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The final borders of Hungary were defined by the Treaty of Trianon signed on 4 June 1920. Beside exclusion of the previously mentioned territories, they did not include: the rest of Transylvania, which together with some additional parts of the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary became part of Romania; Carpathian Ruthenia, which became part of Czechoslovakia, pursuant to the Treaty of Saint-Germain in 1919; most of Burgenland, which became part of Austria, also pursuant to the Treaty of Saint-Germain (the district of Sopron opted to remain within Hungary after a plebiscite held in December 1921, the only place where a plebiscite was held and factored in the decision); Međimurje and the 2/3 of the Slovene March or Vendvidék (now Prekmurje), which became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. By the Treaty of Trianon, the cities of Pécs, Mohács, Baja and Szigetvár, which were under Serb-Croat-Slovene administration after November 1918, were assigned to Hungary. An arbitration committee in 1920 assigned small northern parts of the former Árva and Szepes counties of the Kingdom of Hungary with Polish majority population to Poland. After 1918, Hungary did not have access to the sea, which pre-war Hungary formerly had directly through the Rijeka coastline and indirectly through Croatia-Slavonia. With the help of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, Hungary expanded its borders towards neighbouring countries at the outset of World War II. This started under the Munich Agreement (1938), then the two Vienna Awards (1938 and 1940), and was continued with the dissolution of Czechoslovakia (occupation of northern Carpathian Ruthenia and eastern Slovakia) and the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia. This territorial expansion was short-lived, since the post-war Hungarian boundaries in the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 were nearly identical to those of 1920 (with three villages – Jarovce, Rusovce, and Čunovo – transferred to Czechoslovakia). Representatives of small nations living in the former Austria-Hungary and active in the Congress of Oppressed Nations regarded the treaty of Trianon for being an act of historical righteousness because a better future for their nations was "to be founded and durably assured on the firm basis of world democracy, real and sovereign government by the people, and a universal alliance of the nations vested with the authority of arbitration" while at the same time making a call for putting an end to "the existing unbearable domination of one nation over the other" and making it possible "for nations to organize their relations to each other on the basis of equal rights and free conventions". Furthermore, they believed the treaty would help toward a new era of dependence on international law, the fraternity of nations, equal rights, and human liberty as well as aid civilisation in the effort to free humanity from international violence.

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>The final borders of Hungary ~ the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. ⇒1920年6月4日に調印された「トリアノン条約」によってハンガリーの最終的な国境が定義された。前述の地域を除いて、トランシルバニアの残りの部分は、戦前のハンガリー王国の数か所の追加部分とともにルーマニアの一部となった。カルパチア・ルテニアは、1919年に「サン=ジェルマン条約」に基づいてチェコスロバキアの一部となり、ブルゲンラント州のほとんどは、同じく「サンジェルマン条約」に基づいてオーストリアの一部となった(ソプロン地区〈だけ〉は、1921年12月に行われた国民投票の後にハンガリーに留まることを選んだが、ここは決定に際して国民投票が行われた唯一の場所だった)。メヂムリェ、スロベニア・マーチの2/3すなわち、ベンドビデク(現在のプレクムリェ)は、セルビア、クロアチア、スロベニア王国の一部となった。 >By the Treaty of Trianon ~ indirectly through Croatia-Slavonia. ⇒「トリアノン条約」により、1918年11月以降セルビア=クロアチア=スロベニア政権管理下にあったペーチ、モハチ、バハ、ヂジェバールの各都市がハンガリーに譲渡された。1920年の仲裁委員会は、ハンガリー王国の旧アルヴァ郡とゼペス郡の北部の小部分を多数のポーランド人(住民)とともにポーランド国に割り当てた。ハンガリーは、戦前なら直接リエカ海岸線を通って、また間接的にはクロアチア‐スロベニア経由で海に通じていたが、1918年以降、海へのアクセスはなくなった。 >With the help of Nazi Germany ~ and Čunovo – transferred to Czechoslovakia). ⇒ハンガリーは、第二次世界大戦初期に、ナチス・ドイツとファシスト・イタリアの助けを借りて隣接国に向かって国境を拡大した。これは、「ミュンヘン協定」(1938年)および2回の「ウィーン裁定」(1938年と1940年)の下で始まり、これにチェコスロバキアの解体(カルパチア・ルテニア北部とスロバキア東部の占領)とユーゴスラビアへの枢軸軍侵攻が続いた。この領土拡大は短命であった。というのも、1947年の「パリ平和条約」よるの戦後のハンガリー境界は、1920年のそれとほぼ同じになった(ジャロブチェ、ルソブチェ、およびチュノボの3村がチェコスロバキアに転属した)からである。 >Representatives of small nations ~ free humanity from international violence. ⇒元オーストリア‐ハンガリーに住み、「抑圧国家議会」で活発であった小国の代表者らは、トリアノンの条約は歴史的正義の行為であると見なした。なぜなら、彼らの国家にとってより良い未来は、「国民による真の国家主権と仲裁の権限を持つ諸国家間の世界的同盟が確立され、それが継続的に保証されること」であったからである。同時に、「国家が他の国家に対して支配的な支配力を持つこと」に終止符を打つことを求め、「平等な権利と自由な慣習に基づいて、国家が互いの関係を組織すること」を可能にすること、であったからである。さらに、同条約は、国際法、国家間の同朋関係、平等な権利、人間的自由、さらには国際暴力から人類を解放しようとする文明的援助などに従う新しい時代への志向に役立つだろうと信じていた。

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    The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement of 1920 that formally ended World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary. The treaty regulated the status of an independent Hungarian state and defined its borders. It left Hungary as a landlocked state that covered 93,073 square kilometres (35,936 sq mi), only 28% of the 325,411 square kilometres (125,642 sq mi) that had constituted the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary (the Hungarian half of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy). Its population was 7.6 million, only 36% of the pre-war kingdom's population of 20.9 million. The areas that were allocated to neighbouring countries in total (and each of them separately) had a majority of non-Hungarians but 31% of Hungarians (3.3 million) were left outside of post-Trianon Hungary. Five of the pre-war kingdom's ten largest cities were drawn into other countries. The treaty limited Hungary's army to 35,000 officers and men, and the Austro-Hungarian Navy ceased to exist. The principal beneficiaries of territorial division of pre-war Kingdom of Hungary were the Kingdom of Romania, the Czechoslovak Republic, and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. One of the main elements of the treaty was the doctrine of "self-determination of peoples", and it was an attempt to give the non-Hungarians their own national states. In addition, Hungary had to pay war reparations to its neighbours. The treaty was dictated by the Allies rather than negotiated, and the Hungarians had no option but to accept its terms. The Hungarian delegation signed the treaty under protest on 4 June 1920 at the Grand Trianon Palace in Versailles, France. The treaty was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on 24 August 1921. The modern boundaries of Hungary are the same as those defined by the Treaty of Trianon, with some minor modifications until 1924 and the notable exception of three villages that were transferred to Czechoslovakia in 1947.The Hungarian government terminated its union with Austria on 31 October 1918, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian state. The de facto temporary borders of independent Hungary were defined by the ceasefire lines in November–December 1918. Compared with the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary, these temporary borders did not include: Part of Transylvania south of the Mureş river and east of the Someş river, which came under the control of Romania (cease-fire agreement of Belgrade signed on 13 November 1918). On 1 December 1918, the National Assembly of Romanians in Transylvania declared union with the Kingdom of Romania. Slovakia, which became part of Czechoslovakia (status quo set by the Czechoslovak legions and accepted by the Entente on 25 November 1918).

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