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Over the past twenty years, a widening gulf has appeared between the increasingly internationalized financing arrangements of the world’s leading corporations and the persistence of nationally compartmentalized approaches to the study of corporate control. In lieu of direct empirical evidence on corporate control at the global level, the most widespread assumption is that the globalization of ownership has taken the form of an expansion of arm’s-length, market- based arrangements traditionally prevailing in the Anglo-American economies. 上記英文中後半の,In lieu of 以下の適訳をお願い致します。


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  • Nakay702
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>上記英文中後半の,In lieu of 以下の適訳をお願い致します。 ⇒以下のとおり、特別な語句と訳文をお答えします。 (特別な語句) ☆evidence:普通の意味は「証拠」ですが、ここでは「論拠・根拠・依拠(するもの)」といった意味合いととりました。 ☆assumption:普通の意味は「仮定・想定」ですが、ここでは「(態度などを)とること・(様相などを)帯びること、その態度や方法」といった意味合いに解釈しました。 (訳文) 《グローバルレベルでの企業統制に関して、直接的な経験に依拠するのに代えて最も広く採用されている方法は、(親会社などから)独立した市場ベースで所有権のグローバル化が取り決めされる形をとることで、これは伝統的に英米経済で普及している。》



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  • 英文の邦訳

    Each shareholder has the right to a fraction of the firm revenue (dividend) and to a voice in the decision making process (e.g., voting rights at the shareholder meetings). Thus the larger the ownership share Wij in a firm, the larger is the associated control over it, denoted as Cij . Intuitively, control corresponds to the chances of seeing one’s own interest prevailing in the business strategy of the firm. 以上の英文の最後の, Intuitively, 以下を御訳し下さい。 宜しくお願いします。

  • 英文の邦訳

    In this sense, there is no evidence of the formation of transnational enterprise groups - sets of giant firms whose boards interlock and whose shares are owned in blocs that enable coordinated strategic control over major corporations based in multiple countries. Rather, intercorporate ownership relations, typically emanating from financial institutions and consisting of holdings of considerably less than 5 per cent of share capital, express the cross-penetration of investment and the developing solidarities of a transnational corporate community. The continuing clustering of both directorial and ownership relations on a national basis is consistent with Kogut and Colomer's (2012) findings that the transnational network of interlocking directorates and intercorporate ownership in the 1990s was very strongly a small world ――locally clustered within countries, particularly for the directorial network, with a few key transnational interlocks creating 'short cuts' that shrink the global social space (cf. Carroll 2009). 以上の英文の邦訳をお願い致します。

  • 英文の邦訳

    Long an object of managerial discretion, corporate philanthropy has been used as a form of public relations similar to advertising, an attempt to invest strategically in areas that will benefit the firm (such as schools), a response to social pressures within the business community, and even a reflection of the company's values. この文章の冒頭のLong an object of managerial discretionの一節の意味が分かりません。お分かりの方,邦訳を宜しくお願いします。

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    After the Ottoman Empire's entry into the First World War, Britain dispatched Indian Expeditionary Force D to seize control of the Shatt al Arab and the port of Basra in order to safeguard British oil interests in the Persian Gulf. Eventually, the Anglo-Indian force's mission evolved into the capture of Baghdad. However, despite victories at Qurna, Nasiryeh, and Es Sinn, the primary offensive component of I.E.F. "D", the 6th (Poona) Division withdrew southwards after the Battle of Ctesiphon. The Ottoman forces in the region, reinforced and emboldened by the withdrawal from the gates of Baghdad, pursued the Anglo-Indian force to the town of Kut-al-Amara. Strategically situated at the confluence of the Shatt al-Hayy and the Tigris River, the commander of the Poona Division decided to defend the town.

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします。

    よろしくお願いします。 The term “business corporation” (excluding financial service institutions) means economic entities whose objective is to make a profit from such activities as the production and sale of goods or services . Business corporations invest funds in real assets (such as facilities and inventories) to carry out production and marketing activities on a continuing basis . Funds raised by business corporations are divided into internal funds (those generated in the ordinary course of the production and sale of goods or services) and external funds (those raised from external sources ) , according to the method employed to raise them . Technically , internal reserves and depreciation charges are included in internal funds. As the company is not required to repay the principal of , or pay interest or dividends on , such funds , they are considered the most stable means of corporate financing . In actuality , however , business corporations cannot meet their funding requirements with internal funds alone , and many of them have to rely on external funds . External funds are divided into the proceeds resulting from loans and the issuance of equity and debt securities , according to the method employed to raise them . Loans are obtained primarily from banking institutions . This method of raising funds with debt securities is termed “indirect financing” In addition to those issued at the time of their incorporation, business corporations issue additional equity shares(an increase of capital) to finance the expansion of their production capacity or for other purposes . As business corporations are not required to repay the principal thus raised, or pay interest thereon , the proceeds from the issuance of equity shares constitute the most stable form of funds among external funds . As is the case with equity shares , corporate debt securities are also an instrument for raising funds from the capital markets, and issuers have to redeem them on or by a predetermined date of redemption and pay a definite rate of interest on them . Corporate debt securities are largely divided into straight (SB), bonds with subscription rights, and structured bonds(see Chapter V). As the securities underlying equity shares or corporate debt are held directly by the providers of funds, this method of raising funds is called “direct financing”. A survey of changes that have occurred in the amount of funds raised from external sources as a percentage of the outstanding balance of financial debts shows that bank borrowings have tended to decrease since 1990. In the 2000s, funds raised through the issue of securities have outpaced those obtained through bank borrowings, suggesting that the weight of corporate financing structure has shifted from indirect to direct financing. This may be explained by the fact (1) that following the liberalization and internationalization of the financial markets, businesses have actively sought to raise funds be selling new shares and bonds on the market and (2) that particularly since 1980, in addition to reductions of inter-company credits that businesses had made under the pressure of recession, banks have curtailed their lending and businesses have repaid their debt banks in an effort to improve their financial positions. And these facts have combined to produce a synergistic effect. Most recently, the proportion of financing by loans has risen because of the decline in the functioning of the capital market caused by the financial crisis. However, with the establishment of emerging markets and the liberalization and abolition of regulations on the issue of debt securities, small-to-medium-sized firms can now obtain financing through the capital market. Consequently, if the capital market rebounds, the proportion of financing through the issue of securities will likely recover.

  • 英語の邦訳(証券取引法に関する一節)

    合衆国証券取引法に関する次のような英文があります。 The orderly operation of the market for corporate control relies on legal tools to balance between independent decision-making of corporate management and the interests of shareholders. Shareholding in the context of corporate control, however, reflects only the elements of share ownership that make such owners the appropriate franchise for corporate voting. Shareholding as the basis for the franchise of corporate voting is founded on the assumption that shareholders are the most suitable constituents to trigger the corporate control mechanism, since the best signal for identifying board errors is the stock price.この一節の邦訳は次のようになろうかと存じます。 「会社支配市場の秩序立った機能は,会社経営陣の独立した意思決定と株主の利益の間での釣り合いをとるための法的手段に依存する。しかしながら,会社支配との関連での株式保有は,そうした株主を,会社の議決権のための適切なfranchiseにする〔?〕株式所有の諸要素のみを反映する。会社の議決権という権利の基礎としての株式所有は,取締役会の誤りを特定するシグナルは株価であるから,株式所有者が,会社支配メカニズムを始動するための最も適切な構成要素であるという前提に基づいている。」この中のfranchiseの適訳について御存じの方がいらしたら是非御教示下さい。宜しくお願いします。

  • arragementの訳

    While previous peak phases of statism were mainly focused on either protecting or developing domestic economies through tariffs, protectionism of infant industries, strong and centralized industry coordination and corporatist arrangements , the current wave embraces a distinct form of integration and embedding into global structures, mainly through cross-border investment. 以上の英文中のcorporatist arrangementsの適訳をお教え下さい。 どうぞ宜しくお願い致します。 尚典拠先は,https://doi.org/10.1080/09692290.2019.1665084 上記でオープンにPDFで見られます。

  • 英文邦訳の添削

    しかしながら,持分の分散における中心的変化は,年金基金やミューチュアル・ファンドの仲介機関で集中している持分所有について生じており,それはそれらの受益者,ミューチュアル・ファンド株主,もしくは年金退職者を代表する持分の記録上の保有者である(however, the central change in equity distribution has been for equity ownership to concentrate in intermediary institutions, like pension funds and mutual funds, that are the record holders of equity on behalf of their beneficiaries, mutual fund shareholders, or pension retirees.)<44:ブローカーが通常受益権所有者によって保有される株式に共通して投票した環境においてさえ,記録上の所有が「仲買人名義」ないしは「ノミニー名義」(証券が受益権所有者の信託を受けて登録・保有される名称)においてなされるとき生じる名義上の集中から乖離したこの集中をわれわれは区別する。(We distinguish this concentration from the nominal concentration that occurs when record ownership is in “street name” or “nominee name,” even in the circumstances in which brokers have commonly voted the shares held by beneficial owners.)仲買人名義の手順において,一般的な所有者は常に,議決権行使を求め,また,ブローカーによる投票に関する最近の制限以前においてさえ,多様な通知システムが,こうした議決権行使の企業の問題への提供を容易にした委任状ルールによって命じた。(In the street name setup, the retail owner can always claim voting rights, and even before the recent limits on broker voting, various notification systems mandated by the proxy rules facilitated such voting pass-throughs.)一般投資家はポートフォリオの構成証券の処分に対する支配をも主張することもありうるであろう。(The retail investor could also assert control over the disposition of portfolio securities.)対照的に,投資仲介業を通じた再集中においては,一般投資家は,実質的に,何らかのポートフォリオ構成会社の議決権の何らかの部分を再請求する方途のない証券のプールにおける集中した利権を持つ。一般投資家は,ポートフォリオの構成に影響を与えることもない。(By contrast, in reconcentration through investment intermediaries, the retail investor has, in effect, an undivided interest in the pool of securities with no way of reclaiming any share of voting rights for any portfolio company. Nor can a retail investor affect the composition of the portfolio.) >。 上記邦訳(括弧内は対応の英文)の添削を宜しくお願いします。

  • こちらの英文を訳して頂いても良いでしょうか?

    Anne M. Mulcahy(1952-),the CEO of Xerox Corporation from 2001 to 2009, also demonstrated these leadership qualities. And on becoming CEO, she already be-gan considering the selection of her successor. She landed Ursula M.Burns(1958-) as a prospective CEO, beginning to work with her in a team. This teamwork lasted for 10years,greatly helping Burns strengthen her position in global business. Burns was promoted to ECO in July,2009, a move that has improved morale in the workplace. A new wave of women CEOs has emerged in male-dominated corporate America-ca. Their leadership style centers around working in teams and creating a sense of community in the workplace. よろしくお願いします。

  • 英文の邦訳の添削をお願いします。

    The so-called rich club phenomenon [20, 21] refers to the fact that in some complex networks the nodes with the highest degree tend to be connected among each other. Being based solely on node degree, rich club indices are not suitable for ownership networks, in which indirect and weighted paths matter. Moreover, in order to benchmark the resulting value of rich club indices, it is usually necessary to reshuffle the links in the network. This would be a problem in our network because it would lead to economically unviable ownership networks. Notice, however, that the core of the TNC network could be seen as a generalization of the rich club phenomenon with control in the role of degree. Thus, future work should look into this issue more in depth. 上記英文の下記の試訳の添削をお願い申し上げます。 「いわゆる富裕クラブ現象(リッチ・クラブ現象)[20:Colizza, V, Flammini, A, Serrano, M, Vespignani, A (2006) Detecting rich-club ordering in complex networks. Nat. Phy. 2:110–115.][21:Fagiolo, G, Reyes, J, Schiavo, S (2009) World-trade web: Topological properties, dynamics, and evolution. Phys. Rev. E 79:36115. ]は,一部の複雑なネットワークにおいて,最高級の次数を伴うノードは相互に連結する傾向を持つという事実に係わる。ノードの次数のみを基礎とするものとして富裕クラブ指数は,間接的かつ重み付きの道〔パス;※重み付きグラフは各辺に値(重み)が対応しているグラフである。この場合「道の重み」は,道に属する辺の重みの総和である。重み (weight) ではなく,コスト (cost) とか長さ (length) と呼ぶこともある。〕が重要となる所有のネットワークには適していない〔※傍点はノート作成者〕。その上,結果として現われるリッチ・クラブの指数の値を評価するためには,通常ネットワーク内のリンクを入れ替えることが必要である。それは,経済的に実行不可能な所有のネットワークの原因となるため,われわれのネットワークでは問題になろう。同指数は,それが経済的に成長しない所有のネットワークを導くであろうから,われわれのネットワークでは問題になろう。しかしながら,TNCネットワークの中枢は次数の役割における支配を伴う富裕クラブ現象について一般化したものとして見なすことができるかも知れない点に気付いてほしい。それゆえ,将来の研究はこの問題をいっそう深く調べるべきである。」 原典は,Supporting Information: The Network of Global Corporate Control Stefania Vitali, James B. Glattfelder and Stefano Battiston Chair of Systems Design, ETH Zurich, Kreuzplatz 5, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland 以上よろしくお願い申し上げます。