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On 2 October, the Marine Brigade was sent to Antwerp, followed by the rest of the 63rd (Royal Naval) Division on 6 October, having landed at Dunkirk on the night of 4/5 October. From 6–7 October, the 7th Division and the 3rd Cavalry Division landed at Zeebrugge. Naval forces collected at Dover were formed into a separate unit, which became the Dover Patrol, to operate in the Channel and off the French-Belgian coast. BEF In late September, Marshal Joseph Joffre and Field Marshal John French discussed the transfer of the BEF from the Aisne to Flanders, to unify British forces on the Continent, shorten the British lines of communication from England and to defend Antwerp and the Channel Ports. Despite the inconvenience of British troops crossing French lines of communication, when French forces were moving north after the Battle of the Aisne, Joffre agreed subject to a proviso, that French would make individual British units available for operations as soon as they arrived. On the night of 1/2 October, the transfer of the BEF from the Aisne front began in great secrecy. Marches were made at night and billeted troops were forbidden to venture outside in daylight. On 3 October, a German wireless message was intercepted, which showed that the BEF was still believed to be on the Aisne. II Corps moved from the night of 3/4 October and III Corps followed from 6 October, leaving a brigade behind with I Corps, which stayed until the night of 13/14 October. II Corps arrived around Abbeville from 8–9 October and concentrated to the north-east around Gennes-Ivergny, Gueschart, Le Boisle and Raye, preparatory to an advance on Béthune. The 2nd Cavalry Division arrived at St Pol and Hesdin on 9 October and the 1st Cavalry Division arrived a day later. GHQ left Fère-en-Tardenois and arrived at Saint-Omer on 13 October. III Corps began to assemble around Saint-Omer and Hazebrouck on 11 October, then moved behind the left flank of II Corps, to advance on Bailleul and Armentières. I Corps arrived at Hazebrouck on 19 October and moved eastwards to Ypres.[13] After a tour of the front on 15 September, the new chief of the German General Staff (Oberste Heeresleitung, OHL), General Erich von Falkenhayn planned to continue the withdrawal of the right flank of the German armies in France from the Aisne, to gain time for a strategic regrouping, by moving the 6th Army from Lorraine. A decisive result (Schlachtentscheidung), was intended to come from the offensive of the 6th Army but on 18 September, French attacks endangered the German northern flank instead and the 6th Army used the first units from Lorraine to repulse the French as a preliminary. The French used undamaged rail and communications networks, to move troops faster than the Germans but neither side could begin a decisive attack, having to send units forward piecemeal, against reciprocal attacks of the opponent, in the Race to the Sea (The name is a misnomer, because neither side raced to the sea but tried to outflank their opponent before they reached it and ran out of room.)

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>On 2 October, the Marine Brigade ~ French-Belgian coast. ⇒10月2日に海兵旅団がアントワープに送られ、続いて10月6日に第63(王立海軍)師団の残り部隊が10月4/5日の夜にダンケルクに上陸した。10月6日‐7日には第7師団と第3騎兵師団がゼーブルッヘに上陸した。ドーバーに集結した海軍軍団が別の部隊に編成され、ドーバー巡視隊となって海峡とフランス-ベルギー沿岸沖で作戦活動を行った。 >BEF  In late September, Marshal Joseph Joffre~ be on the Aisne. ⇒BEF(英国軍遠征隊)  9月下旬に、ジョセフ・ジョフル元帥とジョン・フレンチ陸軍元帥が、エーヌからフランドルへのBEFの移管、大陸での英国軍の統一、英国からの通信ラインの短縮、アントワープと海峡港の防衛などについて会談した。フランス軍団が「エーヌの戦い」の後で北に動いているとき、英国軍がフランスの通信線を横切るという不便にもかかわらず、フランス軍は、個々の英国軍部隊が到着したらすぐにその英国軍が作戦行動を取れるようにする、という条件にジョフルが同意した。10月1/2日の夜に、エーヌ前線からのBEFの移転が秘かに始まった。行進は夜間に行われ、(民家に)宿泊する軍隊は日中野外で冒険することを禁じられた。10月3日、ドイツ軍の無線メッセージが傍受され、BEFが依然としてエーヌにいると信じられていることが示された。 >II Corps moved from the night~ on 13 October. ⇒第II軍団は10月3/4日の夜に移動し、第III軍団は10月6日からそれに続いた。第I軍団は1個旅団をもってに残り、10月13/14日の夜までそこに滞在した。第II軍団は10月8日-9日にアベビーユ周辺に到着し、ベツヌへの進軍に備えて、ジュネ・イベルニュ、グエスシャール、ル・ボワール、およびライェ周辺の北東に集結した。10月9日に第2騎兵師団がサン・ポールとヘスディンに到着し、1日後に第1騎兵師団がそこに到着した。GHQ(総本部)はフェール‐アン‐タルドノワを去り、10月13日にサン・オメールに到着した。 >III Corps began to assemble ~ 6th Army from Lorraine. ⇒第III軍団は10月11日にサン・オメールとヘイズブルックの周りに集まり始め、その後第II軍団の左側面の後方に移動してベユールとアルマンチェールを通って進軍した。第I軍団は10月19日にヘイズブルックに到着し、東に向かってイープルに移動した。〔注13〕9月15日、ドイツ軍の総参謀(軍司令部、OHL)の新任長官であるエーリッヒ・フォン・ファルケンハイン将軍は、フランス駐在のドイツ方面軍の右翼側面隊をエーヌから継続的に撤退することを計画した。ロレーヌから第6方面軍を移動させることによって、戦略的な再編成のための時間をかせぐためであった。 >A decisive result (Schlachtentscheidung), was intended to come from the offensive of the 6th Army but on 18 September, French attacks endangered the German northern flank instead and the 6th Army used the first units from Lorraine to repulse the French (→the German?) as a preliminary. The French used undamaged rail and communications networks, to move troops faster than the Germans but neither side could begin a decisive attack, having to send units forward piecemeal, against reciprocal attacks of the opponent, in the Race to the Sea (The name is a misnomer, because neither side raced to the sea but tried to outflank their opponent before they reached it and ran out of room.) ⇒決定的な結果(戦闘隊の引き離し)は、第6方面軍の攻撃から来ることを意図していたが、9月18日、フランス軍の攻撃は代わりにドイツ軍北側面を危険にさらし、第6方面軍は予備段階としてフランス軍(ドイツ軍?)を撃退するためにロレーヌからの最初の数個部隊を使用した。フランス軍はドイツ軍より速く軍隊を動かすために無傷の鉄道と通信ネットワークを使ったが、しかし「海への競争」ではどちらの側も敵への相互攻撃に対して断片的な前進をしなければならず、決定的な攻撃を始めることができなかった。(どちらの側も海への競争をしたのではなく、そこに到達して〈回り込みの〉余地がなくなる前に彼らの対戦相手の側面を包囲しようとしただけなので、この名称は適切でない。) ※この段落、構文がよく分かりません。誤訳があるかも知れませんが、その節はどうぞ悪しからず。

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  • 日本語訳をお願い致します。

    The Allied forces around Ghent withdrew on the approach of German forces on 11 October. The British 7th Division moved to Aeltre 10 miles (16 km) to the west, made rendezvous with British detachments, which had moved inland from Bruges and began to march to Ypres. The southern flank was covered by the 3rd Cavalry Division, which had moved from Thourout to Roulers and the French Fusiliers Marins brigade moved on to Dixmude. At Thielt on the night of 12/13 October, General Capper, the 7th Division commander was informed that German cavalry near Hazebrouck had retired on the approach of the British II Corps, leaving the country west of the 7th Division clear of German forces. The division reached Roulers on 13/14 October, met BEF cavalry near Kemmel and linked with the French 87th Territorial Division around Ypres. The German IV Cavalry Corps had moved south four days previously, except for several Uhlans who were disturbed by a party arranging billets and captured by the 10th Hussars. By 18 October the Belgian, British and French troops in northern France and Belgium had formed a line with the BEF II Corps in position with the 5th Division from La Bassée Canal north to Beau Puits, the 3rd Division from Illies to Aubers and three divisions of the French Cavalry Corps of General Conneau in position from Fromelles to Le Maisnil, the BEF III Corps with the 6th Division from Radinghem to Epinette and the 4th Division from Epinette to Pont Rouge, the BEF Cavalry Corps with the 1st and 2nd Cavalry divisions, from Deulemont to Tenbrielen, the BEF IV Corps with the 7th Division and 3rd Cavalry Division from Zandvoorde to Oostnieuwkirke, the French Groupe Bidon and the de Mitry Cavalry Corps from Roulers to Cortemarck, the French 87th and 89th Territorial Divisions from Passchendaele to Boesinghe and then the Belgian Field Army and fortress troops from Boesinghe to Nieuport (including the Fusilier Marin brigade at Dixmude). The Battle of the Yser began on 16 October.

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    The Battle of Langemarck took place from 21–24 October, after an advance by the German 4th and 6th armies which began on 19 October, as the left flank of the BEF began advancing towards Menin and Roulers. On 20 October, Langemarck, north-east of Ypres, was held by a French territorial unit and the British IV corps to the south. I Corps (Lieutenant-General Douglas Haig) was due to arrive with orders to attack on 21 October. On 21 October, it had been cloudy and attempts to reconnoitre the German positions during the afternoon had not observed any German troops movements; the arrival of four new German reserve corps was discovered by prisoner statements, wireless interception and the increasing power of German attacks; ​5 1⁄2 infantry corps were now known to be north of the Lys, along with the four cavalry corps, against ​7 1⁄3 British divisions and five allied cavalry divisions. The British attack made early progress but the 4th army began a series of attacks, albeit badly organised and poorly supported. The German 6th and 4th armies attacked from Armentières to Messines and Langemarck. The British IV Corps was attacked around Langemarck, where the 7th Division was able to repulse German attacks and I Corps was able to make a short advance. Further north, French cavalry was pushed back to the Yser by the XXIII Reserve Corps and by nightfall was dug in from the junction with the British at Steenstraat to the vicinity of Dixmude, the boundary with the Belgian army. The British closed the gap with a small number of reinforcements and on 23 October, the French IX Corps took over the north end of the Ypres salient, relieving I Corps with the 17th Division. Kortekeer Cabaret was recaptured by the 1st Division and the 2nd Division was relieved. Next day, I Corps had been relieved and the 7th Division lost Polygon Wood temporarily. The left flank of the 7th Division was taken over by the 2nd Division, which joined in the counter-attack of the French IX Corps on the northern flank towards Roulers and Thourout, as the fighting further north on the Yser impeded German attacks around Ypres. German attacks were made on the right flank of the 7th Division at Gheluvelt. The British sent the remains of I Corps to reinforce IV Corps. German attacks from 25–26 October were made further south, against the 7th Division on the Menin Road and on 26 October part of the line crumbled until reserves were scraped up to block the gap and avoid a rout. Langemarck ランゲマルク

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    The 6th Army line from La Bassée to Armentières and Menin, was ordered not to attack until the operations of the new 4th Army in Belgium had begun. Both armies attacked on 20 October, the XIV, VII, XIII and XIX corps of the 6th Army making a general attack from Arras to Armentières. Next day the northern corps of the 6th Army attacked from La Bassée to St Yves and gained little ground but prevented British and French troops from being moved north to Ypres and the Yser fronts. On 27 October, Falkenhayn ordered the 6th Army to move heavy artillery north for the maximum effort due on 29 October at Gheluvelt, to reduce its attacks on the southern flank against II and III corps and to cease offensive operations against the French further south. Armeegruppe von Fabeck was formed from XIII Corps and reinforcements from the armies around Verdun, which further depleted the 6th Army and ended the offensive from La Bassée north to the Lys. On 14 and 15 October, II Corps attacked on both sides of La Bassée Canal and German counter-attacks were made each night. The British managed short advances on the flanks, with help from French cavalry but lost 967 casualties. From 16 to 18 October, II Corps attacks pivoted on the right and the left flank advanced to Aubers, against German opposition at every ditch and bridge, which inflicted another thousand casualties. Givenchy was recaptured by the British on 16 October, Violaines was taken and a foothold established on Aubers Ridge on 17 October; French cavalry captured Fromelles. On 18 October, German resistance increased as the German XIII Corps arrived, reinforced the VII Corps and gradually forced the II Corps to a halt. On 19 October, British infantry and French cavalry captured Le Pilly (Herlies) but were forced to retire by German artillery-fire. The fresh German 13th Division and 14th Division arrived and began to counter-attack against all of the II Corps front. At the end of 20 October, the II Corps was ordered to dig in from the canal near Givenchy, to Violaines, Illies, Herlies and Riez, while offensive operations continued to the north. The countryside was flat, marshy and cut by many streams, which in many places made trench digging impractical, so breastworks built upwards were substituted, despite being conspicuous and easy to demolish with artillery-fire. (It was not until late October that the British received adequate supplies of sandbags and barbed wire.)The British field artillery was allotted to infantry brigades and the 60-pounders and howitzers were reserved for counter-battery fire. The decision to dig in narrowly forestalled a German counter-offensive which began on 20 October, mainly further north against the French XXI Corps and spread south on 21 October, to the 3rd Division area.

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    The rear edge of the German battle zone along the ridge, had been reinforced with machine-gun posts and the German divisional commanders decided to hold the front line, rather than giving ground elastically and few of the Eingreif divisions were needed to intervene in the battle. In 1939 Wynne wrote that the French lost 117,000 casualties including 32,000 killed in the first few days but that the effect on military and civilian morale was worse than the casualties. In the 1939 volume of Der Weltkrieg, the German official historians recorded German losses to the end of June as 163,000 men including 37,000 missing and claimed French casualties of 250,000–300,000 men, including 10,500 taken prisoner. In 1962, G. W. L. Nicholson the Canadian Official Historian, recorded German losses of c. 163,000 and French casualties of 187,000 men.[43] A 2003 web publication gave 108,000 French casualties, 49,526 in the Fifth Army, 30,296 casualties in the Sixth Army, 4,849 in the Tenth Army, 2,169 in the Fourth Army and 1,486 in the Third Army. In 2005, Doughty quoted figures of 134,000 French casualties on the Aisne from 16–25 April, of whom 30,000 men were killed, 100,000 were wounded and 4,000 were taken prisoner; the rate of casualties was the worst since November 1914. From 16 April – 10 May the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and Tenth armies took 28,500 prisoners and 187 guns. The advance of the Sixth Army was one of the largest made by a French army since trench warfare began. The Battle of La Malmaison (Bataille de la Malmaison) (23–27 October) led to the capture of the village and fort of La Malmaison and control of the Chemin des Dames ridge. The 7th Army commander Boehn, was not able to establish a defence in depth along the Chemin-de-Dames, because the ridge was a hog's back and the only alternative was to retire north of the Canal de l'Oise à l'Aisne. The German artillery was outnumbered about 3:1 and on the front of the 14th Division 32 German batteries were bombarded by 125 French artillery batteries. Much of the German artillery was silenced before the French attack. Gas bombardments in the Ailette valley became so dense that the carriage of ammunition and supplies to the front was made impossible. German retreat from the Chemin des Dames, November 1917 From 24–25 October the XXI and XIV corps advanced rapidly and the I Cavalry Corps was brought forward into the XIV Corps area, in case the Germans collapsed. On 25 October the French captured the village and forest of Pinon and closed up to the line of the Canal de l'Oise à l'Aisne. In four days the attack had advanced 6 miles (9.7 km) and forced the Germans from the narrow plateau of the Chemin des Dames, back to the north bank of the Ailette Valley. The French took 11,157 prisoners, 200 guns and 220 heavy mortars. French losses were 2,241 men killed, 8,162 wounded and 1,460 missing from 23–26 October, 10 percent of the casualties of the attacks during the Nivelle Offensive.

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    Little German resistance was encountered on the right, except from a German pillbox at Egypt House, whence the Guards pulled their right flank back under sniper fire, as they waited for Newfoundland troops of 29th Division to come up. The left brigade bypassed a German strongpoint and reached the final objective, taking the strongpoint later in the afternoon. Consolidation was hampered by German snipers in Houthoulst Forest and German aircraft appeared over the new front line, which was 2,500 yd (2,300 m) forward on the Veldhoek–Vijwegen spur. No counter-attack was made until the evening, beyond the right flank on the 29th Division front, which withdrew a short distance. On the left of the Guards Division, German troops massing at the junction with the French 2nd Division to the north, were dispersed by machine-gun fire from gunners, who had advanced to the final objective with the infantry and by British artillery fire. The French First Army, between the British Fifth Army to the south and the Belgian Army further north, had attacked on 31 July, south of the inundations and advanced to the west of Wydendreft and Bixschoote. On 1 August, the French division on the left flank had captured ground from the Martjevaart and St Jansbeek to Drie Grachten. The axis of the French advance was along the banks of the Corverbeek, towards the south and south-eastern fringes of Houthulst Forest, the villages of Koekuit and Mangelaere and blockhouses and pillboxes, which connected the forest with the German line southwards towards Poelcappelle. On the left flank, the French were covered by the Belgian Army, which held the ground about Knocke and the Yser inundations. On 9 October, the French 2e Division d'Infanterie of I Corps, was to attack towards Houthulst Forest, in conjunction with the British XIV Corps attack on Poelcappelle. The French artillery subjected the German defences east and south-east of Houthulst Forest, to a three-day bombardment. At 5.30 a.m., a creeping-barrage began to move very slowly forwards over a "sea" of mud. The artillery-fire was so effective, that despite an extremely slow infantry advance, the French objectives were reached by 10:00 a.m. with few casualties.

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    In Armee-Gruppe Lochow, the battle for the Labyrnthe continued and from 4 to 6 June, the French attacked Neuville. After an attack on 8 June, the defenders retired to a trench further east. French attacks on the Lorette Spur were co-ordinated with those at Neuville and exhausted the XIV Corps troops, which were replaced by the 7th and 8th divisions of IV Corps, which had been reserved for a counter-attack. To the south, the French had taken the cemetery at Neuville and built a strong point, from which attacks on the rest of Neuville were made, threatening the German hold on the Labyrnthe, 1,600 yd (1,500 m) to the south. By 7 June the defence of Neuville had begun to collapse, despite exhortations from the German high command that the area was to be held at all costs. Officers of the 58th Division wanted permission to withdraw from the village but freedom to make a temporary limited withdrawal in a crisis was given but only to organise a counter-attack. The north-west of the village fell on 8 June, after the last defenders of Infantry Regiment 160 were bombarded by their own artillery. A battalion of the 15th Division was sent to counter-attack a French salient, near the Lossow-Arkade in the Labyrnthe, as soon as it arrived on the Artois front, supported by grenade teams and flame-thrower detachments. The attack failed but the Tsingtau-Graben and some ground at the Labyrnthe was recovered. French attacks at the Labyrnthe were as frequent as those further north and the 1st Bavarian Reserve Division counter-attacked in the early hours of 11 June, which recaptured a trench. French preparations for another general attack were observed by the German defenders and large amounts of artillery ammunition were brought forward. On 10 June the senior gunner in the 15th Division predicted a French attack from Vimy to La Folie, Thélus and Neuville St. Vaast, which if successful, would lead to the loss of the German artillery around Vimy and La Folie. No forces were available for a spoiling attack and at Roclincourt, Reserve Infantry Regiment 99 had watched the French sapping forward to within 66 yd (60 m) of their positions and endured the French preparatory bombardment. The French shelling grew in weight until 11:30 a.m. when a mine was sprung. French infantry attacked, broke into the position and the defenders built flanking barricades to prevent the French from rolling up the flanks of the German position. Other German troops formed a blocking position in front of the French penetration and the German artillery bombarded the lost ground and no man's land, to prevent French reserves from moving forward. Counter-attacks by troops held back in reserve were able to push the French out of their footholds but at the cost of "grievous" losses.

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    During the evening of 26 October, the Australian Mounted Division was at Tel el Fara holding the front line from Shellal to Gamli with the Anzac Mounted Division in reserve at Abasan el Kebir. The Imperial Camel Brigade was at Shellal, the XX Corps concentrated near Shellal, while the Yeomanry Mounted Division was concentrated near Hiseia and Shellal. General Erich von Falkenhayn, the Commander of the Yildirim Army Group, planned a two phase attack beginning with a reconnaissance in force from Beersheba on 27 October. This was to be followed by an attack on the morning of 31 October 1917, by the Eighth Army from Hareira. The reconnaissance in force was made by 3,000 Ottoman infantry, 1,200 cavalry, and twelve guns, which advanced from the Kauwukah defences in front of Tel el Sheria, to attack the EEF outpost line. These troops were organised in six infantry battalions, two cavalry squadrons and two artillery batteries. They were the 125th Infantry Regiment (16th Division) from Tel esh Sheria and troops of the 3rd Cavalry Division from Beersheba, commanded by İsmet Bey and included an infantry regiment from the 27th Division and the 125th Field Artillery Battery. dubious – discuss] Armed with lances, the 3rd Cavalry Division, had served in the Caucasus campaign before transferring to Palestine. The 8th Mounted Brigade (Yeomanry Mounted Division), temporarily attached to the 53rd (Welsh) Division, relieved the 4th Light Horse Brigade at 17:25 on 26 October, when they took over the 14 miles (23 km)-long outpost line covering the railway construction to Karm. This line ran from el Buqqar, to Hill 720 and on to Hill 630, stretching along the Wadi Hanafish and the Wadi esh Sheria to a point south of El Mendur. Most of the left section stretching north, was lightly held by standing patrols strongly supported in the rear, by an entrenched infantry brigade of the 53rd (Welsh) Division. However, the 3 miles (4.8 km)-long section on the right, stretching from el Buqqar to the west of Bir Ifteis "was to be held at all costs", supported only by the Hants Battery RHA.

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