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In the following days there were several failed attacks and counter-attacks by both sides. The Turks were the first to try during the Second attack on Anzac Cove on 27 April, followed by the ANZACs who tried to advance overnight 1/2 May. The Turkish Third attack on Anzac Cove on 19 May was the worst defeat of them all, with around ten thousand casualties, including three thousand dead. The next four months consisted of only local or diversionary attacks, until 6 August when the ANZACs, in connection with the Landing at Suvla Bay, attacked Chunuk Bair with only limited success. The Turks never succeeded in driving the Australians and New Zealanders back into the sea. Similarly, the ANZACs never broke out of their beachhead. Instead, in December 1915, after eight months of fighting, they evacuated the peninsula. The full extent of casualties on that first day is not known. Birdwood, who did not come ashore until late in the day, estimated between three and four hundred dead on the beaches. The New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage claims one in five of the three thousand New Zealanders involved became a casualty. The Australian War Memorial has 860 Australian dead between 25–30 April, and the Australian Government estimates 2,000 wounded left Anzac Cove on 25 April, but more wounded were still waiting on the battlefields to be evacuated. The Commonwealth War Graves Commission documents that 754 Australian and 147 New Zealand soldiers died on 25 April 1915. A higher than normal proportion of the ANZAC casualties were from the officer ranks. One theory was that they kept exposing themselves to fire, trying to find out where they were or to locate their troops. Four men were taken prisoner by the Turks. It is estimated that the Turkish 27th and 57th Infantry Regiments lost around 2,000 men, or fifty per cent of their combined strength. The full number of Turkish casualties for the day has not been recorded. During the campaign, 8,708 Australians and 2,721 New Zealanders were killed. The exact number of Turkish dead is not known but has been estimated around 87,000. The anniversary of the landings, 25 April, has since 1916 been recognised in Australia and New Zealand as Anzac Day, now one of their most important national occasions. It does not celebrate a military victory, but instead commemorates all the Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served." Around the country, dawn services are held at war memorials to commemorate those involved. In Australia, at 10:15, another service is held at the Australian War Memorial, which the prime minister and governor general normally attend.

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>In the following days ~ with only limited success. ⇒次の日には両軍からの攻撃と反撃が数回あったが、いずれも失敗した。4月27日のアンザック小湾への2回目の攻撃でトルコ軍が最初に挑戦し、その後5月1/2日にアンザックが夜間行進しようと試みた。5月19日のアンザック小湾に対するトルコ軍の3回目の攻撃は、すべてが最悪の敗北であり、死者3000人を含む約1万人の犠牲者が出た。次の4か月は、スズラ湾での上陸に関連してアンザックがチュヌク・ベアを攻撃した8月6日までは、局地攻撃または陽動作戦攻撃のみで構成されていたので、限られた成功しか収められなかった。 >The Turks never succeeded ~ involved became a casualty. ⇒トルコ軍は、オーストラリア軍とニュージーランド軍を海へ押し戻すことに成功しなかった。同様に、アンザックは彼らの橋頭堡から一歩も広がらなかった。それどころか、8か月の戦いの後、1915年12月、彼らは半島から避難した。その初日の死傷者全体の程度は不明である。バードウッドは、その日の遅くまで上陸しなかったが、浜辺では300から400人の死亡者が出たと推定した。ニュージーランド文化遺産省は、関係する3千人のニュージーランド軍のうち5人に1人が犠牲者になったと主張している。 >The Australian War Memorial ~ taken prisoner by the Turks. ⇒「オーストラリア戦争記念館」には、4月25日-30日に死亡たし860人のオーストラリア兵が収容されている。そして、オーストラリア政府は4月25日に2,000人の負傷者がアンザック小湾を去ったと推定しているが、さらに負傷者が戦場からの避難を待っていた。「連邦戦争墓地委員会」は、1915年4月25日に754人のオーストラリア軍兵士と147人のニュージーランド軍兵士が死亡したことを文書化している。通常のアンザック兵犠牲者数より高い数値が将校階級から出されたと見られる。それは兵士らが自分自身の所在場所や所属の軍隊の位置取りを探すために自分自身を砲火にさらし続けたことによる、とする理論があった。4人の兵士がトルコ軍に囚われた。 >It is estimated that the Turkish ~ most important national occasions. ⇒トルコ軍の第27歩兵連隊と第57歩兵連隊は約2,000人、つまり合計戦力の50%を失ったと推定されている。その当日のトルコ軍死傷者の総数は記録されていない。野戦中に、8,708人のオーストラリア軍と2,721人のニュージーランド軍が殺された。トルコ軍の正確な死亡者数は不明であるが、約87,000人と推定されている。上陸の記念日である4月25日は、オーストラリアとニュージーランドで1916年以来「アンザック・デー」として認められており、現在では最も重要な国内行事の1つとなっている。 >It does not celebrate ~ governor general normally attend. ⇒それは軍事的勝利を祝うのではなく、代わりに「すべての戦争、紛争、平和維持活動で奉仕し、死亡した」すべてのオーストラリア軍兵士とニュージーランド軍兵士、および「奉仕したすべての人々の貢献と受難」を記念している。国中の戦争記念施設で夜明けの奉仕(礼拝)が行われ、関係者を記念・賛美する。オーストラリアでは、10時15分に「オーストラリア戦争記念館」で別の奉仕が行われ、通常、首相と総督が出席する。

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    These represent some of the highest casualties of the campaign. The toll was particularly heavy amongst the Australian officers; both the commanding officers of the 2nd and 3rd Battalions were killed leading their troops. After the battle, the dead were so thick on the ground that one Australian, Captain Harold Jacobs of the 1st Battalion, remarked "[t]he trench is so full of our dead that the only respect that we could show them was not to tread on their faces, the floor of the trench was just one carpet of them, this in addition to the ones we piled into Turkish dugouts." Later, over 1,000 dead were removed from Australian position to be hastily buried. Seven Australians were awarded the Victoria Cross for their actions during the fighting at Lone Pine, including four men from the 7th Battalion, which had been rushed forward to help relieve the 1st Brigade at the height of the Ottoman counterattacks. One of the recipients was Corporal William Dunstan, who after the war became the general manager of The Herald newspaper in Melbourne. Another VC recipient was Captain Alfred Shout who had already earned the Military Cross and been Mentioned in Despatches earlier in the Gallipoli campaign. He was mortally wounded at Lone Pine and was later buried at sea. The other VC recipients were Privates Leonard Keysor and John Hamilton, Corporal Alexander Burton and Lieutenants Frederick Tubb and William Symons. After the war, an Australian military historical mission was sent to Gallipoli, led by Charles Bean. On Bean's advice the Australian government sought permission from the newly formed Turkish Republic to establish an official war cemetery in the area. In 1923 the Treaty of Lausanne was ratified, and through its provisions the Lone Pine cemetery was established in the area, dubbed the Daisy Patch by the Australians. There are a total of 1,167 graves in the cemetery and as of 2012, the identities of 471 bodies interred in the cemetery remain unknown. Also standing within the cemetery's grounds is the Lone Pine memorial. It is the main Australian and New Zealand memorial at Gallipoli and commemorates all the Australian and some of the New Zealanders who died during the campaign, including those who have no known grave and those buried at sea. As a result of the battle's significance to the Australians, Lone Pine is the site of the annual Australian Anzac Day dawn service at Gallipoli. After the service Australian visitors congregate at the memorial to remember all their countrymen who fought and died at Gallipoli. At the New Zealand National World War I Museum, there is an exhibit for the Battle of Lone Pine, and there is also one in the Australian War Memorial. Memorial "Lone Pine" trees have also been planted in Australia, New Zealand and Gallipoli to commemorate the battle and the Gallipoli campaign in general, seeded from specimens taken from Gallipoli. There are also many places in Australia named after the battle.

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    The ANZAC Division withdrew by bounds, squadrons leap-frogging each other. First to their horse lines and then rode back to safety. The Turkish regiment had shown the ANZAC Division they were still a force to be reckoned with. Turning their attack into defence and then driving them off. The ANZAC casualties were seventy-three dead, 243 wounded and six missing.[18] Turkish casualties for this battle are not known, but altogether they had lost more than half of the 18,000 man force in their advance, into the Sinai. It was intended for the ANZAC Division to camp that night close by, with the intention of shadowing the Turkish force the next day, if they withdrew. However Chauvel withdrew the division except for some observation posts left behind, all the way back to Oghratina.

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    The Ottoman 3rd Army started with 118,000 fighting men. It was reduced to 42,000 effective soldiers in January 1915, with an additional 12,000 in the Erzurum fortress garrison. 25,000 Turkish troops had become casualties even before the battle started, 30,000 frozen bodies were found by the Russians after the battle, and the entire Third Army was reduced to no more than 12,500 men. There are conflicting figures for Ottoman casualties, though it is clear that the Ottoman casualties were definitely huge, and the military hospitals of the Erzurum area were overflowed with wounded and sick. Sources do not agree on what should be included in the final sum. The Turkish official history and medical records states 33,000 KIA, 10,000 died in hospitals, 7,000 prisoners, 10,000 seriously wounded, for some 60,000 total irrecoverable casualties. Another estimate given by the German Commandant Larcher is 90,000 dead and 40,000–50,000 captured, which is often repeated in modern recountings of the battle. However, such figures are considered unreliable, both because they exceed the total strength of the entire Third Army and because the actual Chief of Staff of the Third Army (also a German), Lieutenant Colonel Guse, gave casualties as 37,000 dead and 7,000 missing based on operational returns. Artillery losses were 12 field artillery pieces and 50 mountain artillery. The casualties of the conflict escalated beyond the end of the active warfare period as the most immediate problem confronting the 3rd Army became the typhus epidemic. TAF presents a figure of 60,000 casualties throughout the period of the operation. The Russians took 7,000 POWs including 200 officers. These prisoners were kept under confinement for the next three years in the small town of Varnavino east of Moscow on the Vetluga River. After the final days of the Russian Empire, these soldiers had a chance to return to the ailing Ottoman Empire. Russian losses were up to 30,000: 16,000 killed and wounded and 12,000 sick/injured, mostly due to frostbite. Enver was the strategist of the operation. Hassan Izzet was the tactician who implemented the plan and remedied the shortcomings. The failure was blamed on Enver. Beyond his faulty estimate on how the enveloped Russians would react, his failure was on not keeping adequate operational reserves. He did not have enough field services to alleviate the hardships faced by the soldiers; he analyzed operational necessities theoretically rather than contextually. Carrying out a military plan in winter was not the major failure of the operation. A valid question is whether or not the plan could have been executed better. It would be hard to exceed the performance of the Turkish soldiers. The IX and X Corps marched with maximum effectiveness given the conditions. The majority of the units managed to move to the correct positions. In respect to the inflicted Russian casualties, they should be credited.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    British patrols discovered them on 8 August and the remainder of the ANZAC Division got into a position to attack the next day. The assault was launched on early 9 August and became a day of attack and counter-attack. Finally in the early evening Chauvel, commanding the ANZAC Division, ordered his troops to withdraw leaving the Turkish force in command of the battle ground.Victory in the battle of Romani had exhausted the ANZAC Mounted Division, and the two units most heavily involved, the 1st and 2nd Light Horse Brigades, were sent to rest at Romani and Etmaler. While the rest of the division, with the 5th Mounted Brigade under command, were ordered to follow the withdrawing Turkish force.