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Work by Belgian engineers to construct field defences around Antwerp had gone on since the beginning of the war and positions between the forts had been built, inundations formed and the foreground cleared of obstructions. The clearances proved unwise, since they made the forts visible, trenches could only be dug 1-foot (0.30 m) deep, because of the high water-table and had no overhead cover. During the German advance to Mechelen, most of the Belgian Army occupied the 4th Sector between the 3rd Sector and the Scheldt, only light forces held the 3rd Sector and the 4th Division held the sector around Dendermonde. The 1st and 2nd divisions were sent to the 3rd Sector and the 5th Division took up reserve positions behind them. The Belgian Army made a first sortie from Antwerp to help French and British troops engaged in fighting at the Sambre and at the Mons Canal. The operation was intended to distract the III Reserve and IX Reserve corps observing Antwerp and to cut German communications through Leuven and Brussels. After reconnaissance on 24 August, four divisions advanced southwards from Mechelen the next day, leaving one division of infantry and the Cavalry Division in reserve. The sortie was halted on 26 August, after receiving news of the withdrawal of the French and British and that Joseph Joffre, commander of the French army, did not intend to attack immediately and the Belgian forces returned to Antwerp. On the night of 25/26 August, the city was bombed by a German Zeppelin airship. Ten Belgian civilians were killed but the bombing failed to undermine the morale of the garrison. By 27 August reports to OHL led Moltke to believe that the Belgian army had lost its offensive capacity and ordered the brigade of the IV Reserve Corps at Brussels, to move south to rejoin the corps at Péronne. On 2 September German intelligence sources in Brussels reported that c. 40,000 British troops had landed at Ostend, occupied the coast westwards to Boulogne and reinforced the Belgian Army in Antwerp. Beseler attacked on 4 September, with three divisions on either side of the Scheldt towards Termonde, which captured the fortress and blew the bridges to the north. After the end of the first sortie, the Belgian field army joined the fortress troops in improving the defences between the forts, while the German besiegers consolidated their positions on an east–west line, about 8 miles (13 km) north of Brussels and 4–5 miles (6.4–8.0 km) away from the outer forts.

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>Work by Belgian engineers to construct field defences around Antwerp had gone on since the beginning of the war and positions between the forts had been built, inundations formed and the foreground cleared of obstructions. The clearances proved unwise, since they made the forts visible, trenches could only be dug 1-foot (0.30 m) deep, because of the high water-table and had no overhead cover. During the German advance to Mechelen, most of the Belgian Army occupied the 4th Sector between the 3rd Sector and the Scheldt, only light forces held the 3rd Sector and the 4th Division held the sector around Dendermonde. ⇒ベルギー軍工兵らによるアントワープ周辺の野戦防衛施設の建造は戦争当初から続いており、砦と砦の間に陣地が築かれ、水施設が形成され、前景から障害物が取り除かれた。ゆとり部分について思慮が足りないことが判明したが、それというのも、砦が見通されるるような造りで、地下水面が高いため塹壕は1フィート(0.3m)の深さまでしか掘れず、頭上の覆いもなかった。ドイツ軍がメッヘレンに進軍している間、ベルギー方面軍の大部分が第3(防衛)地区とシェルトの間の第4地区を占拠し、第3地区そのものを保持するのは軽微な軍勢に過ぎず、第4師団はデンダーモンド周辺の地区を受け持った。 >The 1st and 2nd divisions were sent to the 3rd Sector and the 5th Division took up reserve positions behind them. The Belgian Army made a first sortie from Antwerp to help French and British troops engaged in fighting at the Sambre and at the Mons Canal. The operation was intended to distract the III Reserve and IX Reserve corps observing Antwerp and to cut German communications through Leuven and Brussels. After reconnaissance on 24 August, four divisions advanced southwards from Mechelen the next day, leaving one division of infantry and the Cavalry Division in reserve. ⇒第1師団と第2師団は第3地区に派遣され、第5師団はその背後の予備陣地を占めた。ベルギー方面軍がアントワープから最初の出撃を行い、フランス軍と英国軍がサンブルやモンス運河で交戦するのを手伝った。この作戦行動はアントワープを監視している第III予備軍団と第IX予備軍団に注意を逸らして(いる間に)、ルーヴェンとブリュッセルを通るドイツ軍の通信を遮断することを意図していた。8月24日の偵察の後、翌日には、歩兵隊の1個師団と予備の騎兵師団を残して4個師団がメッヘレンから南下した。 >The sortie was halted on 26 August, after receiving news of the withdrawal of the French and British and that Joseph Joffre, commander of the French army, did not intend to attack immediately and the Belgian forces returned to Antwerp. On the night of 25/26 August, the city was bombed by a German Zeppelin airship. Ten Belgian civilians were killed but the bombing failed to undermine the morale of the garrison. By 27 August reports to OHL led Moltke to believe that the Belgian army had lost its offensive capacity and ordered the brigade of the IV Reserve Corps at Brussels, to move south to rejoin the corps at Péronne. ⇒フランス軍・英国軍の撤退とフランス方面軍の司令官ジョセフ・ジョフルが直ちに攻撃するつもりはなく、ベルギー軍がアントワープに戻ったという知らせを受けた後、出撃は8月26日に中止された。8月25/26日の夜、街はドイツ軍のツェッペリン飛行船で爆撃された。10人のベルギー人民間人が殺害されたが、爆撃は駐屯地の士気を弱体化させることには失敗した。8月27日までにOHL(ドイツ軍最高司令部)に届いた報告により、ベルギー軍がその攻撃能力を失い、ペロンヌの軍団に再度合流するため南に移動するよう、ブリュッセルの第IV予備軍団の旅団が命じられた、とモルトケに信じ込ませた。 >On 2 September German intelligence sources in Brussels reported that c. 40,000 British troops had landed at Ostend, occupied the coast westwards to Boulogne and reinforced the Belgian Army in Antwerp. Beseler attacked on 4 September, with three divisions on either side of the Scheldt towards Termonde, which captured the fortress and blew the bridges to the north. After the end of the first sortie, the Belgian field army joined the fortress troops in improving the defences between the forts, while the German besiegers consolidated their positions on an east–west line, about 8 miles (13 km) north of Brussels and 4–5 miles (6.4–8.0 km) away from the outer forts. ⇒9月2日、在ブリュッセルのドイツ軍諜報機関は次のように報告した。曰く、約4万人の英国軍がオステンドに上陸し、ブローニュの西方沿岸を占領し、アントワープのベルギー方面軍を強化した。9月4日、ベセラーは、3個師団をもってテルモンドに向かい、シェルトの両側面を攻撃して要塞を攻略し、北上しながら橋梁を吹き飛ばしていった。最初の出撃が終わった後、ベルギーの野戦軍は砦間の防御力を向上させるために要塞部隊と合流した。一方、ドイツの包囲軍は、ブリュッセルから北に約8マイル(13キロ)、外側の砦から4~5マイル(6.4~8キロ)の東-西戦線上に陣地を強化した。

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  • 次の英文を訳して下さい。

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    On 2 August 1914, the Belgian government refused passage through Belgium to German troops and on the night of 3/4 August the Belgian General Staff ordered the 3rd Division to Liège to obstruct a German advance. The German army invaded Belgium on the morning of 4 August. Covered by the Third Division, the Liège fortress garrison, a screen of the Cavalry Division and detachments from Liège and Namur, the Belgian field army closed up to the river Gete and by 4 August, the First Division had assembled at Tienen, the Fifth Division at Perwez, the Second Division at Leuven and the Sixth Division at Wavre, covering central and western Belgium and communications towards Antwerp. German cavalry appeared at Visé early on 4 August, to find the bridge down and Belgian troops on the west bank; the Germans crossed at a ford and forced the Belgians to retire towards Liège. By evening, it was clear to the Belgian High Command that the Third Division and the Liège garrison were in the path of a very large invasion force. With information that five German corps and six reserve corps were in Belgium and with no immediate support available from the French army and British Expeditionary Force (BEF), the Belgian field army was ordered to withdraw towards the National Redoubt on the evening of 18 August and arrived on 20 August. At an engagement between the First Division and the German IX Corps near Tienen, the Belgians had 1,630 casualties. The Belgian government of Charles de Broqueville left Brussels for Antwerp and the Belgian capital was occupied unopposed on 20 August, as the Belgian field army completed its retirement to Antwerp. The German Siege of Namur ended with a Belgian capitulation on 24 August, as the field army made a sortie from Antwerp towards Brussels. The Germans detached the III Reserve Corps from the 1st Army to mask the city and a division of the IV Reserve Corps to occupy Brussels. On 1 October, General Hans Hartwig von Beseler ordered an attack on the Antwerp forts Sint-Katelijne-Waver, Walem and the Bosbeek and Dorpveld redoubts by the 5th Reserve and Marine divisions. By 11:00 a.m. Fort Walem was severely damaged, Fort Lier had been hit by a 16-inch (410 mm) shell, Fort Koningshooikt and the Tallabert and Bosbeek redoubts were mostly intact and the intervening ground between Fort Sint-Katelijne-Waver and Dorpveld redoubt had been captured. A counter-attack failed and the Fourth Division was reduced to 4,800 infantry. The Belgian commanders ordered the left flank of the army to withdraw to a line of defence north of the Nete, which covered the gap in the outer defences and kept the city out of range of German super-heavy artillery. Proclamations warning the inhabitants that King Albert I and the government would leave Antwerp were put up during the day.

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