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英文の翻訳お願いしますm(--)m

surprisingly,the strongest evidence comes from brain-damaged patients! suppose there was only one memory system dealing with short-term and long -term memory. if that one and only memory system were damaged,performance would be impaired on all memory tasks regardlless of whether they involved short-term or long-term memory. 翻訳お願いしますm(. .)m

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  • sayshe
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驚くべきことに、最も強力な証拠は、脳に損傷を受けた患者からのものです! 短期記憶と長期記憶に対処するメモリ・システムが一つしかないと思ってください。 その唯一のメモリ・システムが損傷を受けるならば、記憶作業が短期記憶に関わったか長期記憶に関わったかを問わず、パフォーマンスはすべての記憶作業に関して損なわれるでしょう。

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    Peterson and peterson(1959)studied the duration of short-term memory by using the task of remembering a three-letter stimulus while counting backwards by threes.The ability to remember the three letters in the correct order reduced to only about 50% after 6 seconds and forgetting was almost complete after 18 seconds(see the figure on the left). What is the most convincing evidence that short-term and long-term memory are distinct?Surprisingly,the strongest evidence comes from brain-damaged patients!Suppose there was only one memory system dealing with short-term and long-term memory.If that one and only memory system were damaged,performance would be impaired on all memory tasks regardless of wherther they involved short-term or long-term memory.In contrast,suppose there are separate short-term and long-term memory systems located in different parts of the brain.It follows that some brain-damaged patients should have impaired long-term memory but intact short-term memory,whereas others should have impaired short-term memory but intact long-term memory.If such finding were obtained,they would from a double dissociation(i.e.,some patients perform normally on task A but poorly on task B,whereas others perform normally on task B but poorly on task A).

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    The short-term stores are itself has very limited capacity. Some information processed in the short-term store is transferred to the long-term store,which has unlimited capacity. Long-term storage of information often depends on rehearsal,with a direct relationship between the amount of rehearsal in the short-term store and the strength of the stored memory trace. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin(1968),short-term memory is involved before long-term memory. However,an increasingly popular view is that short-term memory is only involved after long-term memory.

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    In similar fashion,we can only rehearse"IBM"as a single chunk in short-term memory by using relevant information stored in long-term memory.Thus,access to long-term memory occurs before information is processed in short-term memory. There is another reason why Atkinson and Shiffrin's(1968) assumption that information is processed in short-term memory before reaching long-term memory should be rejected (Marc Brysbaert,personal communication).

  • 英文の翻訳お願いしますm(_ _)m

    peterson and peterson(1959)studied the duration of short-term memory by using the task of remembering a three-letter stimulus while couting backwards by threes. the ability to remember the three letters in the correct order reduced to only about 50% after 6 seconds(see the figure on the left). what is the most convincing evidence that short-term and long-term memory are distinct? 翻訳お願いしますm(--)m

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    another(very obvious)differece between short-term and long-term memory is in the length of time for which information is remembered.much information(e.g.,our own names;the names of our parents and friends)remains in long-term memory for a lifetime,whereas information in short-term memory is lost rapidly. 翻訳お願いします(__)

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    They argued that we use short-term memory much of the time when engaged in the performance of complex tasks. You have to carry out various processes to complete the task,but you also have to briefly store information about the outcome of early processes in short-term memory as you move on to later processes. For example, suppose you were given the addition problem 13+18+24. You would probably add 13 and 18 and keep the answer (i.e.,31) in short-term memory. You would then add 24 to 31 and produce the correct answer of 55.

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    Evaluation The assumption within the model that there are separate short-term and long-term stores has been influential and is approximately correct. As we will see, it is a gross oversimplification to argue that there is a single short-term memory store(see section on working memory). It is a gross oversimplification to argue that there is a single long-term memory store(see section on types of long-term memory).It seems very doubtful that knowledge that Russel Crowe is a film star,that 2+2=4,that we had muesli for breakfast,and information about how to ride a bicycle are all stored in the same long-term memory store.

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    Atkinson and Shiffrin assumed that information in short-term memory represents "the conterts of consciousness,"implying that only information processed consciously can be stored in long-term memory. However, there is reasonable (if not conclusive) evidence for the existence of learning without conscious awareness of what has been learnd (this is known as implicit learning--see Chapter7). It would seem that implicit learning would be impossible within Atkinson and Shiffrin's(1968) model.

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