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  • 質問No.9703046
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While Cape Helles is more forgiving than the wild terrain at Anzac Cove, the battlefield still presented difficulties to the attacking force. The ground looked flat but was riven by four large gullies, or deres, running from Achi Baba towards the Cape. On the west was Gully Ravine which was separated from the Aegean shore by Gully Spur. Moving east was Fir Tree Spur then Krithia Valley (also known as Krithia Nullah or Kirte Dere) then Krithia Spur then Kanli Dere then Kereves Spur then Kereves Dere which flows into the Dardanelles at Morto Bay. Krithia Spur was bare and exposed so was not favoured for attacks. Gully Spur and Fir Tree Spur offered some cover and so the majority of the British advances were made on these spurs and in the shelter of the gullies.
Plan
Like the first battle, the plan was for a general advance on a broad front across the peninsula. The attack was divided into three phases. The first phase involved a general advance of one mile across the entire front which would place the French, on the right of the line, astride Kereves Spur where they were to dig in. In the second phase, the British in the centre and on the left would pivot on the French position and sweep up Fir Tree Spur and Gully Spur then capture Krithia village. The third phase would be the capture of Achi Baba.
In the end, after three days of fighting, the Allies would abandon the battle without even completing the first phase. In fact, the greatest advance achieved was a mere 600 yd (550 m). The plan was made despite the fact that the British had no clear idea where the Ottoman fortifications were. There was as yet no continuous system of trenches and aerial reconnaissance had failed to locate the defences. Consequently, the preliminary bombardments that were made before each advance were utterly ineffectual. Hunter-Weston also insisted that the attacks be made in broad daylight, fearing that an attack under the cover of darkness would become confused. Having failed with this approach once during the first battle did not deter Hunter-Weston, and as the second battle progressed he would remain undeterred. The Allied advance began later than scheduled, around 11:00 on 6 May, and was swiftly halted by strong Ottoman resistance. The 88th Brigade of the 29th Division advancing on Fir Tree Spur managed to capture Fir Tree Wood, and the 6th (Hood) Battalion of the British 63rd (Royal Naval) Division advanced strongly along Kanli Dere, but at all points on the line the gains were never more than 400 yd (370 m). At no point were the Ottoman defences reached. The attack was resumed on 7 May; it used the same plan and produced largely the same results.

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>While Cape Helles is more forgiving than the wild terrain at Anzac Cove, the battlefield still presented difficulties to the attacking force. The ground looked flat but was riven by four large gullies, or deres*, running from Achi Baba towards the Cape. On the west was Gully Ravine which was separated from the Aegean shore by Gully Spur. Moving east was Fir Tree Spur then Krithia Valley (also known as Krithia Nullah or Kirte Dere) then Krithia Spur then Kanli Dere then Kereves Spur then Kereves Dere which flows into the Dardanelles at Morto Bay. Krithia Spur was bare and exposed so was not favoured for attacks. Gully Spur and Fir Tree Spur offered some cover and so the majority of the British advances were made on these spurs and in the shelter of the gullies.
⇒ヘレス岬はアンザック小湾の野生の地形よりも穏やかだが、戦場は依然として攻撃部隊に困難を呈した。地面は平らに見えたが、アチ・ババから岬に向かって走る4本の大きな渓谷、またはデレ*によって裂けていた。西には、ガリー山脚によってエーゲ海の海岸から隔てられたガリー渓谷があった。東へ移ると、ファー・ツリー(モミの木)山脚、クリチア渓谷(クリチア・ヌラーまたはキルテ・デレ)、クリチア山脚、カンリ・デレ、ケレベス山脚、それと、モルト湾のダーダネルス川に流れ込むケレベス・デレがあった。クリチア山脚は、山肌が露出していたため攻撃には有利ではなかった。ガリー山脚とファー・ツリー山脚が庇護物を提供したため、英国軍の進軍の多くはこれらの山脚と渓谷の隠れ場で行われた。
*deres:詳細不明。「渓谷」を意味するトルコ語かも知れません。

>Plan
 Like the first battle, the plan was for a general advance on a broad front across the peninsula. The attack was divided into three phases. The first phase involved a general advance of one mile across the entire front which would place the French, on the right of the line, astride Kereves Spur where they were to dig in. In the second phase, the British in the centre and on the left would pivot on the French position and sweep up Fir Tree Spur and Gully Spur then capture Krithia village. The third phase would be the capture of Achi Baba.
⇒計画
 最初の戦いのように、計画は半島を横切る前線での全般的な前進のためであった。攻撃は3つの局面に分けられた。第1局面では、戦線全体にわたって1マイル先までの全般的な前進を含み、フランス軍が戦線の右側で、ケレベス山脚にまたがる塹壕を掘ることになっていた。第2局面では、中央と左側の英国軍がフランス軍陣地で旋回してファー・ツリー山脚とガリー山脚を一掃し、クリチア村を攻略することになっていた。第3局面は、アチ・ババを攻略することにしていた。

>In the end, after three days of fighting, the Allies would abandon the battle without even completing the first phase. In fact, the greatest advance achieved was a mere 600 yd (550 m). The plan was made despite the fact that the British had no clear idea where the Ottoman fortifications were. There was as yet no continuous system of trenches and aerial reconnaissance had failed to locate the defences. Consequently, the preliminary bombardments that were made before each advance were utterly ineffectual. Hunter-Weston also insisted that the attacks be made in broad daylight, fearing that an attack under the cover of darkness would become confused.
⇒3日間の戦闘の後、連合国軍は最終的に第1局面を完了することなく戦闘を放棄したようである。実際、達成された最大の進軍でもわずか600ヤード(550 m)であった。この計画は、英国軍がオスマン帝国の要塞がどこにあるのか明確に掴んでいなかったという事実にもかかわらず、それを意に介さずに作られた。塹壕の連続的なシステムはまだ存在せず、空中偵察は防衛施設を見つけるのに失敗していた。その結果、進軍の前ごとに行われた予備砲撃は全く効果がなかった。(ヘレスの司令官)ハンター-ウェストンはまた、暗闇という覆いの中での攻撃が混乱することを恐れて、攻撃は白昼に行うことを主張した。

>Having failed with this approach once during the first battle did not deter Hunter-Weston, and as the second battle progressed he would remain undeterred. The Allied advance began later than scheduled, around 11:00 on 6 May, and was swiftly halted by strong Ottoman resistance. The 88th Brigade of the 29th Division advancing on Fir Tree Spur managed to capture Fir Tree Wood, and the 6th (Hood) Battalion of the British 63rd (Royal Naval) Division advanced strongly along Kanli Dere, but at all points on the line the gains were never more than 400 yd (370 m). At no point were the Ottoman defences reached. The attack was resumed on 7 May; it used the same plan and produced largely the same results.
⇒最初の戦いの間に、この方法で一度は失敗したにもかかわらず、ハンター-ウェストンは思いとどまることも、くじけることもなく第2の戦いを進めた。連合国軍の前進は予定より遅れて5月6日11時頃に始まったものの、オスマン軍の強い抵抗により、早々に中止された。ファー・ツリー山脚を進軍した第29師団の第88旅団は何とかファー・ツリー森を攻略し、英国第63(王立海軍)師団の第6(フッド)大隊はカンリ・デレに沿って強力に前進したが、戦線のどの地点でも400ヤード(370 m)を超えることはなかった。いかなる地点でも、オスマン軍の防衛施設に到達することはなかった。攻撃は、5月7日に再開された。同じ計画を使用したので、結果も大局的にはほぼ同じであった。
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iwano_aoi

お礼率 88% (2802/3154)

回答ありがとうございました。
投稿日時:2020/01/30 23:17
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