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On 28 June 1914, Bosnian Serb student Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo. The assassination precipitated the July Crisis, which led Austria-Hungary to issue an ultimatum to Serbia on 23 July on suspicion that the assassination had been planned in Belgrade. The Austro-Hungarian government made the ultimatum intentionally unacceptable to Serbia, and it was indeed rejected. The Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia on 28 July and that same day the Serbs destroyed all bridges on the Sava and Danube rivers in order to prevent the Austro-Hungarians from using them during any future invasion. Belgrade was shelled the following day, marking the beginning of World War I. Fighting in Eastern Europe began with the first Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia in early August 1914, under the command of Oskar Potiorek. The number of Austro-Hungarian troops assigned to the invasion was far smaller than the 308,000-strong force intended when war was declared. This was because a large portion of the Austro-Hungarian 2nd Army had moved to the Russian Front, reducing the number of troops involved in the initial stages of the invasion to approximately 200,000. On the other hand, the Serbs could muster some 450,000 men to oppose the Austro-Hungarians upon full mobilization. The main elements to face the Austro-Hungarians were the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and Užice armies, with a combined strength of approximately 180,000 men. The Serbian Army was commanded by Crown Prince Alexander, with the chief of the Serbian general staff, Radomir Putnik, as his deputy and de facto military leader. Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanović, Pavle Jurišić Šturm and Miloš Božanović commanded the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and Užice armies, respectively. Serbian soldiers marching through the countryside, c. 1914. The Balkan Wars had only just concluded and Serbia was still recovering. Over 36,000 Serbian soldiers had been killed and 55,000 seriously wounded. Few recruits had been gained from the newly acquired territories, and the Serbian Army had been stretched by the need to garrison them against Albanian insurgents and the threat of Bulgarian attack. To compound matters, the Serbs were dangerously short of artillery, and had only just begun to replenish their ammunition stocks. Their supply problems also extended to more basic items. Many soldiers lacked any uniform other than a standard issue greatcoat and a traditional Serbian cap known as a šajkača. Rifles were also in critically short supply. It was estimated that full mobilization would see some 50,000 Serbian soldiers with no equipment at all. The Austro-Hungarians, on the other hand, possessed an abundance of modern rifles and had twice as many machine guns and field guns as the Serbs. They also had better stocks of munitions, as well as much better transport and industrial infrastructure behind them. The Serbs had a slight advantage over the Austro-Hungarians as many of their soldiers were experienced veterans of the Balkan Wars and better trained than their Austro-Hungarian counterparts. Serb soldiers were also highly motivated, which compensated in part for their lack of weaponry.

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>On 28 June 1914, ~ the beginning of World War I. ⇒1914年6月28日、ボスニア・セルビア人学生ガブリロ・プリンシプが、サラエボでオーストリアのフランツ・フェルディナンド大公を暗殺した。この暗殺が「7月の危機」を促進した。というのも、ベオグラードでその暗殺が計画されたという疑いから、7月23日、オーストリア‐ハンガリーがセルビアに最後通告を出すことにつながったのである。オーストリア‐ハンガリー政府は、意図的にその最後通告をセルビアが容認し難いものにしたので、実際それは拒絶された。7月28日、オーストリア‐ハンガリー人はセルビアに対して宣戦布告したところ、その同じ日にセルビア人はオーストリア‐ハンガリー人が将来侵略の際に使うのを防ぐためにサヴァ川とドナウ川にかかるすべての橋を破壊した。翌日、ベオグラードは砲撃されて、第一次世界大戦の開戦となった。 >Fighting in Eastern Europe ~ to approximately 200,000. ⇒東ヨーロッパでの戦いは、オスカー・ポチオレクの指揮の下、1914年8月上旬に最初のオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍によるセルビア侵攻をもって始まった。侵攻に割り当てられたオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍の数は、宣戦布告したときに意図した308,000人の軍勢よりはるかに少なかった。これは、オーストリア‐ハンガリー第2方面軍の大部分がロシア前線に移動していて、侵略の初期段階に参戦した軍隊の数が約200,000人に減少したためであった。 >On the other hand, ~ and Užice armies, respectively. ⇒その一方で、セルビア人は完全動員でオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍に対抗するために約450,000人の兵士を集めることができた。オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍に対峙する主な要員は、第1、第2、第3、およびウヂチェ方面軍で、合計戦力は約180,000人であった。セルビア方面軍は、アレクサンダー皇太子とセルビアの参謀長であり、事実上彼の首席補佐官である軍事指導者ラドミール・プトニク将軍によって指揮されていた。ペタル・ボジョビチ、ステパ・ステパノビチ、パブレ・ユリツィチ・シュツルム、およびミロス・ボザノビチが、それぞれ第1、第2、第3、およびウヂチェ方面軍を指揮した。 >Serbian soldiers marching through the countryside, c. 1914.  The Balkan Wars ~ known as a šajkača. ⇒□ 田園を行進するセルビア兵士たち、1914年ごろ。□  「バルカン戦争」が終結したばかりで、セルビアはまだ回復途上であった。36,000人以上のセルビア人兵士が殺害され、55,000人が重傷を負っていた。新たに獲得した領土からは新兵がほとんど獲得されなかったが、セルビア軍は彼らをアルバニアの反乱やブルガリアの攻撃の脅威に対して守備を託す必要性が大きくなっていた。さらに複雑なことに、セルビア軍は危険なほど砲兵隊が不足しており、この段になって弾薬を補充し始めたばかりであった。彼らの供給問題もまた基本必須項目として広まっていった。多くの兵士たちにとってはまた、標準問題のグレートコート(軍隊用厚地外套)とサイカチャと呼ばれる伝統的なセルビアの帽子以外、あらゆる制服が欠けていた。 >Rifles were also ~ for their lack of weaponry. ⇒ライフル銃も極度に不足していた。完全な人的動員により、装備を全く持たないセルビア人兵士が約50,000人いると推定された。他方、オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍はモダンなライフル銃を数多く持っており、セルビア軍の2倍の機関銃と野戦砲を持っていた。彼らはまた、より多くの軍需品を保有するだけでなく、その背後にあるより優れた輸送および産業インフラも保有していた。(ただ)セルビア軍は、多くの兵士が「バルカン戦争」で老練兵として経験を積んでおり、オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍よりも訓練を受けていたため、(その点で)オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍よりわずかに有利であった。セルビア兵士たちにはまた、武器類の不足を一部補うべく、高い戦意・意気があった。

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1914年6月28日、ボスニア・セルビア人学生Gavrilo Principはサラエボでオーストリアの大公フランツ・フェルディナンドを暗殺した。 暗殺は7月の危機を後押ししました、それは暗殺がベオグラードで計画されたという疑いでオーストリア - ハンガリーが7月23日にセルビアに最終通告を出すように導きました。 オーストリア - ハンガリー政府はセルビアにとって意図的に最終的な結果を容認できないものとし、それは確かに拒絶された。 オーストリア - ハンガリー人は7月28日にセルビアに対する戦争を宣言し、その同じ日にセルビア人はオーストリア - ハンガリー人が将来の侵略の間にそれらを使用するのを防ぐためにサヴァ川とドナウ川のすべての橋を破壊した。 翌日、ベオグラードは砲撃され、第一次世界大戦が始まった。 東ヨーロッパでの戦いは、オスカー・ポチオレクの指揮の下、1914年8月上旬に最初のオーストリア・ハンガリーのセルビア侵攻から始まった。 侵攻に割り当てられたオーストリア - ハンガリー軍の数は、戦争が宣言されたときに意図された308,000強の軍隊よりはるかに少なかった。 これは、オーストリア - ハンガリー第2軍の大部分がロシア戦線に移動し、侵攻の初期段階に関与した部隊の数が約200,000人に減少したためです。 一方、セルビア人は、動員が十分に行われれば、約45万人の男性をオーストリア・ハンガリー人に対抗するために集めることができた。 オーストリア・ハンガリー軍に直面する主な要素は、第1、第2、第3、そしてウジツェ軍で、総力は約18万人でした。 セルビア軍は、セルビアの将軍ラドミール・プトニクの首席補佐官および事実上の軍事指導者として、アレクサンダー王子によって指揮された。 PetarBojović、StepaStepanović、PavleJurišićŠturm、およびMilošBožanovićは、それぞれ第1、第2、第3、およびUžice軍を指揮しました。 セルビアの兵士たちが田舎を行進している、c。 1914年 バルカン戦争は終結したばかりでセルビアはまだ回復していた。 36,000人以上のセルビア人兵士が殺害され、55,000人が重傷を負った。 新たに獲得した領土からはほとんど新兵が獲得されておらず、セルビア軍はそれらをアルバニアの反乱者に対して駐屯させる必要性とブルガリアの攻撃の脅威によって引き伸ばされていた。 さらに複雑なことに、セルビア人は危険なほどに砲兵が不足しており、たった今弾薬を補充し始めたばかりでした。 彼らの供給問題はまたもっと基本的なものにも及んだ。 多くの兵士は標準問題のグレートコートとšajkačaとして知られている伝統的なセルビアの帽子以外のどんな制服も欠けていました。 ライフル銃も非常に不足していました。 完全な動員により、装備を全く持たない約5万人のセルビア人兵士が見られると推定された。 一方、オーストリア・ハンガリー人は現代のライフル銃を数多く持っており、セルビア人の2倍の機関銃と野戦砲を持っていました。 彼らはまた、より多くの軍需品を保有しているだけでなく、その背後にあるより優れた輸送および産業インフラも擁していました。 セルビア人は、多くの兵士がバルカン戦争のベテラン経験を積んでいて、オーストリア・ハンガリー人よりも熟練していたので、オーストリア・ハンガリー人よりもわずかに有利でした。 セルビア人の兵士たちもまた、やる気がありました。

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    The Austro-Hungarians made a renewed attack against the 1st Army on 21 November, forcing the Serbs back after a series of brutal engagements. The Austro-Hungarians then advanced towards Mount Maljen, aiming to drive the 1st Serbian Army from its positions there. The Serbs withdrew from the mountain after three days of heavy fighting; Potiorek decided not to pursue, allowing them to make an orderly withdrawal. The Austro-Hungarians had suffered heavy casualties and the intensity of the fighting caused them to lose cohesion. As they advanced deeper into Serbia, the terrain became increasingly difficult and exhausted the already tired Austro-Hungarian soldiers. While the Serbian 1st Army withdrew, the 2nd and 3rd armies fiercely resisted the Austro-Hungarian advance. This led Potiorek to reinforce his positions around Lazarevac, which he aimed to capture and use as a pivot from which to attack Kragujevac while his right flank pushed down the West Morava valley. Austro-Hungarian advances convinced Potiorek that his army had the upper hand. He envisaged that his forces would pursue the surviving soldiers from the Serbian 2nd and 3rd Armies and predicted that the Serbian 1st and Užice armies would be forced to manoeuvre towards Belgrade and Lazarevac, where they would be encircled and destroyed. Combat on the outskirts of Lazarevac intensified once again as a result, and the Serbian Army managed to repulse every Austro-Hungarian assault despite a lack of ammunition. The Serbs began to run out of shells and Stepanović asked the Serbian Supreme Command that the artillery of the 2nd Army be redirected to its rear, as he felt that its failure to contribute to the defense of Lazarevac frustrated his troops and was bad for morale. Putnik instructed Stepanović to keep the artillery of the 2nd Army on the front and told him that the Russians had sent artillery shells for its guns. Stepanović was skeptical, but kept the artillery on the front line as instructed. By 24 November, Potiorek was predicting that Serbia would be defeated within a matter of days and appointed Stjepan Sarkotić to be the country's governor once it was occupied. The Austro-Hungarians made further gains on 25 November, forcing the Serbian Army from Čovka and Vrače Brdo with an intense artillery bombardment. On 26 November, they attempted to cross the Kolubara at its junction with the Sava River and managed to do so in their initial attack. The Serbs soon counterattacked and forced the invaders back, inflicting 50 percent casualties on the Austro-Hungarians and causing their offensive to grind to a halt. On 27 November, the Serbian Army attacked Čovka and Vrače Brdo and succeeded in forcing the Austro-Hungarians out.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    The Serbs beat back an Austro-Hungarian invasion in August, at the Battle of Cer. It marked the first Allied victory over the Central Powers in World War I. Potiorek was humiliated by the defeat and was determined to resume the assault against the Serbs. He was given permission in September to launch another invasion of Serbia provided that he "[did not] risk anything that might lead to a further fiasco." Under pressure from the Russians to launch their own offensive and keep as many Austro-Hungarian troops as possible away from the Eastern Front, the Serbs invaded Bosnia in September with the help of Chetnik irregulars but were repulsed after a month of fighting in what came to be known as the Battle of the Drina. Bojović was wounded during the battle and was replaced by Živojin Mišić as commander of the Serbian 1st Army. The Armeeoberkommando (AOK) acknowledged that an undefeated Serbia severed Austria-Hungary's connection to the Ottoman Empire and prevented the completion of the Berlin–Baghdad railway. The AOK also realized that the Austro-Hungarian army's inability to defeat Serbia would discourage neutral countries—such as Bulgaria, Romania and Greece—from joining the Central Powers and would tempt Italy to open up a third front against Austria-Hungary. Nevertheless, the AOK was hesitant to authorize a third invasion of Serbia. This changed in September 1914, when Austro-Hungarian troops discovered a map in an abandoned Semlin bookshop, titled The New Division of Europe. Originally printed in a Russian newspaper, the map was widely sold in Serbia and depicted the borders of Europe as they would appear following the war. Germany was to be divided into northern and southern confederations and Austria-Hungary was to be abolished, its eastern provinces given to Russia, Romania, the Czechs and the Hungarians, and its southern provinces divided between Serbia and Italy. Alarmed by the prospect of Austria-Hungary's disintegration, Emperor Franz Joseph personally authorized a third invasion of Serbia in early October 1914. Having just repelled the Serbian incursion into Bosnia, the Austro-Hungarian Army regrouped and positioned itself for one final invasion before winter set in. Potiorek was again placed in charge of Austro-Hungarian forces and was given command of the Austro-Hungarian 6th Army. The Austro-Hungarian 5th Army was commanded by Liborius Ritter von Frank. In total, the Austro-Hungarians had 450,000 troops at their disposal. The Serbian Army had 400,000 soldiers ready to face the Austro-Hungarian advance. Potiorek appeared confident. "Soldiers of the 5th and 6th armies," he said. "The goal of this war is nearly attained—the complete destruction of the enemy. The three-month campaign is almost over; we must only break the enemy's last resistance before the onset of winter."

  • 日本語訳をお願い致します。

    Morale plummeted amongst the Serbs, who were already significantly demoralized due a lack of cold-weather clothing and ammunition and exhausted by the long retreat towards the Serbian interior. Putnik realized that his forces would need to regroup if they were to provide effective resistance. He ordered that Valjevo be abandoned and had the Serbian Army take up positions on the Kolubara. The retreat towards the river was long and excruciating, with the Serbs being forced to destroy all bridges and telephone lines so that they would not fall into Austro-Hungarian hands. The Serbian Army also abandoned most of its heavy equipment to speed up the withdrawal. Seeing that the situation was critical and that Serbian forces were lacking artillery, ammunition and supplies, Pašić sought the help of the Triple Entente. He sent a telegram to his envoys abroad, which read: "Urgent help is required. Beg and plead." France provided the Serbs with munitions and supplies. Representatives of Russia and the United Kingdom "expressed understanding", but those countries failed to deliver weapons and munitions. The Austro-Hungarians entered Valjevo on 15 November, prompting wild public celebrations in Vienna. Franz Joseph praised Potiorek for seizing the town; cities across the empire made Potiorek an honorary citizen and Sarajevo even named a street after him. Valjevo's capture led the Austro-Hungarians to believe that they were on the verge of defeating Serbia and that the Serbian Army was no longer a coherent fighting force, but the scorched earth tactics employed by the Serbs during their withdrawal complicated the Austro-Hungarian advance. Although the Austro-Hungarians were right in assuming that the Serbian Army was exhausted, its defensive positions along the Kolubara had been prepared months in advance. Putnik's carefully timed withdrawals had ensured that the losses of the Serbian Army were lighter than if it had stood and fought pitched battles with the Austro-Hungarians. Moreover, the geography of northwestern Serbia favoured defensive operations since the approaches to the Kolubara did not offer any cover to armies invading from the direction of Austria-Hungary and the river itself was surrounded by mountainous terrain. In October, the Serbs had fortified the Jeljak and Maljen mountain ranges in anticipation of an Austro-Hungarian attack. This gave them an advantage over the Austro-Hungarians as it placed them in control of all roads leading to Kragujevac. The Serbs also established a series of field fortifications blocking the approach to Niš. The extensive series of fortifications and the difficulty of the terrain which they faced left the Austro-Hungarians with no choice but to conduct operations in the gruelling Serbian countryside with almost no lines of communication.

  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    Early in 1915, with the Ottoman defeats at the Battle of Sarikamish and in the First Suez Offensive, German Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn tried to convince the Austro-Hungarian Chief of Staff, Conrad von Hötzendorf, of the importance of conquering Serbia. If Serbia were taken, then the Germans would have a rail link from Germany, through Austria-Hungary and down to Istanbul (and beyond). This would allow the Germans to send military supplies and even troops to help the Ottoman Empire. While this was hardly in Austria-Hungary's interests, the Austro-Hungarians did want to defeat Serbia. However, Russia was the more dangerous enemy, and furthermore, with the entry of Italy into the war on the Allied side, the Austro-Hungarians had their hands full (see Italian Front (World War I)).

  • 英文翻訳をお願いします。

    Austria-Hungary formally sent an ultimatum to Serbia demanding a full-scale investigation of Serbian government complicity in the assassination, and complete compliance by Serbia in agreeing to the terms demanded by Austria-Hungary. Serbia submitted to accept most of the demands, however Austria-Hungary viewed this as insufficient and used this lack of full compliance to justify military intervention. These demands have been viewed as a diplomatic cover for what was going to be an inevitable Austro-Hungarian declaration of war on Serbia.