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The Battle of Gully Ravine (Zığındere) was a World War I battle fought at Cape Helles on the Gallipoli peninsula. By June 1915 all thoughts the Allies had of a swift decisive victory over the Ottoman Empire had vanished. The preceding Third Battle of Krithia and the attack at Gully Ravine had limited objectives and had much in common with the trench warfare prevailing on the Western Front. Unlike previous Allied attacks at Helles, the Gully Ravine action was largely successful at achieving its objectives though at a typically high cost in casualties. The third battle of Krithia on 4 June had made some progress in the centre of the line at Helles but had failed on the left flank (west) along Gully Spur and Gully Ravine and on the right flank (east) where the French contingent were confronted by a number of strong Ottoman redoubts on Kereves Spur. As a prelude to a new offensive the commander at Helles, Lieutenant General Aylmer Hunter-Weston ordered separate limited attacks to advance the flanks. (1. Kerevizdere Battle)On 21 June the French, with overwhelming artillery support, attacked two redoubts controlling the crest of Kereves Spur (Kervizdere). Over 40,000 shells fell on the Ottoman 2nd Division defending this area. They succeeded in capturing Haricot Redoubt but the second objective, the Quadrilateral, was not captured until 30 June. Captain Kemal Bey commanding the troops from the line of fire was wounded and died the next day. The French suffered 2,500 casualties but the Ottomans on the receiving end of the bombardment suffered 6,000. Remnants of the Ottoman 2nd Division were pulled back to the Asian side after this battle. This minor gain was cause of much celebration for allies who were at that point very anxious for any good news. General Gourard received congratulatory telegrams from London and Paris, Lord Kitchener, Admiral Robeck, and General Hamilton. Colonel Girdon was awarded the Légion d'honneur. On 28 June a similar attack was planned for the left flank along Gully Spur, Gully Ravine and neighbouring Fir Tree Spur. The terrain around Gully Ravine (Turkish: Sığındere) was closer to the wild and rough terrain at Anzac Cove than to the ground elsewhere at Helles. The plan was for the British 29th Division and the 29th Indian Brigade to attack along Gully Spur and the ravine while one newly arrived brigade on loan to the 29th Division, the 156th (Scottish Rifles) Brigade from the British 52nd (Lowland) Division, would attack along Fir Tree Spur. The Battle of Gully Ravine ガリー渓谷の戦い

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>The Battle of Gully Ravine (Zığındere) was a World War I battle fought at Cape Helles on the Gallipoli peninsula. By June 1915 all thoughts the Allies had of a swift decisive victory over the Ottoman Empire had vanished. The preceding Third Battle of Krithia and the attack at Gully Ravine had limited objectives and had much in common with the trench warfare prevailing on the Western Front. Unlike previous Allied attacks at Helles, the Gully Ravine action was largely successful at achieving its objectives though at a typically high cost in casualties. ⇒「ガリー渓谷の戦い」(ジズィンデレ)は、ガリポリ半島のヘレス岬で行われた第一次世界大戦の戦いであった。1915年6月ごろに、オスマン帝国に対する迅速かつ決定的な勝利について連合国が持っていたあらゆる考えが消え去った。先行の「第三次クリティアの戦い」とガリー渓谷への攻撃は、目的が限られており、西部戦線での塹壕戦と多く共通していた。以前のヘレスにおける連合国軍の攻撃とは異なり、ガリー渓谷の行動はその目的を達成するのに大部分成功したが、犠牲者については高くついた(攻撃の)典型であった。 >The third battle of Krithia on 4 June had made some progress in the centre of the line at Helles but had failed on the left flank (west) along Gully Spur and Gully Ravine and on the right flank (east) where the French contingent were confronted by a number of strong Ottoman redoubts on Kereves Spur. As a prelude to a new offensive the commander at Helles, Lieutenant General Aylmer Hunter-Weston ordered separate limited attacks to advance the flanks. ⇒6月4日の「第三次クリティアの戦い」は、ヘレス戦線の中央部である程度の進歩を遂げたが、ガリー山脚とガリー渓谷に沿った左(西)側面と、フランス軍が直面した右(東)側面では、ケレーブ山脚での多くの強力なオスマン軍の小砦によって失敗した。ヘレスの新しい攻勢の除幕として、司令官アイルマー・ハンター-ウェストン中将は、側面を前進させるために個別の限定攻撃を命じた。 >(1. Kerevizdere Battle)On 21 June the French, with overwhelming artillery support, attacked two redoubts controlling the crest of Kereves Spur (Kervizdere). Over 40,000 shells fell on the Ottoman 2nd Division defending this area. They succeeded in capturing Haricot Redoubt but the second objective, the Quadrilateral, was not captured until 30 June. Captain Kemal Bey commanding the troops from the line of fire was wounded and died the next day. ⇒(1.「ケレビズデレの戦い」)6月21日、フランス軍は圧倒的な大砲の支援を得て、ケレーブ山脚(ケルビズデレ)の頂上を支配している2つの砦を攻撃した。40,000発以上の砲弾がこの地域を守るオスマン軍第2師団の上に降った。彼らはハリコット小砦を占領することに成功したが、第2の目的である四辺形要塞地は6月30日まで占領されなかった。砲火の線上から部隊を指揮するケマル・ベイ少尉が負傷し、翌日死亡した。 >The French suffered 2,500 casualties but the Ottomans on the receiving end of the bombardment suffered 6,000. Remnants of the Ottoman 2nd Division were pulled back to the Asian side after this battle. This minor gain was cause of much celebration for allies who were at that point very anxious for any good news. General Gourard received congratulatory telegrams from London and Paris, Lord Kitchener, Admiral Robeck, and General Hamilton. Colonel Girdon was awarded the Légion d'honneur*. ⇒フランス軍は2,500人の犠牲者を出したが、砲撃を受けた標的のオスマン軍は6,000人の犠牲者を出した。この戦いの後、オスマン軍第2師団の生き残りがアジア側に引き戻された。この小さな利益は、その時点でどんな良いニュースをも気にかけていた連合国軍にとって大変な祝賀の要因となった。グラード将軍は、ロンドンとパリ、キッチナー卿、ロベック提督、ハミルトン将軍から祝電を受け取った。ガードン大佐は、レジョン・ドヌール*を授与された。 *フランスの兵士や公職者の功労者に対する勲章(5階級に分かれている)。 >On 28 June a similar attack was planned for the left flank along Gully Spur, Gully Ravine and neighbouring Fir Tree Spur. The terrain around Gully Ravine (Turkish: Sığındere) was closer to the wild and rough terrain at Anzac Cove than to the ground elsewhere at Helles. The plan was for the British 29th Division and the 29th Indian Brigade to attack along Gully Spur and the ravine while one newly arrived brigade on loan to the 29th Division, the 156th (Scottish Rifles) Brigade from the British 52nd (Lowland) Division, would attack along Fir Tree Spur. ⇒6月28日、ガリー山脚、ガリー渓谷、および隣接するファー・ツリー(モミの木)山脚に沿った左側面に対しても同様の攻撃が計画された。ガリー渓谷(トルコ語:Sığındere)の周囲の地形は、ヘレスにおける他の場所よりもアンザック小湾の荒れた起伏の多い地形に近かった。計画は、英国軍第29師団と第29インド軍旅団がガリー山脚と峡谷に沿って攻撃することであって、そのために第29師団に貸し出された1個旅団が到着した。それは英国軍第52(ローランド)師団から来た第156(スコットランド小銃隊)旅団で、ファー・ツリー山脚に沿って攻撃することになっていた。

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  • 英文を和訳に翻訳してください。

    The preliminary bombardment would also have two phases. The first bombardment would conclude at 11:20, at which point the British troops would feint an advance, hoping to draw the Turks to the firing line so that they would be caught in a second bombardment starting at 11:30. The other innovation of the third battle was the use of eight armoured cars of the Royal Naval Air Service which were to advance along the main Krithia road in support of the Royal Naval Division's advance. The disposition of the Allied troops from left to right (west to east) was as follows: On the left of the line (western side) by the Aegean shore, the 29th Indian Brigade and the 1st Battalion of the Lancashire Fusiliers (from the 29th Division) would attack along Gully Spur and Gully Ravine. The 29th Division would attack beside Gully Ravine on the left side of Fir Tree Spur. The 42nd Division would attack on the right side of Fir Tree Spur to Kirte Dere. The Royal Naval Division would attack up Achi Baba Nullah (also known as Kanli Dere or Bloody Valley), supported by the armoured cars on Krithia Spur. The French would attack on the right along Kereves Spur.The attack began at noon on 4 June, when the last bombardment ended. There was pause in bombardment to pull Ottomans back into trenches who were further decimated there by the renewal of the bombardment. Ottoman losses were around 6,000 on that first day. On the left, the attack of the Indian Brigade was quickly halted except along the Aegean shore where the 1/6th Battalion of the Gurkha Rifles managed to advance. The 14th Battalion of King George's Own Ferozepore Sikhs Regiment, advancing along the floor of Gully Ravine, were almost wiped out, losing 380 men out of 514 and 80% of their officers. The 2nd Battalion of the Hampshire Regiment from the 29th Division, advancing along Fir Tree Spur alongside Gully Ravine, managed to advance but having lost contact with the Sikhs on their left were forced to defend along the bank of the ravine as well as to their front. Elsewhere, the 29th Division advance was held up with heavy casualties by Ottoman strongpoints that had survived the bombardment unscratched. The advance of the 42nd Division was, by Gallipoli standards, very successful, quickly reaching the first objective of the Ottoman trenches and moving beyond to advance a total of 1,000 yd (910 m). This attack was made by the 127th (Manchester) Brigade which broke through the Ottoman 9th Division's defences and captured 217 prisoners. The Royal Naval Division's advance was led by the 2nd Naval Brigade which managed to reach and capture the Ottoman trenches. When the second wave—the Collingwood Battalion—attempted to continue the advance, they were caught in enfilade fire from Kereves Dere to the right where the French advance had failed. The battalion, one of the newly arrived reinforcements, was utterly annihilated and was never reformed.

  • 英語の文章を訳して下さい。

    On the extreme left, the British ran into Gully Ravine which was as wild and confusing as the ground at Anzac Cove. Two battalions of the 87th Brigade (1st Border Regiment and 1st Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers) entered the ravine but were halted by a machine gun post near 'Y' Beach. No further advance would be made up the ravine until the 1/6th Gurkha Rifles captured the post on the night of 12/13 May. This involved them going up a 300-foot (91 m) vertical slope, which had defeated the Royal Marine Light Infantry and the Royal Dublin Fusiliers. The site became known as 'Gurkha Bluff'. The exhausted, demoralised and virtually leaderless British troops could go no further in the face of stiffening Ottoman resistance. In places, Ottoman counter-attacks drove the British back to their starting positions. By 6:00 p.m. the attack was called off. About 14,000 Allied troops participated in the battle and suffered 2,000 British and 1,001 French casualties. The scale and duration of the battle was minor compared to later fighting but the First Battle of Krithia was one of the most significant of the campaign as it proved that the original British assumption of a swift victory over an indifferent enemy was mistaken. Helles became the scene of numerous attrition battles, in which success would be measured by an advance of 100 yd (91 m) or the capture of a trench. The Battle of Gurin took place on 29 April 1915 during the Kamerun Campaign of World War I in Gurin, British Nigeria near the border with German Kamerun. The battle was one of the largest of the German forays into the British colony. It ended in a successful British repulsion of the German force. By April 1915, British forces were concentrated mainly in southern and central Kamerun, leaving much of the Nigerian border with the German colony relatively undefended. Following the failed siege of the main German outpost in northwestern Kamerun at the First Battle of Garua in August 1914, German forces in the area had substantial freedom of movement. This allowed Captain von Crailsheim, the German commander at Garua, to conduct a number of raids into British Nigeria. In late April, a force commanded by von Crailsheim joined with a smaller one commanded by Captain Schipper to attack the village of Gurin, just inside the Nigerian border. The village of Gurin was protected by one circular fort and a garrison of 42 men consisting mostly of policemen commanded by Captain Derek Pawle.

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    The Battle of Festubert was the continuation of the Battle of Aubers Ridge (9 May) and part of the larger French Second Battle of Artois. The resumption of the British offensive was intended to assist the French Tenth Army offensive against Vimy Ridge near Arras, by attracting German divisions to the British front, rather than reinforcing the defenders opposite the French. The attack was made by the British First Army under Sir Douglas Haig against a German salient between Neuve Chapelle to the north and the village of Festubert to the south. The assault was planned along a 3-mile (4.8 km) front and would initially be made mainly by Indian troops. This would be the first British army night attack of the war. The battle was preceded by a 60-hour bombardment by 433 artillery pieces that fired about 100,000 shells. This bombardment failed to significantly damage the front line defences of the German 6th Army but the initial advance made some progress in good weather conditions. The attack was renewed on 16 May and by 19 May the 2nd Division and 7th Division had to be withdrawn due to heavy losses. On 18 May, the 1st Canadian Division, assisted by the 51st (Highland) Division, attacked but made little progress in the face of German artillery fire. The British forces dug in at the new front line in heavy rain. The Germans brought up reinforcements and reinforced their defences. From 20–25 May the attack was resumed and Festubert was captured. The offensive had resulted in a 3-kilometre (1.9 mi) advance.The British lost 16,648 casualties from 15/16 to 25 May; the 2nd Division lost 5,445 casualties, the 7th Division 4,123, the 47th Division had 2,355 losses, the Canadian Division lost 2,204 casualties and the 7th (Meerut) Division had 2,521 casualties. The German defenders had c. 5,000 casualties, including 800 men taken prisoner. French casualties during the Second Battle of Artois were 102,533 men and German casualties were 73,072. The 100th anniversary of the battle saw a range of commemorations held across the world. Some of the most poignant were those held in the Highlands of Scotland, in particular in shinty playing communities, which were affected disproportionately by losses in the battle. Skye Camanachd and Kingussie Camanachd, representing two areas which lost a great many men, were joined by the British Forces shinty team, SCOTS Camanachd for a weekend of commemorations, lectures, memorial services and shinty matches on the weekend of 15–17 May 2015 in Portree. Isle of Skye. A week later, the Beauly Shinty Club renamed their pavilion after the Paterson brothers, Donald and Alasdair, who were killed in the battle and were part of their 1913 Camanachd Cup winning side. Donald's bagpipes were recovered with his other effects in the early 1980s and were played at both commemorations.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    While Cape Helles is more forgiving than the wild terrain at Anzac Cove, the battlefield still presented difficulties to the attacking force. The ground looked flat but was riven by four large gullies, or deres, running from Achi Baba towards the Cape. On the west was Gully Ravine which was separated from the Aegean shore by Gully Spur. Moving east was Fir Tree Spur then Krithia Valley (also known as Krithia Nullah or Kirte Dere) then Krithia Spur then Kanli Dere then Kereves Spur then Kereves Dere which flows into the Dardanelles at Morto Bay. Krithia Spur was bare and exposed so was not favoured for attacks. Gully Spur and Fir Tree Spur offered some cover and so the majority of the British advances were made on these spurs and in the shelter of the gullies. Plan Like the first battle, the plan was for a general advance on a broad front across the peninsula. The attack was divided into three phases. The first phase involved a general advance of one mile across the entire front which would place the French, on the right of the line, astride Kereves Spur where they were to dig in. In the second phase, the British in the centre and on the left would pivot on the French position and sweep up Fir Tree Spur and Gully Spur then capture Krithia village. The third phase would be the capture of Achi Baba. In the end, after three days of fighting, the Allies would abandon the battle without even completing the first phase. In fact, the greatest advance achieved was a mere 600 yd (550 m). The plan was made despite the fact that the British had no clear idea where the Ottoman fortifications were. There was as yet no continuous system of trenches and aerial reconnaissance had failed to locate the defences. Consequently, the preliminary bombardments that were made before each advance were utterly ineffectual. Hunter-Weston also insisted that the attacks be made in broad daylight, fearing that an attack under the cover of darkness would become confused. Having failed with this approach once during the first battle did not deter Hunter-Weston, and as the second battle progressed he would remain undeterred. The Allied advance began later than scheduled, around 11:00 on 6 May, and was swiftly halted by strong Ottoman resistance. The 88th Brigade of the 29th Division advancing on Fir Tree Spur managed to capture Fir Tree Wood, and the 6th (Hood) Battalion of the British 63rd (Royal Naval) Division advanced strongly along Kanli Dere, but at all points on the line the gains were never more than 400 yd (370 m). At no point were the Ottoman defences reached. The attack was resumed on 7 May; it used the same plan and produced largely the same results.

  • 英語の文章を訳して下さい。

    The British captured Kut in February 1917 on their way to the capture of Baghdad sixteen days later on 11 March 1917. The humiliation the British faced due to the loss of Kut had been partially rectified. The Ottoman government was forced to end its military operations in Persia and try to build up a new army to prevent the British from moving on to capture of Mosul. Sepoy Chatta Singh of the 9th Bhopal Infantry was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions at the battle.

  • 英語の文章を日本語の文章に訳して下さい。

    Consequently, the Fifth Army underwent a reorganisation resulting in an expansion to 16 divisions. Ten of these defended the existing battlefields (six at Helles, which had seen the bulk of the early fighting, and four at Anzac). Three divisions defended the Asian shore of the Dardanelles and three divisions of the Ottoman XVI Corps defended the Gulf of Saros north of Bulair at the neck of the peninsula. The Ottomans anticipated that the offensive would involve a breakout from Anzac but were unsure whether it would be north (towards Suvla) or south (towards Gaba Tepe). A new British landing was also considered likely but Suvla was not rated highly as a candidate, consequently, only a modest force of four battalions defended the area. The Ottoman commanders also dismissed the possibility of an assault against the Sari Bair range due to the rugged terrain. Only Mustafa Kemal, commander of the Ottoman 19th Division at Anzac, expected the attack against the heights but he was unable to convince his commanding officer, Esad Pasha to significantly strengthen the defenses there. Back in June he had made another attempt, through Captain Fahrettin Altay, then 3. Army chief of staff, to persuade Esad Pasha to beef up defenses further North, but had no result other than raising the ire of his commanding officer. To placate him, only one regiment, 14. was moved to the sector north of Anzac. The attack from the Anzac perimeter was directed against two peaks of the Sari Bair range; Chunuk Bair and Hill 971. Under the overall command of Major-General Alexander Godley, the attacking force included the New Zealand and Australian Division, the British 13th Division plus a couple of extra infantry brigades. The plan was for two assaulting columns to march out of Anzac on the night of 6 August. The right-hand column, comprising the New Zealand Infantry Brigade under Brigadier-General Francis Johnston, would head for Chunuk Bair. The left-hand column, commanded by Major-General Herbert Cox, heading for Hill 971 and neighbouring Hill Q, contained the Australian 4th Infantry Brigade of Brigadier-General John Monash and Cox's 29th Indian Brigade. Both objectives were expected to be captured by dawn. To distract the Ottomans from the impending offensive, on 6 August, at 5.30 p.m., an attack was made at Lone Pine by the infantry brigades of the Australian 1st Division. While the attack was ultimately successful in capturing the Ottoman trenches, it was counterproductive as a diversion as it attracted reinforcements to the north. Another costly diversion was carried out at Helles which resulted in a pointless struggle over a patch of ground known as Krithia Vineyard. As was the case at Lone Pine, the British action at Helles did not restrain the Ottomans from sending reinforcements north to the Sari Bair range.

  • 英文を日本文に翻訳して下さい。

    After two days of heavy bombardment, battle began at 10.45 am on 28 June with a preliminary raid to capture the Boomerang Redoubt on Gully Spur. The general advance commenced shortly afterwards. The artillery fire on Gully Spur was overwhelming and the 2/10th Gurkha Rifles and the 2nd Battalion of the Royal Fusiliers advanced rapidly a distance of half a mile to a point named "Fusilier Bluff" which was to become the northern-most Allied position at Helles. In the ravine the 1st Battalion, Border Regiment did not advance as far as those troops on the spur since Ottomans there were somewhat sheltered from the deadly bombardment from the sea. Their final position was fortified with rocks and boulders and became known as "Border Barricade". On the right of the advance, along Fir Tree Spur, the battle did not go so well for the British. The inexperienced soldiers of the 156th Brigade lacked artillery support and were massacred by Ottoman machine guns and bayonet attacks. Despite the opposition, they were ordered to press the attack and so the support and reserve lines were sent forward but made no progress. By the time the attack was halted the Brigade was at half strength, having suffered casualties of which 800 had been killed. Some battalions were so depleted they had to be merged into composite formations. When the rest of the 52nd Division landed, the commander, Major General Granville Egerton, was enraged at the manner in which his 156th Brigade had been sacrificed. Ottoman commanders were very concerned about this advance near the Western coast of Gallipoli which threatened to encircle their right wing. Gully Ravine became the scene of vicious and bloody fighting as the Ottomans commenced a series of counter-attacks on the night of 1–2 July. Two soldiers of the 1st Battalion, the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, Captain Gerald O'Sullivan and Corporal James Somers, were awarded the Victoria Cross for recapturing a trench taken by the Ottomans during a counter-attack. Faik Paşa, known for his bravery and aggressiveness was put in charge of the right wing of the Otto limanne at Sıĝındere. The Ottomans, with plentiful manpower in reserve but lacking any significant artillery and machine guns, made incessant counter-attacks culminating with the strongest on 5 July but all were repulsed. Still, the control of the strategic hills overlooking Sıgındere and Kerevizdere were denied to the Allies by massive Ottoman bayonet attacks. The Ottoman casualties for the period between 28 June and 5 July are estimated at between 14,000 and 16,000, four times the British losses. Where possible the Ottoman dead were burned but a truce to bury them was refused. The British believed the dead bodies were an effective barrier and that Ottoman soldiers were unwilling to attack across them. This was one of the few truly unvalorous and unmagnanimous acts committed by Allies which infuriated the Ottoman greatly.

  • 次の英文を訳して下さい。

    The Battle of Krithia Vineyard (6–13 August 1915) was fought during the Gallipoli Campaign during the First World War. It was originally intended as a minor British action at Helles on the Gallipoli peninsula to divert attention from the imminent launch of the August Offensive, but instead, the British commander, Brigadier General H.E. Street, mounted a futile and bloody series of attacks that in the end gained a small patch of ground known as "The Vineyard".The original commander of the British VIII Corps at Helles, Lieutenant General Aylmer Hunter-Weston, had departed the peninsula in July, following the last Helles offensive—the Battle of Gully Ravine. His replacement, Lieutenant General Francis Davies, arrived in early August but had not yet assumed command of the corps when a series of diversions were due to be launched from Anzac and Helles to divert Ottoman attention from the planned landing at Suvla and the break out from Anzac. Consequently, the Helles diversion was planned and conducted by the VIII Corps' chief of staff, Brigadier General H.E. Street, who proved himself an able student of Hunter-Weston's battle strategy.Due to the shortage of artillery, the attack was split into two parts with the 88th Brigade of the 29th Division attacking on the afternoon of 6 August while two brigades of the 42nd (East Lancashire) Division would attack the following day. They were facing four Ottoman divisions, three of which were fresh, while there were two more divisions in reserve. The 88th Brigade's attack managed to capture some Ottoman trenches, which were recaptured by the Ottoman 30th Regiment during a counter-attack. The British attacked again and once more captured some trenches, but the Ottomans counter-attacked again and drove them out. The British failed to hold any ground and the 88th Brigade was effectively destroyed as a fighting force. At around 9:40 am on the morning of 7 August the 42nd Division attacked on the right of the 88th Brigade's sector. The 127th Brigade managed to break through the line held by the Ottoman 13th Division, but were forced back by an Ottoman counter-attack. The Ottomans counter-attacked repeatedly from 7 August to 9 August and the fighting in the area continued until 13 August when it finally subsided. Afterwards, this sector of the Helles front would remain one of the busiest and most violent for the remainder of the campaign.Two Victoria Crosses were awarded to men of the 42nd Division during the fighting at Krithia Vineyard. The British casualties in the first 24 hours of fighting, covering the original attacks of the 88th Brigade and the two brigades of the 42nd Division, were 3,469. The total British casualties for the duration of the battle were probably in excess of 4,000. The Ottoman casualties for the period of the battle were estimated to be around 7,000.

  • 英語の文章を訳して下さい。

    Feizi Bey's troops began to arrive, as expected by the British, on the evening of 8 August. Von Sanders wanted to attack immediately but Feizi Bey objected, saying that the men were exhausted and without artillery support, so Von Sanders dismissed him. In his place he put Mustafa Kemal, the commander of the Ottoman 19th Division, which had been fighting at Chunuk Bair. Kemal assumed authority over the "Anafarta section" which spanned from Suvla south to Chunuk Bair. Kemal, who had proved aggressive and capable at ANZAC, held the high ground and was content to remain on the defensive at Suvla while he dealt with the threat to the Sari Bair ridge. The intensity of the fighting escalated at Suvla on 9 August but the opportunity for the British to make a swift advance had now disappeared. Around midday the gunfire set scrub alight on Scimitar Hill, and Ashmead-Bartlett, watching from Lala Baba, saw the British wounded trying to escape the flames: "I watched the flames approaching and the crawling figures disappear amidst dense clouds of black smoke. When the fire passed on little mounds of scorched khaki alone marked the spot where another mismanaged soldier of the King had returned to mother earth." Reinforcements were arriving, the 53rd (Welsh) Infantry Division had started coming ashore on the night of 8 August, and the 54th (East Anglian) Division arrived on 10 August, but command remained paralysed. Some of the reasons that Stopford gave for his inaction were surreal, such as that the Ottomans were "inclined to be aggressive." Hamilton finally cabled Kitchener that the IX Corps generals were "unfit" for command. Kitchener swiftly replied on 14 August, saying: "If you should deem it necessary to replace Stopford, Mahon and Hammersley, have you any competent generals to take their place? From your report I think Stopford should come home. This is a young man's war, and we must have commanding officers that will take full advantage of opportunities which occur but seldom. If, therefore, any generals fail, do not hesitate to act promptly. Any generals I have available I will send you."Before receiving a response, Kitchener made Lieutenant-General Julian Byng available to command IX Corps. On 15 August Hamilton dismissed Stopford and, while Byng was travelling from France, replaced him with Major-General Beauvoir De Lisle, commander of the British 29th Division at Helles. Hammersley was also dismissed but Hamilton intended to retain Mahon in command of the 10th Division. However, Mahon was incensed that de Lisle, whom he disliked, was appointed above him and quit, saying "I respectfully decline to waive my seniority and to serve under the officer you name."

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    Bombardment began at 4:30 am, from land, sea and air. 14 Allied planes participated in softening up the Ottoman defenses, one of the first such combined actions in military history. Both attacks began well with the capture of the first Ottoman trench but descended into chaos and confusion as, in a repeat of the April and May Helles battles, the troops advanced too far, lost contact and came under artillery and machine gun fire. The next morning confusion and panic resulted in a disorderly retreat which was eventually halted but Hunter-Weston ordered the advance to resume and sent the battered Royal Naval Division in again. The line was stabilised. By the end of the battle, one third of the 52nd Division had become casualties. General Egerton was temporarily dismissed from his command of the division for protesting at the treatment of his troops. In late June General Hunter-Weston departed his command of the British VIII Corps, suffering some indeterminate ailment. This marked the end of Helles as the main front at Gallipoli. The British attempted no more major offensives there for the remainder of the campaign. Weber Paşa, having lost Liman Paşa's confidence was sent back to Germany. The fighting now concentrated along the Sari Bair range and at a new landing at Suvla. In support of this new offensive in August, a diversionary attack was made at Helles which resulted in heavy fighting around Krithia Vineyard. Helles was finally evacuated on 8 January 1916. The Battle of Ngaundere or Battle of Ngaoundéré was a small engagement fought between German and British forces on 29 July 1915 during the Kamerun campaign of World War I. It resulted in a German defeat and British occupation of the town. Following the Allied victory and German surrender at the Second Battle of Garua, the commander of French and British forces in the area, General Cunliffe, was confident in pushing deeper into the German colony of Kamerun. He moved a detachment of his force under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Webb-Bowen 150 miles southeast to the town of Ngaundere on the road leading from the north of the colony to the central plateau where the new German capital and concentration of military forces was. The small advance unit under the command of Captain Fowle arrived at Ngaundere on 29 June 1915 after marching through a severe storm that produced a tornado. When the main body of the unit arrived, the storm still lingered over the town. As a result, the British troops were able to surprise soldiers stationed at many of the German outposts and take them captive before any fighting occurred. At some of the outposts however, fighting did occur resulting in light casualties to the British unit. After the German force had been driven from Ngaundere, it launched a counterattack which the British repulsed. Ngaundere ヌガウンデレ