の名前などが多く、難しく感じました。あと、人の名前もよく分かりません… スペルのチェックはしましたが、もしも間違っていましたらすみません。 お願いします。  Dr.Michael Liebowitz has found that love is not that spontaneous, mysterious feeling, but is the result of chemical reactions.  Scientists still do not know very much about the chemistry of human emotions; however, they have known for some time that specific chemicals are the cause of feelings and emotions.  Working at New York State Psychiatric Institute, Dr.Liebowitz has identified the chemical that transfers the feeling of love to the brain. This “love chemical” has the formal name phenylethylamine and is a member of the amphetamine family. Amphetamine are chemicals that cause adrenaline to be produced in the body. When your body produces adrenaline you will breathe faster and will feel your heart beat faster. Also, your face may get red and your hands may shake. In other words, you will be acting as if you are in the first stage of falling in love.  In addition, Dr. Liebowitz has found another connection between love and the “love chemical” phenylethylamine. This connection is chocolate, which contains large amounts of the chemical. When observing parents who tended to fall in and out of love rather more often than the average person, he noticed that when a romance ended, these people tended to eat chocolates. Dr. Liebowitz concluded that brokenhearted people, without actually realizing it, eat chocolates to get a similar feeling of being “in love”. So he or she eats chocolates to increase the body´s level of the love chemical. (Could it be that when we give our loved ones chocolates, we unconsciously expect to increase their levels of the “love chemical”, and consequently their feelings of love?)  It has also been found that love is based in the brain, not in the heart. Dr. J. Money, of John Hopkins University, has found that people who have had certain kinds of brain operations are incapable of experiencing romantic love, although they can experience other emotions. Dr. Money thinks that the day will come when we will be able to fully explain the chemistry of love. 以上です。

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします。

    Americans are having a passionate love affair with something they cannot see, hear, feel, touch or taste. That something is calories, billions upon billions of which are consumed every day, often unwittingly, at and between meals. Certainly calories are talked about constantly, and information about them appears with increasing frequency on food labels, menus, recipes and Web sites. But few people understand what they are and how they work - especially how they have worked to create a population in which 64 percent of adults and a third of children are overweight or obese, or how they thwart the efforts of so many people to shed those unwanted pounds and keep them off once and for all. Enter two experts: Marion Nestle, a professor of nutrition, food studies and public health at New York University; and Malden Nesheim, professor emeritus of nutritional sciences at Cornell University. Together they have written a new book, "Why Calories Count: From Science to Politics," to be published April 1, which explains what calories are, where they come from, how different sources affect the body, and why it is so easy to consume more of them than most people need to achieve and maintain a healthy weight.

  • 英文和訳です

    Neurologists such as Dr. Agnes Floel investigate diseases that attack the nervous system. Research into protecting the brain, the spinal cord, and the network of nerves that communicate sensations throughout the body is especially important these days because people are living longer than ever before. Degeneration of nervous system functions greatly affects the quality of life of patients. Dr. Floel and her team thus decided to investigate claims that a limited-calorie diet might protect against the degeneration of nerves or the loss of memory. Animal studies showed promising results, so Dr. Floel’s team recruited volunteers to participate in a human study. One group kept eating as normal ; another group ate more foods that are supposed to be good at protecting the nervous system ; the final group followed a restricted diet. After 3 months, the individuals in each group were tested. Those in the restricted diet group scored best in the memory tests. Perhaps the most exciting part of the study is that the effect found in the animal studies translated to the human trial. To be sure, there is no guarantee that further studies will show the same results, and it is still not clear exactly how or why a restricted diet may be beneficial. What is clear is that further research is warranted. 長くてすみませんがよろしくお願いします^^;

  • 英文和訳

    so intimate is the relation between a language and the people who speak it that the two can scarcely be thought of apart. A language lives only so long as there are people who speak it and use it as native tongue, and its greatness is only that given to it by these people. 質問部分 最後の部分greatness is only that given to it by these people.のitがなにを示しているのかがわかりません。 ちなみに参考書の和訳にはこういった人々によって与えられる偉大さにほかならない。と書かれています。 よろしくお願いします

  • この英文を和訳してほしいです。

    Senescence, according to the dictionary, simply means the process or condition of "growing old". However, to biologists and psychologists it connotes "those manifestations in structure and function of a declining or deteriorating nature which take place during the period of life when the mortality rate of a population is accelerated". It also implies progressive and irreversible deterioration. Thus, the connotations are entirely negative. It ignores all the recovery, restoration, growth, development, and improvement of abilities that are possible as humans age. The assumption that senescence or deterioration is all there is to human aging is a negative from of ageism. On the other hand, to deny the senescence or declines in function that usually accompany aging is a positive from of ageism. Senility is defined as "the physical and mental infirmity of old age. It is not actually a medical or scientific term, but it is often used by doctors and laypeople alike to "explain" the behavior and condition of older people. Many of the reactive emotional responses of older people, such as depression, grief, and anxiety, are labeled senility and mistakenly considered to be irreversible and untreatable. This is another form of ageism. Actual brain damage from cerebral arteriosclerosis or Alzheimer's disease probably accounts for only about half of the mental disorders in old age. Only 5 to 10 percent of those over 65 have mental disorders severe enough to interfere with normal function.

  • 和訳

    和訳例をお願いします。 ・If you set heart and mind on a goal, no wall is too high, no dream impossible. ・When asked how long it will take for the world population to double , many people may say 20 years or less. Yet forecast by the United Nations and others show that world population, currently a little over six billion, is unlikely to double forever. ・These days many people are trying to lose weight. Dieting helps, but there is some evidence that cutting calories alone is not the best way to become, and stay, slimmer. A study found that overweight people on low-fat diets who increased or changed their regular daily activitiesーby choosing stairs over the elevator, for exampleーwere better able to maintain weight lose than those in a tough physical program.

  • 英文和訳です

    Dr. Frank Guenther is a cognitive neuroscientist who studies speech production, speech perception, and sensory-motor control. He and his team helped a completely paralyzed but conscious patient communicate with the use of brain sensors. First, the researchers watched the patient’s brain activity by using functional MRI (fMRI) as he tried to say certain vowels. Next, they implanted an electrode into the part of the man’s brain that deals with speech production. The electrode can sense brain activity very quickly and transmit it instantaneously to a machine that can show which vowels the patient is thinking about. After more vowels and consonants are added to the list of understood letters, it is hoped that the patient will be able to communicate whole words to the researchers. Other projects have used electrodes to allow a paralyzed person to move a robotic arm, but this is the first project to have a specifically designed brain-computer interface for speech. A future patient may have additional electrodes implanted so that more information can be transmitted from the speech-production area of the brain to the researchers, leading to deeper communication. よろしくお願いします^^;

  • 英文の和訳をお願いしたいです

    Now that Congress and the President have shown their true colors to the American people and free citizens around the world, it is our civic duty to expose and resist this descent into lawless tyranny that not only keeps the American people from having the basic right to know what’s in our food, but also prevents open and independent scientific studies to be conducted on patented GMOs crops.

  • 英文の和訳お願いします

    Monsanto’s unchecked power is corrosive to the health of our democracy, our wellbeing and our planet and it must be stopped. As free citizens, it is our right and our duty to protest their unlawful encroachment into the most basic and fundamental aspect of our lives, the food that we eat and the laws that govern our lives.

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします。

    Our need to affiliate - to feel connected and identified with others - boosted our ancestors' chances for survival, which may explain why humans in every society live in groups. When ostracized (excluded or shunned by others), people suffer from stress and depression - a real pain that increases activity in the same brain areas that respond to physical pain. Those who are socially secure in their friendships, families, or marriages tend to be healthier and to have lower levels of depression, suicide, and early death. When socially exclude, people may engage in self-defeating or antisocial behaviors.