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お願いします (12) Nakht would have been short of breath. He suffered from black lung disease and desert lung disease. Red granite dust irritated his lungs and in the end probably contributed to his death from pneumonia. A dark mass near his spleen indicates he had malaria. This and other parasites would have made him most uncomfortable. The worms traveled through his arteries and his intestines, and damaged his muscles, liver, and bladder, causing nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue, fever, headaches, chills, joint pain, and itchy skin. It's no wonder parents hung amulets around their children's necks for protection and chanted spells such as, "The child should be safe from diseases, foreigners, badwishing Egyptians and dangerous waters." (13) Not all children suffered as much as Nakht. Paintings and inscriptions on tomb and temple walls show children having fun. They played hockey with sticks made from palm branches and pucks made from leather pouches stuffed with papyrus. Their dolls had real hair, miniature furniture, and clothes. Carefree childhood days were filled with tug-of-war, juggling, catch, board games, wrestling, fishing, and races. Even the poorest children had toys―tops, balls, boats, and animals with movable parts like a crocodile that opened and shut its toothed jaw or a leopard that wagged its tail. The climate being what it was, children often went naked (except for their amulets and jewelry) and shaved their heads (except for a lock on the right side). (14) Most children had pets to play with. All kinds of pets, from the familiar cats and dogs to the more unusual―monkeys, ducks, geese, falcons, and ferrets. Almost all modern cats are descendents from ancient Egyptian cats. Their word for "cat" was myw―meow! And, oh, how they loved their cats! Some parents named their children after their cats (especially the girls). Egyptians loved the mysterious and independent nature of cats.


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(12) ナクートは、息切れすることがよくあったでしょう。 彼は、黒肺塵症(長期間にわたり吸入された炭粉が蓄積し、肺に炎症や繊維症、さらには壊死を引き起こす肺塵症[pneumoconiosis])や砂漠肺塵症にかかっていました。 赤い花崗岩の粉末が、彼の肺を刺激して、結局は、おそらく、肺炎による彼の死の一因となったでしょう。 彼の脾臓の近くの黒っぽい塊は、彼がマラリアにかかっていたことを示します。 これや他の寄生虫は、彼を非常に不快にしたことでしょう。寄生虫は、彼の動脈や彼の腸内を移動し、彼の筋肉、肝臓、膀胱に損傷を与えました、そして、吐き気、下痢、嘔吐、疲労、熱、頭痛、寒け、関節の痛み、皮膚のかゆみを引き起こしました。 親達が、加護を求めて彼らの子供たちの首のまわりにお守りを掛けたり、例えば、「子供が、病気、外国人、悪意のあるエジプト人、危険な水から、安全でありますように。」と言ったおまじないを唱えたのも不思議ではありません。 (13) すべての子供たちが、ナクートほど苦しんだというわけではありませんでした。 墓や寺院の壁の絵や碑文は、楽しんでいる子供たちを示しています。 椰子の枝から作ったスティックとパピルスを詰め込んだ革の袋で作られたパックを使って、彼らはホッケーをしました。彼らの人形には、本物の髪、ミニチュアの家具、服がありました。 のんきな幼い頃の日々は、綱引き、お手玉、キャッチボール、ボードゲーム、レスリング、釣り、駆けっこで、満たされました。 最も貧しい子供たちでさえ、おもちゃを持っていました ― コマ、ボール、ボート、歯のある口を開け閉めするワニ、あるいは、尻尾を振るヒョウの様な可動部分のある動物のおもちゃを持っていました。気候は暑かったので、子供たちは、しばしば、(彼らのお守りと宝石を除いて)裸で過ごし、(右側の髪の房を除いて)彼らの頭を剃っていました。 (14) ほとんどの子供たちには、遊ぶペットがいました。おなじみの猫や犬からより変わったもの ― 猿、カモ、ガチョウ、タカ、フェレット ― まで、ありとあらゆるペットがいました。 ほとんどすべての現代の猫は、古代エジプトの猫の子孫です。 「猫」を表わす彼らのことばは、ミュー ― すなわち、ニャーニャーでした! そして、ああ、なんて、彼らは猫を可愛がったことでしょう!親の中には、彼らの子供たちを彼らの猫の名をとって名づける者もいました(特に女の子)。 エジプト人は、猫の不可解で独立した気性を愛しました。





  • 18-4日本語訳

    お願いします。 He told his people that he wanted them to live in a way that would lead to an“increase of their inner worthiness.”Ashoka also promoted the teachings of the Buddha and sent missionaries,including his son and his daughter,to lands as dar away as Sri Lanka so that his people would not make the same mistakes he had.As he said,“All men are my children.As for my own children,I desire that they may be provided with all the welfare and happiness of this world and of the next,so do I desire for all men as well.”  As part of his reforms,Ashoka banned the sacrifice of animals.This confused and angered many of his people,especially the Brahmins who made their living by performing animal sacrifices.The Brahmins were powerful enemies,break away from the Mauryan Empire after Ashoka's death.The last Mauryan ruler was assassinated in 185 BCE by one of his generals-who was,not so coincidentalky,a Brahmin.Although other kings would follow,no ruler would be strong enough to unite the many different people of the subcontinent into a single political state for 1,600 years.

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    お願いします (6) The Hyksos army was made up of professional soldiers. They drove chariots, wore body armor and leather helmets, and wielded bows designed to shoot arrows farther than ordinary wooden bows. It's no surprise that the Hyksos beat the Egyptians in those first battles. But the Egyptians learned from the encounters. They stole the ddsign of the chariot from the Hyksos and then improved upon it. The Egyptians made the chariot lighter. The redesign positioned the driver over the axle and they covered the wooden axle with metal so that it turned more smoothly. These changes made it easier for the horse to pull the chariot. The driver stood, holding onto straps for balance, with a soldier at his side. The soldier held a shield and was armed with a bow and arrows, a sword, and a javelin. The back of the chariot was open so that the charioteers could jump out with ease and engage in hand-to-hand combat with the enemy. (7) The Egyptians trained. They held battle competitions in front of the king. Archers shot at targets. Wrestlers grappled with one another. Swordsmen clashed blades. What had once been a rag-tag scrabble of men became an organized military. But they still had work to do on their style of waging war. Before a battle, the Egyptians notified the enemy which day they planned to attack and where. If the enemy wasn't ready, the Egyptians rescheduled. And if the enemy retreated into their fortress, rather than rudely barging in, the Egyptians would patiently wait outside hoping to starve them out. Unfortunately, Egypt's enemies weren't always as courteous.

  • 18-2日本語訳

    お願いします。  In about 269 BCE,Ashoka's father,King Bindusara,died.Ashoka was barely 30,but he had already proven himself a brilliant warrior.Ashoka's mother had not been his father's chief wife,so he had to compete with his half brothers for the throne.But by 265 BCE Ashoka had defeated all his rivals and was the unquestioned king of the dntire northern subcontinent.  He may have been king,but many of his people did not wish to be his subjects.They had lived in independent city-states for centuries and,and although a centralized state had its good points,like making the roads better and safer and increasing trade,they did not want to obey a king.Ashoka made royal visits to these regions to persuade his people to stay in the kingdom his father and grandfather had established.When persuasion didn't work,he sent his army.  Ashoka's grandfather,Chandragupta,ham united most of the northern subcontinent.His empire stretched“from the lord of the mountains[Himalayas],cooled by showers of the spray nf the divine steam[Ganga]playing about among its rocks.to the shores of the southern ocean marked by the brilliance of gems flashing with various colors.”Arhoka's father,Bindusara,had continued his father's tradition,earning himself the nickname“Slayer of Enemies.”But neither Chandragupta nor Bindusara had dared attack the territory of Kalinga in eastern India.  Kalinga was a particularly rich and powerful state.Its riches came from its trade with Southeast Asia.Merchants from Kalinga could be found as far away as Borneo,Bali,and Java.Although it had no king,Kalinga protected its riches with a huge and well-organized army,including an army of especially mighty war elephants.

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    お願いします (14) It is no wonder Herodotus thought that Egyptians were obsessed with their appearance. Tomb walls show their dedication to grooming. A nobleman who lived nearly 4,500 years ago is shown getting a pedicure. At Deir el-Bahri there is scene after scene of royal cosmetic rituals. The number and quality of cosmetic containers ane palettes found in tombs is more evidence of the importance Egyptians placed on good grooming. One fabulous makeup jar was carved so delicately that the alabaster is nearly transparent. This 6th dynasty (about 2345-2180 BCE) cosmetic container is in the shape of a female monkey cradling her baby in such a way that it looks as if it is in her womb. (15) The Ebers Papyrus also has practical advice on how to manage body odor. "To expel stinking of the body of man or woman: ostrich-egg, shell of tortoise and gallnut from tamaris are roasted and the body is rubbed with the mixture." For those looking for a simpler deodorant, the trend was to roll incense into a ball and mash it into your armpits. From body oils to body paint, Egyptians had a bounty of beauty hints―honey for anti-wrinkle cream, mint for fresh breath, beeswax for hair gel. (16) If ancient Egyptians had an advice columnist, it would likely be "Dear Bes." Bes was the mischievous god of the family. Picture a god that is part dwarf, part lion―stocky, with a big head, bugged-out eyes, sticking his tongue out at you. That's Bes. Bes rarely walked. He skipped, hopped, or danced―and nome too gracefully―while playing his tambourine. Everyone loved Bes.  Dear Bes,  "I am a free woman of Egypt. I have raised eight children, and have provided them with everything suitable to their station in life. But now I have grown old and behold, my children don't look after me anymore." What should I do?         Sincerely,         Geezer from Giza

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    お願いします (10) The village chief greets the Egyptian traders with the question: "How have you arrived at this land unknown to the men of Egypt? Have you come down from the roads of the Heavens?" The chief's wife and children accompany him. The Egyptians give the natives gifts of beads and bracelets. The native guides lead the Egyptian traders into the heart of Punt, where they all work together collecting ebony and incense to bring home to Hatshepsut. Hatshepsut brags on her temple walls about all the wonderful things Egypt will enjoy because of her leadeship:  The loading of the ships very heavily with marvels of the country of Punt; all goodly fragrant woods...with ebony and pure ivory, with...eye-cosmetics, with apes, monkeys, dogs and with skins of the southern panther, with natives and their children. Never was brought the like of this for any king who has been scince the beginning. (11) Once back in Egypt the sailors unload. They wrestle with full-grown trees that have been transplanted into baskets and slung over poles for transport. Others shoulder pots and some herd animals. Hatshepsut accepts it all as her due, in the name of Egypt and her godly father Amun. A small figure in the background of one of the last scenes offers incense to the great god Amun. It is Thutmose III. But Thutmose III would not stay in the background forever. His turn on the throne was coming. (12) Just as Hatshepsut had a favorite story that showed us the character of her time in power, so did Thutmose III. His was the battle of Megiddo. Thutmose III's military victories were inscribed on the inner walls of the sanctuary at Karnak. The stories come from the journal entries of an army scribe. The scribe tells us, "I recorded the victories the king won in every land, putting them in writting according to the facts."

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    お願いします (7) Ever the fastidious record keepers, Egyptians registered the child's name. All births, marriages, and deaths were recorded by the diligent scribes. Just as marriage required only a simple announcement to the proper authorities, so it was with a new child. To register a child the parents merely had to say something like what one princess said: "I gave birth to this baby that you see, who was named Merab and whose name was entered into the registers of the House of Life." (8) For the first three years a mother carried her baby around in a sling. One scribe tells children they should be appreciative. "Repay your mother for all her care. Give her as much bread as the needs, and carry her as she carried you, for you were a heavy burden to her." Breastfeeding for those first three years protected children from parasites in the drinking water. Digestive diseases were the most common illnesses for children. Mothers of sick children might recite this spell to ward off the evil spirit they thought to be the root of the problem: "Come on out, visitor from the darkness.... Have you come to do it harm? I forbid this! I have made ready for its protection a potion from the poisonous afat herb, from garlic which is bad for you, from honey which is sweet for the living but bitter for the dead."

  • 日本語訳を! 1-(4)

    お願いします。  At first the Egyptians simply marked the riverbank to measure the height of the Nile. But it wasn't long before the Egyptians invented measuring devices. We call them nilometers. Some looked like a giant yardstick made from marble. Other nilometers were even more elaborate. Workers dug staircases into wells and erected engraved pillars marked to gauge how high the water rose.  After the flood months, when the water finally receded and left behind rich, black earth, farmers scattered their seeds, the first of several plantings. The second season―peret―had begun. Farmers lifted water from the steady flowing river with shadufs, devices that looked like catapults. With a bucket for dipping on one end of a pole, and a counterweight to make lifting easy on the other, the shadufs creaked and groaned while farmers raised and pivoted the buckets to fill channels that snaked through their gardens.  Farmers tended their fields with care into the third season―shemu. During shemu the level of the Nile dropped, and many side channels dried up. The land parched and the desert seemed to close in. The red sands inched toward the villages. Near the end of shemu, Egyptians began to fret and worry. Would the Nile ever rise again? Had the gods forgotten to release the waters? They sang, "they dread him who creates the heat," and they sacrificed birds and gazelles for the return of the Nile's floodwaters. And then the cycle repeated. "Hail to thee, O Nile! Who...comes to give life to Egypt!"

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    お願いします "Then his majesty commanded the entire army to march upon the road which threatened to be narrow. He went forth at the head of his army himself, showing the way by his own footsteps; horse behind horse, his majesty being at the head of his army." Thutmose III led his troops through the dangerous pass. (15) The rebel forces never expected the Egyptian army to choose the dangerous direct road. They had divided the bulk of their army between the other two roads, leaving the central pass virtually unprotected. When the Egyptians attacked, the enemy retreated to the city gates of Megiddo, "they fled headlohm to Megiddo with faces of fear. They abandoned their horses and chariots of gold and silver...." Slow runners found the gates already slammed shut and had to be pulled over the walls by their friends inside, using ropes made from clothes tied together. Thutmose III's daring dash worked. (16) Because the Egyptians stopped to collect the loot abandoned by the fleeing soldiers, victory was not theirs that day. They were forced to wait outsidd the city walls for what, according to the records, was a seven-month siege. But the day's events sent a message to the ancient world. The throme of Egypt was in capable hands with the warrior king Thutmose III in control. Egypt would flourish under him. Its territory would be greatly expanded. Ma'at would be maintained. For Egypt ht would be a golden age.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(4)

    お願いします。 (9) The Pyramid Texts, the Coffin Texts, and the Book of the Dead all had the same purpose―turn the quiz into an open-book exam and guarantee that the spirits passed. Once safely though the labyrinth of portals, the spirits entered the hall of judgment. Before 42 gods, the spirits declared their innocence to everything the Egyptians could think of. The cheat sheet helped them remember all the sins they didn't commit. The spirits addressed the gods one by one. Some of the gods had creepy names: Bone Breaker and Blood Eater, for example. Some gods had rather unusual names: Fiery Eyes, Hot Foot, and Pale One. Others had names that would make good video game demons: Demolisher, Lord of Truth, and the Accuser. Still others sounded a bit goofy, as if they were one of the Seven Dwarfs―Nosey, for example. The spirits had to remember which sin they denied to which god (with the help of their cheat sheet). Apparently being noisy was considered sinful. One of the denial was "O Water-smiter who came forth from the Abyss, I have not been loud voiced."

  • 日本語訳を!!6

    お願いします (1)“Hannibal, then about nine years old, was...pestering Hamilcar to take him along to Spain. His father, who was sacrificing to the gods before crossing over into Spain with his army, led the boy up to the altar and made him touch the offerings.” (2) What would these offerings have been? Hamilcar Barca, a powerful North African general, would probably have sacrificed a black dog whose body he had split in two with his sword, along with a white bull and a ewe whose throats he had slit. After killing the animals, he would have burned them on an altar so the gods could enjoy the smell of meat roasting in the flames. Military leaders made such sacrifices to persuade the gods to give them victory over their enemies. Livy tells us that as Hannibal touched the bodies of the slaughtered animals, Hamilcar made him“solemnly swear...that as soon as he was able, he would become the declared enemy of the Roman people.” (3) Hannibal kept the promise that he had made to his father. He became a great general. And in 217 BCE, he took war elephants from Carthage (in modern Tunisia), his hometown in North Africa, and marched to the gates of Rome. Rome had never faced a more dangerous enemy in all of its long history. (4) Who were these Carthaginians who hated the Romans so much? They were seafaring people who left their homeland in Phoenicia (modern-day Lebanon) around 800 BCE. They set up colonies in North Africa and Spain, and also on the island of Sicily―the ball that the Italian boot seems to be kicking. (5) The most powerful Phoenician colony was the North African city of Carthage. It became a busy trading post for merchants from all over the Mediterranean world. In time, Carthage gained independence from its mother country, conquered other Phoenician colonies, and founded colonies of its own. By the 3rd century BCE, this thriving and wealthy city controlled trade across the western Mediterranean.