Latin became an international language throughout the Roman Empire, but this was not because the Romans were more numerous than the people they conquered. They were simply more powerful. Later, when Roman military power declined, Latin remained for a millennium as the international language of education, (A) a different sort of powerーthe religious power of Roman Catholicism.
There is also the closest of links between language dominance and economic, technological, and cultural power. (B) a strong power-base, no language can make progress as an lnternational medium of communication. Language has no independent existence, living in some sort of mystical space apart from the people who speak it. When they succeed on the international stage, their language succeeds. When they fail, their language fails.
This point may seem obvious, but it need to be made, (C) over the years many popular and misleading beliefs have grown up about why a language should become internationally successful. It is quite common to hear people claim that an internationl language is an ideal model, on account of its literary qualities and clarity of expression. Hebrew, Greek,Latin, Arabic and French are among those which at various times have been praised in such terms, and English is no exception. It is often suggested, for example, that there must be something beautiful or logical about the structure of English itself, in order to explain why it is now so widely used. “It has less grammer than other languages,” some have suggested. This is intended to mean that the language is grammatically not so complicated compared with other languages, so it must be easier to learn.
Such arguments are wrong. Latin was once a major international language, (D) it seems grammatically much more complicated. A language does not become a global language because of its structural properties, or because of the size of its vocabulary, or because it was once associated with a great culture or religion. A language has traditionally become an international language for one chief reason: the power of its peopleーespecially their political and military power.
(A) 1in spite of 2thanks to 3instead of 4at the expense of
(B) 1With 2Without 3Because of 4As a result of
(C),(D) 1so 2though 3because 4as a result