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次の英文の和訳をお願いします。

Classes in American universities and colleges vary depending on the level of study (first year, second year, third year, or fourth year) as well as the subject. Usually in the first two years of university and college, students are required to take general education courses. These courses typically cover all the disciplines, so students are required to take one course in science, one course in math, one course in sociology, one course in writing, and so on. These classes are established to teach academic skills but are also intended to help students think more broadly about different topics. There are some science students that might never take a sociology class. Therefore, the general education requirement encourages students to experience a more liberal arts type of education. In the social and behavioral science course in particular, classroom participation is not only expected but your grade can depend upon your ability to speak up and contribute in the classroom. Professors often expect you to say what you think, even if that opinion is not yet informed by reading or research. They also expect you to tell them what you know after you've done the reading or research. In other words, they know the research but they what to make sure you also know the research. therefore, professors expect you to show them during class discussions and questions that you are critically thinking about the material. Generally, university classes in the United states are very casual. Many students call their professors by their first names and often students will chew gum or eat snacks during their classes. Students also dress very casually and often wear sweats and occasionally even pajamas to class.

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アメリカの総合大学と単科大学の授業は、研究のレベル(1年、2年、3年、4年)ならびに科目のレベルに応じて異なります。 通常総合大学と単科大学の最初の2年間で、学生は一般教育のコースをとることを要求されます。これらのコースはすべての訓練を一般的にカバーするので、学生は自然科学のコースを1つ、数学のコースを1つ、社会科学のコースを1つ、作文コースを1つ、その他をとることを要求されます。これらの授業は、アカデミックな(学問的な)技術を教えるために設立されますが、学生が異なる主題についてより幅広く考えるのを援助することも目的としています。社会学の授業を一度も受けない理科系の学生がいるかもしれません。したがって、一般教育の要件は学生がより一般教養的な教育を経験することを奨励します。 特に社会および行動科学のコースでは、教室参加が期待されるだけではなく、あなたの成績は、教室でのあなたの発言能力や積極的参加次第ということになります。たとえその意見が読書または研究によってまだ知識を増やしたものでなくても、教授たちはあなたが、自分はどう思うかついて発言することをしばしば期待しています。教授たちはまた、読書または研究をしたあと、あなたが何を知っているかについて、彼らに話すと言うこともあなたに期待しています。言い換えると、教授たちは研究を知っています、しかし、彼らはあなたも研究を知っていると言うことを確認したいのです。したがって、授業での議論と質問の間にあなたが研究材料について批判精神を持って考えているということを彼らを示すと、教授たちはあなたに期待しているのです。 通常、アメリカ合衆国の大学の授業は、非常にさりげないです。 多くの学生は彼らの教授を彼らのファースト・ネームで呼びます、そして、しばしば、学生は授業の間にガムを噛んだり軽食を食べたりします。学生はまた、非常にカジュアルな服装で、しばしばスウェットや時にはパジャマさえ授業に着ていきます。

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