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In this study, the researchers used "a powerful mathematical algorithm" to find the SNPs that would be most useful for them. It is increasingly common for biologists and other scientists to use algorithms, or step-by-step procedures, in analyzing date. An algorithm is often shown as a flowchart with decision points. At each decision point, the process will go in one direction or another. For example, after you read an email message you may make a simple decision: "Should I reply to this message?" If the answer is "Yes, reply" then the next decision point is "Should I reply immediately?" On the other hand, if the answer is "No, do not reply" then the next decision point is "Should I archive this message or throw it away?" That is, each alternative leads to its own path. At the end of the process, you will have either 1) read, replied to, and archived the message, 2) read, replied to, and deleted the message, 3) read and archived the message, or 4) read and deleted the message. Obviously, if such a simple decision can be charted out with so many alternatives and consequent final decisions, the complicated environment in which scientists work will require highly sophisticated algorithms. Without the use of computer-driven algorithms, there would not be enough time to explore all of the potential decision paths. Thus, new disciplines such as computational biology have arisen in order to support researchers in their quest for knowledge.


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  • ddeana
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この研究では、研究者達は自分たちにとって最も有効となりえるスニップ(※1)を発見する為に「強力な数学的アルゴリズム」を用いた。データ分析において、アルゴリズムや段階的手順を用いることは生物学者や他の科学者にとって、ますます当たり前のこととなっている。アルゴリズムは、決定点を含んだフローチャートとしてしばしば表される。各々の決定点において、手順はひとつの方向もしくは別の方向へと進んでいくこととなる。例えば、あなたが電子メールを読んだ後、簡単な意思決定をするとしよう。すなわち「このメッセージに返信すべきかな?」もし答えが「うん、返信しよう」ならば、次の決定点は「すぐに返信すべきかな?」となる。一方、もし答えが「いいや、返信しない」ならば、次の決定点は「このメールを保存しておくべきか、ゴミ箱行きにするか?」となる。すなわち個別の選択肢が独自の道筋へとつながるのである。手順の最後にあなたは(1)読んで、返信し、メッセージを保存、(2)読んで、返信し、メッセージを削除、(3)読んで、メッセージを保存 のどれかか、(4)読んで、メッセージを削除。を選ぶこととなる。明らかに、このような簡単な決定を沢山の別の選択肢とその結果としての最終決定と共にチャートとして描くことが出来るのならば、科学者が取組む複雑な環境には非常に洗練されたアルゴリズムが必要となる。コンピューターを駆使したアルゴリズムの活用なしに、潜在的意思決定の全てを調査、研究する十分な時間はないであろう。故に、計算生物学のような新しい学問分野が科学者たちの知識の探求をサポートする為に生まれてきたのである。 ※1:遺伝子情報のわずかな違い、一塩基多型のことと考えます。 http://kotobank.jp/word/SNP



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    The researchers also looked at the data according to gender. After the researchers accounted for age, race, socioeconomic factors (education and income) and stroke risk factors, the results revealed that men who exercised at least four times a week still had a lower risk of stroke than men who exercised one to three times per week. In contrast, there was no association between frequency of exercise and stroke risk among women in the study. However, there was a trend towards a similar reduction in stroke risk for those who exercised one to three times a week and four or more times a week compared to those who were inactive. “This could be related to differences in the type, duration, and intensity of physical activity between men and women,” said Dr. Howard. “This could also be due to differences in the perception of what is intense physical activity enough to work up a sweat.” The results should encourage doctors to stress the importance of exercise when speaking with their patients, Dr. Howard said. “Physical inactivity is a major modifiable risk factor for stroke. This should be emphasized in routine physician check-ups along with general education about the benefits of exercise on stroke risk factors including high blood pressure, diabetes and being overweight or obese,” she said. The study suggests that men should consider exercising at least four times a week. REGARDS will continue to assess stroke risk factors to look for long-term patterns in the study population. “Findings from this study, including the current physical activity results, will ultimately help us to identify potential targets for immediate intervention as well as for future clinical trials aimed at preventing stroke and its consequences,” said Dr. Moy.

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    The article mentions that it took 17 years from the beginning of the investigation to the publication of the 11 papers on Ardi in 2009. During that time only one paper was published by the team members, in 1994. It is interesting that the team did not publish papers on the research for 15 years, for we live in the era of “publish or perish” – in other words, professors understand that they need to publish academic articles in order to keep their jobs, or at least to be able to advance their careers. True, 47 of the 70 investigators on the team were listed as authors on the 11 papers. Also, the publication of the papers all at once essentially guaranteed that the papers were given a lot of attention. Still, it is encouraging that the universities and other institutions that funded the research continued to support the team members despite the lack of papers. After all, “publish or perish” is largely due to the need for universities to be recognized as places where a lot of research is being done. High levels of publication lead to high evaluations, which helps attract students and funding to a particular university. The presence of good students and large research budgets help the school maintain its excellence. So the term “publish or perish” may not be quite as cynical as it first sounds.

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    In some experiments, two electrically charged plates and a magnet were added to the outside of the cathode ray tube. When the magnetic field is on and the electric field is off, the cathode ray strikes point A. When only the electric field is on, the ray strikes point C. この英文を和訳してほしいです。お願いします。

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    When the tricky diagnosis of appendicitis is considered, blood tests and a urinalysis are required. The patient's blood is put into different colored tubes, each with its own additive depending on the test being performed: •A purple-top tube is used for a complete blood count (CBC). A CBC measures: 1) The adequacy of your red blood cells, to see if you are anemic. 2) The number and type of white blood cells (WBCs), to determine the presence of infection. 3) A platelet count (platelets are a blood component necessary for clotting) •A red-top tube is used to test the serum (the liquid or non-cellular half of your blood). •A blue-top tube is used to test your blood's clotting. The tests in your case indicate that you have an elevated WBC count. This is a sign of a bacterial infection, and bacterial infections are commonly associated with appendicitis. At this point, the emergency physician may request that you not eat or drink anything. The reason is that appendicitis is treated by surgery, and an empty stomach is desirable to prevent some complications of anesthesia. When the emergency physician has all the information he can obtain, he makes a determination of the most likely diagnosis from his differential diagnosis. Alternately, he may decide that he does not have enough information to make a decision and may require more tests. At this point, he speaks to a general surgeon -- the appropriate consultant in this case. The surgeon comes to see you and performs a thorough history, physical exam, and review of your lab data. She examines your symptoms: pain and tenderness in the right, lower abdomen, vomiting, low-grade fever and elevated WBC count. These symptoms all point to appendicitis. The treatment of appendicitis is removal of the appendix, or an appendectomy. The surgeon explains the procedure, including the risks and benefits. You then sign a consent form to document this and permit her to operate on you. The vast array of people caring for patients in an emergency department can be quite confusing to the average health care consumer -- as confusing as if you were watching your first baseball game ever and no one was around to explain all those players. Additionally, most people are uncertain of the training and background necessary to become a member of the emergency-department team. Well, here's the scorecard. The emergency physician comes to the team after spending four years in college studying hard to get as high a GPA (grade point average) as possible in order to get accepted into medical school. Medical school is a four-year course of study covering all the essentials of becoming a physician. It generally includes two years of classroom time, followed by two years rotating through all the different specialties of medicine. Toward the end of medical school, each medical student must select a particular specialty (emergency medicine, family practice, internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, etc.). The medical student then completes an internship (one year) and residency (two to three additional years) in order to be a specialist in emergency medicine. Physicians must pass an all-day written exam and an all-day oral exam to become board certified in emergency medicine. As of 2001, there were approximately 32,000 emergency physicians practicing in the United States, of which 17,000 were certified by the American Board of Emergency Medicine.

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    Most institutions in the United States have tutorial support available for students. Sometimes the tutorial support is located in one place and sometimes there may be more than one place students can go to get help. Typically, peer tutors are available to help with studying for tests, problem solving, difficult homework assignments and writing. At most institutions, this service is free. Some institutions also have this support available on line.  Writing at American institutions is very different. Professors pay attention to plagiarism and also are very particular about formatting requirements. Plagiarism is a serious offense and can even result in expulsion from an institution. You should always credit the source whenever you use someone else's ideas in a paper. Typically, Professors will ask students to write in either the APA or the MLA format. These formatting requirements are complex and can change from year to year. These are all reasons why it is helpful to have a peer tutor look at your writing. Tutors can help you with formatting requirements and also help make sure you are not plagiarizing when you are writing. Most students do not intend to plagiarize, so it is very important to understand exactly what plagiarism is.

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    For a pharmaceutical agent to be effective in carrying out its selective action, the drug must be administered in an appopriate manner. Each route of drug administration has specific purposes, advantages, and disadvantages. With this method, drugs formulated in liquid or solid form are absoebed into the body from the gastrointestinal tract(GIT). This is the most commonly used route. Oral drugs are convenient --- portable, oainless, easy to take. Also, administration can be carried out by the patient him or heself. However, the onset of the drug's effect is relatively slow. In this case, the drug, usually in tablet form, is placed under the tongue. This produces a very fast onset of drug action because of the good blood supply to the area, but the duration of the drug's effect is usually short. This method can be used for patients who are unable to take drugs orally, or with younger children, elderly, or mentally disturbed patients. This route is usuful when a drug is known to cause GIT irritation. However, absorption is often incomplete and effectiveness is unpredictable.

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    An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient, and is able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of electrical therapy which stops the arrhythmia, allowing the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm. With simple audio and visual commands, AEDs are designed to be simple to use for the layperson, and the use of AEDs is taught in many first aid, certified first responder, and basic life support (BLS) level cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) classes. An automated external defibrillator is used in cases of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias which lead to cardiac arrest. The rhythms that the device will treat are usually limited to: 1.Pulseless Ventricular tachycardia (shortened to VT or V-Tach) 2.Ventricular fibrillation (shortened to VF or V-Fib) In each of these two types of shockable cardiac arrhythmia, the heart is electrically active, but in a dysfunctional pattern that does not allow it to pump and circulate blood. In ventricular tachycardia, the heart beats too fast to effectively pump blood. Ultimately, ventricular tachycardia leads to ventricular fibrillation. In ventricular fibrillation, the electrical activity of the heart becomes chaotic, preventing the ventricle from effectively pumping blood. The fibrillation in the heart decreases over time, and will eventually reach asystole. AEDs, like all defibrillators, are not designed to shock asystole ('flat line' patterns) as this will not have a positive clinical outcome. The asystolic patient only has a chance of survival if, through a combination of CPR and cardiac stimulant drugs, one of the shockable rhythms can be established, which makes it imperative for CPR to be carried out prior to the arrival of a defibrillator. Uncorrected, these cardiac conditions (ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, asystole) rapidly lead to irreversible brain damage and death, once cardiac arrest takes place. After approximately three to five minutes in cardiac arrest, irreversible brain/tissue damage may begin to occur. For every minute that a person in cardiac arrest goes without being successfully treated (by defibrillation), the chance of survival decreases by 7 percent per minute in the first 3 minutes, and decreases by 10 percent per minute as time advances beyond ~3 minutes. AEDs are designed to be used by laypersons who ideally should have received AED training. However, sixth-grade students have been reported to begin defibrillation within 90 seconds, as opposed to a trained operator beginning within 67 seconds. This is in contrast to more sophisticated manual and semi-automatic defibrillators used by health professionals, which can act as a pacemaker if the heart rate is too slow (bradycardia) and perform other functions which require a skilled operator able to read electrocardiograms. Bras with a metal underwire and piercings on the torso must be removed before using the AED on someone to avoid interference. American TV show Mythbusters found evidence that use of a defibrillator on a woman wearing an underwire bra can lead to arcing or fire but only in unusual and unlikely circumstances. A study analyzed the effects of having AEDs immediately present during Chicago's Heart Start program over a two-year period. Of 22 individuals 18 were in a cardiac arrhythmia which AEDs can treat (Vfib or Vtach). Of these 18, 11 survived. Of these 11 patients, 6 were treated by bystanders with absolutely no previous training in AED use.

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    Depending on a patient's specific medical condition, physicians will either admit the patient to the hospital, discharge the patient, or transfer the patient to a more appropriate medical facility. If you are discharged, you will receive discharge instructions (either written specifically for you or pre-printed) that explain your medications and other treatments. If medications are prescribed, you may receive a beginning dose if there are no pharmacies open in your area at that particular time. You will also be referred for follow-up care should your condition continue or worsen. You may need to be transferred if your condition is better treated at another institution. You may have to sign a consent form if your condition or mental state allows. The modern emergency department performs an important role in our society. It really is a marvelous invention that has saved countless lives. Hopefully, the information in this article will help ease your fears should you need the services of an emergency department in the future. For more information on emergency departments, medical conditions and related topics, check out the links on the next page.

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    From the time that life first appeared on Earth, species have gone extinct. Extinction is a natural part of evolution. Species that are best at adapting to their environment survive. Other species are unable to adapt quickly enough – so they die off. So, why do endangered species get so much attention today? One reason is much of the extinction happening these days is unnatural. The leading reason for a species to become endangered is loss of habitat. As humans cut down forests for farmland, expand cities, or pollute waterways, to name a few ways that habitat is destroyed, animals, plants, and insects find it harder and harder to survive. Thus, the effect of humans on the natural world is causing species to become endangered, and, ultimately, go extinct. Another leading reason for a species to become endangered is climate change. For example, the lizards in this article could probably adapt to a gradual change in temperature. However, the rapid change in the climate, and the consequent decrease in lizard birthrate, threaten to doom many lizard species. If human activity is a major reason for climate change, then it would seem that we are changing our world far too rapidly for species to naturally adapt. Humans are highly adaptable, but most species need a lot of time to get used to changing conditions.

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    In the third period, the child makes rapid progress in increasing his or her vocabulary and learning new skills in discovering the meaning of unfamiliar words by the way the words are used in the reading material. In addition, children during this period of reading development learn to read for different purposes and in different subjects, such as science and history. They learn that reading, besides being something that one dose at school, is also something that one can do alone,for fun, for factual information, or to learn more about the world in general. Finally, in the fourth period, the student improves the skills that have been leaned. He or she develops the ability to connect ideas from one piece of writing to another, and learns to compare the opinions of different writers on the same subject. Young persons should reach the fourth period of reading by the time they are 13 or 14 years old, and, if they try, they can continue to increase their reading ability for the rest of their lives. They can read by themselves and are prepared to learn more about reading.