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Recently, Nakagawa et al. have numerically studied the planetary growth and shown that the growth times of the Earth and Jupiter are orders 10^6~10~7 yrs and 10^7~10^8 yrs, respectively. But, for the case of Neptune, a very long time, which is comparable to or longer than the age of the solar system, is needed for the growth ( these growth times, nevertheless, are shorter by a factor of 10 or 100 than those obtained by Safronov). As they have pointed out for themselves, their results are not always final but tentative because in their calculation some assumptions and simplifications are made for the sake of convenience; one of these is that for the rates of collision and of gravitational scattering due to the mutual encounters between planetesimals, formulae in a free space (i.e., without the influence of the solar gravity) are used.


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  • ddeana
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最近、中川その他(※1)は惑星の成長を数値的に研究し、地球と火星の成長時間がそれぞれ10の6乗から10の7乗年と、10の7乗から10の8乗年と表した。 しかし、海王星の場合は、成長するのに太陽系の年齢に匹敵するかそれよりも長い時間が必要とされる(とは言っても、こうした成長時間はサフロノフが計算したものよりも10か100倍短いものである)。彼らが自分で指摘した通り、こうした結果は常に最終的なものではなく暫定的なものだ。なぜなら計算において便宜上いくつかの仮定と簡素化がなされているから。その内のひとつは、微惑星間の相互衝突の為の衝突と重力拡散の比率であり、自由空間での公式(つまり、太陽の重力に左右されることがない)が使われている。 ※1:et al:論文などで共同著者が多い場合、代表者以外をこのように「その他」と表す場合が多いです。



ご丁寧な訳に大変感謝しております。 ありがとうございました。


  • 和訳をお願いいたしますm(_ _)m

    和訳をよろしくお願いします! On November 15 a festival is held for children seven (siti)five(go) and three(san) years old, and so the festival is called shichi-go-san. The reason why we have a celebration for these years is because odd numbers are believed to be lucky since they cannot be divided by two. In addition, we are told that since the ages of 7, 5 and 3 years are important growth steps for children, it is, therefore, significant to honor the children of these ages. In many parts of Japan, a child is received as a member of a shrine parts when he or she is seven. Though the are variations according to locality, in general, boys who are three and five and girls who are three and seven are dressed in their best clothes, and are taken by their parents to large and prestigious shrines, and very often A to the shrines of their local deities. It is customary after the visit to buy chitose-ame(thousand-year candy), sold at the stalls on the grounds of the shrine. よろしくお願いしますm(_ _)m

  • 和訳お願いしますm(_ _)m

    The Doll Festival、 which is celebrated on March 3、 is a festival for girls。 This festival is also called the Peach Festival because peach blossoms、 which have a graceful and gentle appearance、 are at their best in March。 Households with daughters display a set of dolls in ancient court costumes on a stand of 5 to 7 tiers covered with red cloth。 These dolls represent an emperor、 an empress、 court attendants、 and court musicians。 Diamond- shaped rice cakes and a type of sake are arranged in front of the tiered stand。 This display of dolls and food is arranged by the family for the purpose of praying for the good health and sound growth of the daughters。 Young girls wearing kimono celebrate the festival by eating sweet rice cakes and drinking white sake while admiring the display。 以上です、よろしくお願いいたしますm(_ _)m

  • 和訳の問題で質問です。

    大学の入試問題なのですが、解答速報などがないため質問させてください。 2つ和訳の問題があり、 1:The market works, and pollution is reduced , but without the spirit of shared sacrifice that might have been produced had no market intervened. 2:Still, everyone likes economic growth these days, and the trend is ,if anything , toward increasing reliance on what I have called the "old paradigm" rather than toward a more complex account of what societies should be trying to achieve for their people. これらの文はどのように訳すとよいのでしょうか? 前後がないためわかりにくいところもあるかもしれませんがお願いします。

  • 和訳願います

    和訳してもらえますか。 Two opposite errors, both common, are to be guarded against. On the one hand, men who are more familiar with books than with affairs are apt to over-estimate the influence of philosophers. When they see some political party proclaiming itself inspired by So-and-So's teaching, they think its actions are attributable to So-and-So, whereas, not infrequently, the philosopher is only acclaimed because he recommends what the party would have done in any case. Writers of books, until recently, almost all exaggerated the effects of their predecessors in the same trade. But conversely, a new error has arisen by reaction against the old one, and this new error consists in regarding theorists as almost passive products of their circumstances, and as having hardly any influence at all upon the course of events. Ideas, according to this view, are the froth on the surface of deep currents, which are determined by material and technical causes: social changes are no more caused by thought than the flow of a river is caused by the bubbles that reveal its direction to an onlooker. For my part, I believe that the truth lies between these two extremes. Between ideas and practical life, as everywhere else, there is reciprocal interaction; to ask which is cause and which effect is as futile as the problem of the hen and the egg.

  • 和訳お願いします。

    So,perhaps, is the sheer scale of the business. Wal-Mart and Tesco can change the world at the stroke of a pen, but one decision they will not make voluntarily is to relax their grip on local economies. It will always be haeder for small businesses to work with a global behemoth than with the local baker or butcher; Tesco's economy will continue to favour the big, distant supplier over the man down the road. And what of the sense of community that independent small shops help to foste, which encourages people to make their friends close to home? If love miles are the most intractable cause of climate change, we need to start cultivating as much community spirit as we can. But there is a bigger contradiction than this, which has been overlooked by the supermaekets and by many of their critics. “The green movement,” Leahy tells us, “must become a mass movement in green consumption.” But what about consuming less? Less is the one thing the superstores cannot sell us. As further efficiencies become harder to extract, their growth will eventually outstrip all their reductions in the use of energy. This is not Tesco's problem alone: the green movement's alternatives still lack force. The big retaiers are competing to convince us that they are greener than their rivals, and this should make us glad. But we still need govenments, and we still need campaigners. よろしくお願いします。

  • 英語の和訳でつまずいています、訳を教えて下さい。

    Mr. Geithner also urged Asian and Pacific economies to take up the slack as Europe confronts slowing economic growth. “We are all directly affected by the crisis in Europe,” he said, “but the economies gathered here are in a better position than most to take steps to strengthen growth in the face of these pressures from Europe.” ガイトナーさんの発言ですが、are in a better position than のつぎにmostがきており、これが何を指すのかわかりません。 この部分の訳を教えてください。 できれば文法的な説明もしていただけるとありがたいです。

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    To readily calculate some of the physical characteristics of crystals, such as atomic density and density of three electrons, we must know the number of lattice points per cell. You may think that such a determination is quite trivial, but it is surprising how many people have difficulty with it! The number of lattice points per cell, N, is given by the equation N= Ni+ Ni/2+ Nc/8 Where Ni is the number of lattice points in the interior of the cell (these points “belong” only to one cells), Nf is the number of lattice points on faces (these are shared by two cells), and Nc is the number of lattice points on corners (these are shared by eight cells). For the three cubic unit cells the number of lattice points per cell is Primitive cubic (cubic P) 1 Body-centered cubic (cubic I) 2 Face-centered cubic(cubic F) 4 All primitive cells have one lattice point per cell. All nonprimitive cells have more than one lattice point per cell.

  • 和訳を教えてください。

                       Conclusive remarks As mentioned above, the collisional rate of Keplerian particles is about 2.3 (ei~=0) or 1.4 (ei~=4) times larger than that of free space particles, in the limited framework of the two-dimensional particle motion. We are now carrying out orbital calculations for other values of eccentricity, ei~, of which results appear that for larger values of ei~ the collisional rate of Keplerian particles is not so much different from that of free space particles. These show that the time scale of protoplanery growth is shortened by a little, compared with that deduced from the free space formula and that the free space approximation is almost right within an accuracy of a factor of 2. In order to obtain more definitely the time scale of protoplanetary growth, however, we have to compare the collisional rate with the scattering rate. Moreover, we need to study the three-dimensional collisional process of Keplerian particles, taking into account inclinations of particle orbits.

  • この英文の和訳をお願いします。

    翻訳機能を使ってもわかりやすい訳がでてこなかったため、和訳をお願いしたいです。 As discussed above , the implementation of the Memoranda strategy systematically fails regarding its time schedules . Indicative of this failure is that from May 2010 to May 2013 their forecasts for GDP growth had to be revised downwards eight times . Correspondingly , the troika had to revise downwards seven times its own forecasts for the required fiscal adjustment : the initial fiscal austerity measures were 25 billion while the most recent estimate revises their cumulative amounts upwards to 66 billion . There is a similar failure to forecast the government debt , the ratio of foreign debt to GDP , the level of unemployment , etc . These results are at least unacceptable . What are the reasons behind these failures ?

  • この英文を和訳してほしいです。

    There is some evidence that these improvements in the characteristics of elders have resulted in more positive views of aging. Tibbitts claimed that during the past 30 to 40 years, U.S. society has moved from holding negative stereotypes of old people to holding positive views in which elders are seen as being able to contribute to the quality of life for themselves, their communities, and society as a whole. Schonfield even argued that the assumption of negative attitudes toward old people is a "social myth" perpetuated by the gerontological literature. We will be examining these attitudes in derail in Chapter 2, but there does appear to be a substantial shift from negative to positive attitudes. The improvements in the physical, mental,social, and economic characteristics of elders have been so marked, and there have been so many programs and services developed for elders only, that many have begun to criticize these programs as discrimination in favor of the aged, or positive ageism. We will be discussing examples of positive ageism throughout this book; but the ones that have drawn most criticism so far are the Medicare program and some features of the Social Security System, such as the automatic cost of living increases in benefits and the tax-exemption of Social Security benefits for most elders. Perhaps these programs have been criticized the most because they involve the most money. Critics are beginning to argue that since elders are no longer deprived economically and since they are now much better off mentally, physically, and socially than they were in the past, it is no longer necessary or fair to continue the enormous expense of these special supports and programs available only to elders. Some argue that the way to reduce positive ageism is to make these supports and programs available to all ages on the basis of need. For example, they recommend that the national health insurance, which only elders now enjoy, be extended to all ages. It is clear that positive ageism is becoming an important issue and promises to become even more important as we are faced with more older people and more expensive programs for "seniors only."