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日本語訳を! 8-(1)

お願いします。 (1) The First Intermediate Period began with blood. With each passing year of Pepi II's reign, which began in 2278 BCE, the aging king's power slipped a little more. The governors of the outlying provinces who all had once lived in the capital city with Pepi II moved out o the rural lands they governed. Until then, whatever each province produced, such as grain, had gone to the capital to be handed out by the great and powerful King Pepi II. Now goods remained in the province to be distributed by the governor. Poweq shifted. It shifted, bit by bit, from the capital to the provinces―from the king to the governors. (2) The governors, accustomed to palace life, began to build their own luxurious houses. They financed their rich lifestyle by keeping more and more of the local goods. Soon they needed artists to decorate their homes and their tombs. Rural Egypt changed. Wealth and culture shifted, bit by bit, from the capital to the provinces―from the control of the king to the control of the governors. (3) A papyrus known as the Admonitions of Ipuwer tells how wealth moved from royalty to ragamuffin: "poor men have become owners of wealth, and he who could not make sandals for himself is now a possessor of riches...noblemen are in distress while the poor man is full of joy...the land turns around as does a potter's wheel." (4) One typical governor, Ankhtyfy, ruled two provinces. Inscribed on the pillars of his tomb are the details of his life. He begins his autobiography by bragging, "I was the beginning and the end of mankind, since nobody like myself existed before, nor will he exist...I surpassed the feats of the ancestors, and coming generations will not be able to equal me...." This man did not suffer from low self-esteem.

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  • 回答No.4
  • sayshe
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(1) 最初の中間期(王国と王国の間のエジプト全体の統一が崩れた時期)は、流血から始まりました。 ペピ2世の治世は、紀元前2278年から始まりましたが、年々、その年老いた王の力は、少しずつ低下しました。 かつて全員がペピ2世と共に首都に住んでいた遠くの地方の総督は、彼らが統治する地方の土地から出てきていました。 その頃までは、例えば穀物など、それぞれの地方が生産した産物は全て、偉大で強力なペピ2世王によって分配されるために、首都に運ばれていました。 今や、産物は、総督によって配布されるために、地方に残りました。権力は移りました。 それは、少しずつ、首都から地方へ ― 王から総督へと移って行ったのです。 (2) 総督たちは、宮殿での生活に慣れていたので、彼ら自身の豪華な邸宅を建設し始めました。 彼らは、ますます多くの地方の産物を地元にとどめることによって、豊かな生活様式の原資としました。 まもなく、彼らは、家や墓を飾るために、美術家を必要としました。地方のエジプトは変わりました。 富と文化は、少しずつ、首都から地方へ ― 王の支配から総督の支配へと移行しました。 (3) 「イプウェルの警告」として知られているパピルスは、富がどのように王族から貧しい人々へ移ったかについて語っています: 「貧しい人々は、富の所有者となった、そして、自分のためにサンダルを作ることができなかった者が、今では、富の持ち主である ... 貴族は苦しんでおり、他方、貧者は、喜びに満ちている ... 陶工のろくろのように、国は、その方向を変える。」 (4) 典型的な総督のアンクティフィは、2つの地方を統治していました。 彼の人生の詳細は、彼の墓の柱に刻まれています。 彼は、自叙伝を自慢から始めます、「余は、始めなり、また、人類の終わりなり、余自身のような者が、これまで、存在しなかったからである ... 余は、祖先の功績を凌ぎたり、また、来たるべき世代も余に匹敵することは不可能なり .... この男性は、低い自尊心で苦しむことはありませんでした。

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  • 日本語訳を! 8-(2)

    お願いします。 (5) It was also common for governors to brag that they could support the people in their cnmmunity while the rest of Egypt starved. Ankhtyfy apparently was just as conceited as all the others because his inscription says, I gave bread to the hungry and clothing to the naked...I gave sandals to the barefooted. The whole country has become like locusts going upstream and downstream in search of food; but never did I allow anybody in need to go from this province to another one. I am the hero without equal. (6) Boasts like these led scholars to believe that the First Intermediate Period and all its chaos were brought about by famine. Was all of Egypt starving? Is that why the country fell apart? Archaeologists who study ancient climates don't think that is true. There were droughts in the Old Kingdom and the king was still able to maintain control. And there were good harvests during the First Intermediate Period and yet chaos ruled. The boasts about feeding the hungry were most likely meant to send the message to the people that they needed the governor, that without their local ruler they would suffer as the rest of the country was supposedly suffering. (7) Governors had always recruited military troops from their provinces for their king. Now instead of sending soldiers to the capital, they were using the troops for their own scrambles for power. The strong grew stronger, and the wealthy grew wealthier. The central government splintered. The king's power slipped further.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) The mere mention of a name can be significant. In Year 10, a scarab was distributed announcing the arrival of a foreign princess to join Amenhotep's harem. But even on this scarab commemorating another woman, Queen Tiy's name is the name most closely linked to the king. Putting their names together clearly announces to the world her position as first queen. The last scarab, put out in Year 11, confirms their close relationship. It describes how a devoted Amenhotep III orders a lake made for his queen, Tiy. The lake was more than a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide. Some scholars estimate it may have been dug in just 15 days. "His Majesty celebrated the feast of the opening of the lake" by sailing witg his queen on the royal barge named his favorite name―the Dazzing Sun Disk. (5) Amenhotep the Magnificent was a very lucky king. He came to the throne when Egypt's treasury bulged with surplus harvests, the spoils of war, and goods from grade missions. And although the king would take sole credit for the country's good fortune, the man responsible for keeping things running smoothly was the vizier. Next to the king, the vizier was the most powerful person in Egypt. He, too, had many names, or titles. He was known as "Second to the King" and "Heart of the Lord" and "Eyes and Ears of the Sovereign." It was his job to keep law and order. He was in charge of taxes, all the records, troop movement, and even keeping track of the level of the Nile. The governors of every district reported to the vizier and the vizier reported to the king.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    Expanded to 144 members in 1894, operations against Kpandu and "a number of towns in central Togo which had resisted the government were attacked and razed to the ground, the property of the inhabitants confiscated and the people fined sums ranging from 200 marks to 1,110 marks." For the remainder of the decade, an additional 35 expeditions were authorised by the colonial government. In 1895 the capital Lomé had a population of 31 Germans and 2,084 natives. By 1913 the native population had swelled to 7,042 persons and 194 Germans, including 33 women, while the entire colony had a German population of 316, including 61 women and 14 children.

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  • 回答No.3
noname#183207

この質問文を検索すると、 Se Ancient Egyptian Wld 2005 G6 著者: Eric H. Cline,Oup だと、すぐに分かります。 そこで、何回か著作権違法ではないかと通報したのですが、OKWAVE的にはOKみたいですね。 この本の著者に連絡とって著作権違法されてます伝えてあげるのがベストだとは思うのですが、、、メンドクサイから僕はしていません。 本当に著作権の心配をされているなら回答欄で何いっても意味がありません。 Eric H. Cline,Oupさんに誰か、伝えてあげてください。

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  • 回答No.2
noname#197866

(1)第1中間期は、血液から始まりました。 2278年に始まったペピIIの治世の年を追うごとにBCE、老化王の権力は、もう少し足を滑らせた。一度にすべてペピIIで首都に住んでいた辺境地方の知事は、彼らが支配農村土地oを外に移動。それまでは、各県が生産何であれ、そのような穀物として、偉大で強力な王ペピIIによって配られるように首都に行っていた。現在、商品は知事から配布されても地方に残った。 Poweqはシフト。これは、首都から地方 - から王に知事に、少しずつ、シフトした。 (2)知事は、宮殿の生活にも慣れ、自分の豪華な家を建てるようになった。彼らは地元の商品のより多くを保持することにより、豊かなライフスタイルを融資した。すぐに彼らは彼らの家と墓を飾るために芸術家を必要としていました。農村エジプトが変更されました。富と文化が首都から地方から、王の制御知事の制御にし、少しずつ、シフトした。 (3)Ipuwerの訓戒として知られているパピルスは、富は、ロイヤリティから浮浪児に移動方法について説明します:貧しい男が富の所有者となっている"と、彼自身のためにサンダルを作ることができなかった彼は今、富の所有者である貴族が...であるろくろの場合と同様に苦痛貧乏人は喜びに満ちている間は...土地が振り向く。" (4)一つの典型的な知事、Ankhtyfyは、2つの州を支配していた。彼の人生の詳細は彼の墓の柱に刻まれた。彼は自慢することで彼の自伝を開始し、"私は自分自身のように誰も前に存在していないので、最初と人類の終わりだった、また彼は存在しています...私は祖先の偉業を超え、次の世代は、私を等しくすることができません.... "この男は低い自尊心に悩まされることはありませんでした。

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  • 日本語訳を! 3-(7)

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