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お願いします (14) It is no wonder Herodotus thought that Egyptians were obsessed with their appearance. Tomb walls show their dedication to grooming. A nobleman who lived nearly 4,500 years ago is shown getting a pedicure. At Deir el-Bahri there is scene after scene of royal cosmetic rituals. The number and quality of cosmetic containers ane palettes found in tombs is more evidence of the importance Egyptians placed on good grooming. One fabulous makeup jar was carved so delicately that the alabaster is nearly transparent. This 6th dynasty (about 2345-2180 BCE) cosmetic container is in the shape of a female monkey cradling her baby in such a way that it looks as if it is in her womb. (15) The Ebers Papyrus also has practical advice on how to manage body odor. "To expel stinking of the body of man or woman: ostrich-egg, shell of tortoise and gallnut from tamaris are roasted and the body is rubbed with the mixture." For those looking for a simpler deodorant, the trend was to roll incense into a ball and mash it into your armpits. From body oils to body paint, Egyptians had a bounty of beauty hints―honey for anti-wrinkle cream, mint for fresh breath, beeswax for hair gel. (16) If ancient Egyptians had an advice columnist, it would likely be "Dear Bes." Bes was the mischievous god of the family. Picture a god that is part dwarf, part lion―stocky, with a big head, bugged-out eyes, sticking his tongue out at you. That's Bes. Bes rarely walked. He skipped, hopped, or danced―and nome too gracefully―while playing his tambourine. Everyone loved Bes.  Dear Bes,  "I am a free woman of Egypt. I have raised eight children, and have provided them with everything suitable to their station in life. But now I have grown old and behold, my children don't look after me anymore." What should I do?         Sincerely,         Geezer from Giza

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(14) ヘロドトスが、エジプト人は、彼らの見た目に夢中になっていると思ったのも不思議ではありません。 墓の壁は、身だしなみに対する彼らの熱心さを示しています。 ほぼ4,500年前に生きた貴族が、ペディキュアをほどこしていたことが示されています。 デイル・エル・バリには、王族の化粧の儀式の場面が無数にあります。墓で見つかる化粧品の容器やパレットの数と品質は、エジプト人が、良い身だしなみを重視していたさらなる証拠です。 ある素晴らしい化粧品の壺は、非常に繊細に彫刻がほどこされていたので、アラバスター(雪花石膏)が、ほとんど透けて見えるほどです。この第6王朝(紀元前2345-2180年頃)の化粧品容器は、まるで子宮の中にいるかの様に、彼女の赤ちゃんを抱きかかえている雌の猿の形をしています。 (15) エーバース・パピルスには、また、体臭をコントロールする方法についての実際的なアドバイスが書かれています。「男性や女性の体臭を消し去るために: ダチョウの卵、カメの甲羅、タマリスクの没食子を焼き、それを混ぜ合わせたもので、体をこすること。」もっと簡単なデオドラント(体臭防止剤)を探している人々のためには、流行は、香を球状に丸めて、あなたの腋の下にそれをつぶす様にして塗ることでした。 ボディーオイルからボディーペイントまで、エジプト人は、豊富な美容に関するヒントを持っていました ― しわ防止のクリームのための蜂蜜、口臭予防のためのミント、ヘア・ジェルのための蜜蝋等がありました。 (16) 古代のエジプト人に、アドバイス・コラムニストがいるとすれば、それはたぶん「親愛なるベス」になるでしょう。 ベスは、家族の悪戯好きな神でした。 一部が小人で、一部がライオンの神を想像して下さい ― ずんぐりした、頭でっかちで、目が飛び出し、あなたに舌を突き出しています。 それが、ベスです。 ベスは、めったに歩きませんでした。 彼は、跳んだり、跳ねたり、踊ったりしました ― 彼のタンバリンを演奏している時は、あまりに優雅でした。誰もが、ベスを愛しました。 親愛なるベス、 「私は、エジプトの自由な女性です。 私は8人の子供たちを育てて、彼らに人生における彼らの地位にふさわしいすべてを提供しました。 しかし、今、私が年をとって、見てみると、私の子供たちは、私の世話をしません。」 私は、どうしたらよいでしょう? 敬具 ギザの老人 <参考> 没食子 http://kotobank.jp/word/%E6%B2%A1%E9%A3%9F%E5%AD%90

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  • 日本語訳を! 6-(1)

    お願いします。 (1) In monster movies the Mummy lurches forward, dragging his leg. Ancient Egyptians wouldn't have been scared by this stumbling bag of rags. In fact, they would probably have pointed and laughed, because every Egyptian knew mummies don't lurch. They don't drag their legs. They walk with the grace of an athlete, because in the Field of Reeds, which is where the dead lived, that limp would magically disappear. Deaf in one ear? No problem. Festering wound? No problem. Perfect health is yours in the Field of Reeds. (2) The Egyptians imagined that the Field of Reeds looked like home―only better. A gentle river meandered through fertile fields while munching cows looked on. The cows were fat and happy. They didn't even need to swish their tails, because there were no annoying flies in the Field of Reeds. The fields were always bursting with ripe foods ready to pick. No one was ever sick or hungry, and best of all, no one had to work. (3) The trick was getting in. The Egyptians believed that everyone had three spirits―the Ba, the Ka, and the Akh. Each spirit played a different role when the body died. In its natural state, the Ba―the person's personality―looked like a bird with a miniature version of the dead person's head. After death the Ba lived in the tomb, but was free to come and go as it pleased. The Ba often went to the land of the living where it changed into anything it fancied.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (6) The Hyksos army was made up of professional soldiers. They drove chariots, wore body armor and leather helmets, and wielded bows designed to shoot arrows farther than ordinary wooden bows. It's no surprise that the Hyksos beat the Egyptians in those first battles. But the Egyptians learned from the encounters. They stole the ddsign of the chariot from the Hyksos and then improved upon it. The Egyptians made the chariot lighter. The redesign positioned the driver over the axle and they covered the wooden axle with metal so that it turned more smoothly. These changes made it easier for the horse to pull the chariot. The driver stood, holding onto straps for balance, with a soldier at his side. The soldier held a shield and was armed with a bow and arrows, a sword, and a javelin. The back of the chariot was open so that the charioteers could jump out with ease and engage in hand-to-hand combat with the enemy. (7) The Egyptians trained. They held battle competitions in front of the king. Archers shot at targets. Wrestlers grappled with one another. Swordsmen clashed blades. What had once been a rag-tag scrabble of men became an organized military. But they still had work to do on their style of waging war. Before a battle, the Egyptians notified the enemy which day they planned to attack and where. If the enemy wasn't ready, the Egyptians rescheduled. And if the enemy retreated into their fortress, rather than rudely barging in, the Egyptians would patiently wait outside hoping to starve them out. Unfortunately, Egypt's enemies weren't always as courteous.

  • 日本語訳を! 1-(2)

    お願いします。  Without the Nile you wouldn't have much of a kingdom to rule. Strutting might seem a bit silly. Egypt would be home to nothing more than a few wandering bands of nomads passing through the red land, dusty and dragging from the relentless heat, in search of the rare oasis. The Nile, however, the glorious Nile, brought a narrow band of life to Egypt. It carried rich, black dirt and spread it over the floodplains, creating fields for the Egyptians to plant their seeds. The Egyptians called it khemet―the black land. The change from red land to black land was so abrupt you could straddle the border, standing with one foot in red earth and the other in black.  The ancient Egyptians knew tha without the Great River they would have no villages, no fields of wheat, and no cattle. To them the water was sacred. They believed it flowed from paradise and could heal the sick. They wrote songs to the Nike―praising its life-giving force. The Hymn to the Nile began "Hail to thee O, Nile!" and praised the Great River for coming "to give life to Egypt." It may seem as if the ancients got carried away with their praise when they sang, "If you cease your toil and your work, then all that exists is in anguish." But if the Nile did "cease its toil," the people would starve. Maybe they weren't so carried away after all.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(7)

    お願いします。 (13) 1.First stop for the dead is tge Place of Washing, which the Egyptians called Ibu. After a good washing, the embalmers performed a ceremony with Nile water and a kind of salt found in the waters of the Nile called natron. The ceremony symbolizes rebirth. For more reasons than one―secrecy and stench, to name two―Ibu is not close to town. (14) 2.Next stop is Per-nefer, the House of Mummification. Herodotus reports what went on there: "They take first a crooked piece of iron, and with it draw out the brain through the nostrils." Then the embalmers flush out the skull with water and lay it on its side to drain while they "cut along the flank... and take out the whole contents of the abdomen." The heart is left inside the body because the Egyptians believe this to be the most important organ. A few things are tossed because they are considered so unimportant―the brain, for one. The rest of the internal organs are cleaned and storedin jars so that the spirits have a complete home when the time comes to reoccupy the body. Fingernails and toenails are wrapped with twine to keep them from falling off when the skin shrinks. The body is stuffed, covered with natron, which is even better than sand for drying, and left to dry for 40 days.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(5)

    お願いします。 (10) If all went in the hall of judgment, the spirits moved on to the final test―and this is where Anubis came in. Anubis had the body of a human and the head of a jackal. One of his official titles was "Lord of the Mummy Wrappings." It was Anubis who administered the final test. On one side of a balance scale, he would place the dead person's heart and, on the other, a feather that symbolized truth and justice. The god Thoth, who was the scribe of the gods, stood by with his pen ready to write down the test results. Would the heart weigh heavy with sin? Or would it balance with truthfulness and justice? If it balanced, the deceased was given a plot of land in the Field of Reeds. But if the balance tipped, the deceased met a very different fate. Near the scales a fierce monster called "The Eater of the Dead" waited―and he was hungry. Anubis fed the Eater of the Dead the hearts of those who failed the final test. Without a heart, the dead person was doomed. Egyptians believed that the three spirits needed their whole body to live in the Field of Reeds. If they were missing any essential part, they would spend eternity as evil spirits haunting the living. Naturally, the living did everything they could to preserve the body.

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    お願いします  List of the items left behind by me in the village: [the words that are in italics are words we don't know the meaning of or how to translate them] ・3 sacks barley ・1 1/2 sacks emmer [grain] ・26 bundles of onions ・2 beds ・sheqer-box ・2 couches for a man ・2 folding stools ・1 pedes-box ・1 inlaid tjay-box ・har ・2 griddle stones ・1 gatit-box ・2 footstools ・2 folding stools of wood ・1 sack lubya beans ・12 bricks natron [salt] ・2 tree trunks ・1 door ・2 sterti of sawn wood ・2 hetep-containers ・1 small hetep-container ・1 mortar ・2 medjay  ...Please have Amen-em-wia stay in my house so he can watch it. (6) Think about listing the entire contents of your house. Egyptians had far fewer belongings than we do today. The sacks of grain were the equivalent of cash. In a barter system you trade what you have for what you need. Do you need a donkey? Maybe your neighbor will trade for your bed. (7) Guests were never invited beyond the main room. The back of the house was private. Only the women, children, and immediate male members of the family were allowed there. It must have been a punishment, similar to making a child sit in the corner, to be sent to the back of the house. We know this because when Egyptians were trying to convince someone they were being sincere they would swear, "May I be sent to the back of the house if I am not telling the truth." So what was in the back of the house that was so awful? The kitchen was in the back of the house. At Deir el-Medina the kitchens were open air, with brick ovens in the shape of a beehive and stairs leading to the roof. Today getting sent to the kitchen isn't so bad. But in a hot desert climate, the room with the oven probably wasn't the most pleasant room in the house. In fact, the place in the house that seemed the nicest was the living space on the roof. Houses were dark and airless with no windows to bring in light or fresh air. Perhaps that's why the Egyptians often ate and slept on the roof.

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    お願いします (4) The king of the Hyksos was like a pebble in the Egyptian king's sandal. He irritated him just by being there, but war didn't break out until the insult. The Hyksos king sent a message to the ruler of Egypt, King Seqenenre. The Hyksos king complained that King Seqenenre's hippos in the royal pools "were keeping him awake at night with their grunts." Do something, he demanded. Given that Avaris was hundreds of miles from Thebes, where the king and his hippos lived, this was nothing short of a slap in the face. King Seqenenre was furious. Although it is unknown what happened next, the damage to King Seqenenre's skull indicates it didn't turn out well for the Egyptian side. During that time kings commanded the armies and led the soldiers into battle. Archaeologists have identified King Seqenenre's head, and it's not pretty. He took a battle axe to the forehead and was stabbed in the neck after he fell to the ground. This attack was the beginning of a war that would last nearly 25 years, from about 1574 to 1550 BCE, and span the reign of three Egyptian kings. (5) The Egyptians were farmers, not warriors. They were peaceful people. They were not conquerors by nature. And nowhere was that more obvious than in their army. It was unorganized. The soldiers served part-time and their weapons were not much more than farm tools adapted for battle. The few full-time soldiers were trained as palace guards, border police, or trade-ship escorts―not warriors. For the occasional battle outside of Egypt, the king hired foreign mercenaries because Egyptians didn't want to die away from home. An improper burial meant wandering the desert for eternity―not a pleasant haunting.

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    お願いします (5) Menenius told the rebels that one time the various parts of this body became angry at the stomach and ganged up against it. They claimed that it was unfair that they should have all the worry, trouble, and work of providing for the belly, while the belly had...nothing to do but enjoy the good things they gave it. So they plotted that the hands should carry no more food to the mouth and that the...teeth would refuse to chew. (6) The body parts meant to punish the belly, but they all grew weak from lack of food. “They finally figured out that the belly had an important job after all. It received nourishment, but it also gave nourishment. It was no idle task to provide the body parts with what they all needed to survive and thrive.” Using this fanciful story, Menenius convinced the workers that their rebellion would be a disaster for everyone, rich and poor alike. Rome needed all of its people. (7) Thanks to Menenius, the workers agreed to go home. But they refused to go back to the status quo. One of the plebs' chief complaints was that the law favored the patricians. And since the courts were in the hands of the rich, a poor person had no protection against an unjust judge. A judge could protect his friends or rule according to his own best interests─whatever was best for him. After the plebs made their stand at the Sacred Mount, the senate voted to give them an assembly of their own and representatives to protect them against injustice. These officials, “tribunes of the plebs,” spoke up for the people and even had the right to veto decrees of the Senate.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします  Dear Geezer,  This is Egypt. Women have more legal rights than anywhere else in the world. You own your own property and can do what you want with it. Cut the ungrateful kids out of your will.        Bes  Dear Bes,  My neighbor keeps stealing the grain we keep up on the roof. Is there anything we can do to stop her?         Sincerely,         Hungry in Hermopolis  Dear Hungry,  Theft is a big problem in village life. You probably can't stop her from stealing, but you could have a little fun and make her hair fall out. Try this recipe from the Ebers Medical Papyrus: "To cause the gahair to fall out: burnt leaf of lotus is put in oil and applied to the head of a hated woman."        Bes (17) Our magazine wouldn't have a wedding section. There is no evidence that ancient Egyptians had a marriage ceremony―no religious ceremony, no legal ceremony, no vows or rings, no wedding gown. A woman moved into her husband's house and took over from the mother the title of "woman of the house." Bes would get a lot of letters asking advice about how to get along with the mother-in-law! A marriage contract listed what the woman brought with her so that if there was a divorce the property could be split up properly. If divorced, women were entitled to what they brought into the marriage plus a share of the joint property. (18) Our magazine would have book reviews. Thumbs up for The Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor, the action-packed adventure of a sailor marooned on a deserted island. Or is ht deserted? When a giant human-headed serpent appears the sailor realizes he's not alone. "Then I heard a noise of thunder; I thought it was a wave of sea, for the trees were splintering, the earth shaking. I uncovered my face and found it was a serpent coming." Twist ending leaves the reader hanging.

  • 日本語訳を!(21)

    お願いします (1) Rules, rules, rules...we may think that rules and creativity don't go together, but for the Egyptians, art was all about rules. Are you painting the king? Make sure you don't draw anything in front of his face or body. That was not a trick shot the king was making with the bow flexed behind his back. The painter was just obeying the rule. When sculpting people seated, make sure that their hands rest on their knees. Always draw the important people bigger. Follow the rules. (2) Walk into any art museum anywhere in the world and you will be able to pick out the Egyptian art immediately. The rules created a style that lasted with almost no change for 3,000 years. The style is called frontalism. Egyptian artists drew the head in profile and the body straight on. By drawing figures with these angles, artists could show a large number of body parts―both arms, both legs, the nose. The Egyptians believed that the drawings could come to life and journey to the afterlife. It's nice to go to eternity with as much of your body as possible. (3) Unlike modern painters who try to give their paintings depth, Egyptian painters made everything look flat. Two artists often worked on the same painting. One artist drew the outline. During the Middle Kingdom, these artists were called "scribes of outlines." And the second artist, known as a "colorist," painted in the color as if he were working on a coloring book. Do you thing he was told to "stay within the lines"?