The Assassination that Sparked World War I

  • On 28 June 1914, Bosnian Serb student Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis.
  • The Austro-Hungarian government declared war on Serbia, and the Serbs destroyed bridges to prevent invasion.
  • The ensuing war in Eastern Europe saw the Serbian Army facing the smaller Austro-Hungarian force, but with greater motivation.
  • ベストアンサー


On 28 June 1914, Bosnian Serb student Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo. The assassination precipitated the July Crisis, which led Austria-Hungary to issue an ultimatum to Serbia on 23 July on suspicion that the assassination had been planned in Belgrade. The Austro-Hungarian government made the ultimatum intentionally unacceptable to Serbia, and it was indeed rejected. The Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia on 28 July and that same day the Serbs destroyed all bridges on the Sava and Danube rivers in order to prevent the Austro-Hungarians from using them during any future invasion. Belgrade was shelled the following day, marking the beginning of World War I. Fighting in Eastern Europe began with the first Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia in early August 1914, under the command of Oskar Potiorek. The number of Austro-Hungarian troops assigned to the invasion was far smaller than the 308,000-strong force intended when war was declared. This was because a large portion of the Austro-Hungarian 2nd Army had moved to the Russian Front, reducing the number of troops involved in the initial stages of the invasion to approximately 200,000. On the other hand, the Serbs could muster some 450,000 men to oppose the Austro-Hungarians upon full mobilization. The main elements to face the Austro-Hungarians were the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and Užice armies, with a combined strength of approximately 180,000 men. The Serbian Army was commanded by Crown Prince Alexander, with the chief of the Serbian general staff, Radomir Putnik, as his deputy and de facto military leader. Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanović, Pavle Jurišić Šturm and Miloš Božanović commanded the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and Užice armies, respectively. Serbian soldiers marching through the countryside, c. 1914. The Balkan Wars had only just concluded and Serbia was still recovering. Over 36,000 Serbian soldiers had been killed and 55,000 seriously wounded. Few recruits had been gained from the newly acquired territories, and the Serbian Army had been stretched by the need to garrison them against Albanian insurgents and the threat of Bulgarian attack. To compound matters, the Serbs were dangerously short of artillery, and had only just begun to replenish their ammunition stocks. Their supply problems also extended to more basic items. Many soldiers lacked any uniform other than a standard issue greatcoat and a traditional Serbian cap known as a šajkača. Rifles were also in critically short supply. It was estimated that full mobilization would see some 50,000 Serbian soldiers with no equipment at all. The Austro-Hungarians, on the other hand, possessed an abundance of modern rifles and had twice as many machine guns and field guns as the Serbs. They also had better stocks of munitions, as well as much better transport and industrial infrastructure behind them. The Serbs had a slight advantage over the Austro-Hungarians as many of their soldiers were experienced veterans of the Balkan Wars and better trained than their Austro-Hungarian counterparts. Serb soldiers were also highly motivated, which compensated in part for their lack of weaponry.

  • 英語
  • 回答数2
  • ありがとう数1


  • ベストアンサー
  • Nakay702
  • ベストアンサー率80% (9522/11836)

>On 28 June 1914, ~ the beginning of World War I. ⇒1914年6月28日、ボスニア・セルビア人学生ガブリロ・プリンシプが、サラエボでオーストリアのフランツ・フェルディナンド大公を暗殺した。この暗殺が「7月の危機」を促進した。というのも、ベオグラードでその暗殺が計画されたという疑いから、7月23日、オーストリア‐ハンガリーがセルビアに最後通告を出すことにつながったのである。オーストリア‐ハンガリー政府は、意図的にその最後通告をセルビアが容認し難いものにしたので、実際それは拒絶された。7月28日、オーストリア‐ハンガリー人はセルビアに対して宣戦布告したところ、その同じ日にセルビア人はオーストリア‐ハンガリー人が将来侵略の際に使うのを防ぐためにサヴァ川とドナウ川にかかるすべての橋を破壊した。翌日、ベオグラードは砲撃されて、第一次世界大戦の開戦となった。 >Fighting in Eastern Europe ~ to approximately 200,000. ⇒東ヨーロッパでの戦いは、オスカー・ポチオレクの指揮の下、1914年8月上旬に最初のオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍によるセルビア侵攻をもって始まった。侵攻に割り当てられたオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍の数は、宣戦布告したときに意図した308,000人の軍勢よりはるかに少なかった。これは、オーストリア‐ハンガリー第2方面軍の大部分がロシア前線に移動していて、侵略の初期段階に参戦した軍隊の数が約200,000人に減少したためであった。 >On the other hand, ~ and Užice armies, respectively. ⇒その一方で、セルビア人は完全動員でオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍に対抗するために約450,000人の兵士を集めることができた。オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍に対峙する主な要員は、第1、第2、第3、およびウヂチェ方面軍で、合計戦力は約180,000人であった。セルビア方面軍は、アレクサンダー皇太子とセルビアの参謀長であり、事実上彼の首席補佐官である軍事指導者ラドミール・プトニク将軍によって指揮されていた。ペタル・ボジョビチ、ステパ・ステパノビチ、パブレ・ユリツィチ・シュツルム、およびミロス・ボザノビチが、それぞれ第1、第2、第3、およびウヂチェ方面軍を指揮した。 >Serbian soldiers marching through the countryside, c. 1914.  The Balkan Wars ~ known as a šajkača. ⇒□ 田園を行進するセルビア兵士たち、1914年ごろ。□  「バルカン戦争」が終結したばかりで、セルビアはまだ回復途上であった。36,000人以上のセルビア人兵士が殺害され、55,000人が重傷を負っていた。新たに獲得した領土からは新兵がほとんど獲得されなかったが、セルビア軍は彼らをアルバニアの反乱やブルガリアの攻撃の脅威に対して守備を託す必要性が大きくなっていた。さらに複雑なことに、セルビア軍は危険なほど砲兵隊が不足しており、この段になって弾薬を補充し始めたばかりであった。彼らの供給問題もまた基本必須項目として広まっていった。多くの兵士たちにとってはまた、標準問題のグレートコート(軍隊用厚地外套)とサイカチャと呼ばれる伝統的なセルビアの帽子以外、あらゆる制服が欠けていた。 >Rifles were also ~ for their lack of weaponry. ⇒ライフル銃も極度に不足していた。完全な人的動員により、装備を全く持たないセルビア人兵士が約50,000人いると推定された。他方、オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍はモダンなライフル銃を数多く持っており、セルビア軍の2倍の機関銃と野戦砲を持っていた。彼らはまた、より多くの軍需品を保有するだけでなく、その背後にあるより優れた輸送および産業インフラも保有していた。(ただ)セルビア軍は、多くの兵士が「バルカン戦争」で老練兵として経験を積んでおり、オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍よりも訓練を受けていたため、(その点で)オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍よりわずかに有利であった。セルビア兵士たちにはまた、武器類の不足を一部補うべく、高い戦意・意気があった。




その他の回答 (1)


1914年6月28日、ボスニア・セルビア人学生Gavrilo Principはサラエボでオーストリアの大公フランツ・フェルディナンドを暗殺した。 暗殺は7月の危機を後押ししました、それは暗殺がベオグラードで計画されたという疑いでオーストリア - ハンガリーが7月23日にセルビアに最終通告を出すように導きました。 オーストリア - ハンガリー政府はセルビアにとって意図的に最終的な結果を容認できないものとし、それは確かに拒絶された。 オーストリア - ハンガリー人は7月28日にセルビアに対する戦争を宣言し、その同じ日にセルビア人はオーストリア - ハンガリー人が将来の侵略の間にそれらを使用するのを防ぐためにサヴァ川とドナウ川のすべての橋を破壊した。 翌日、ベオグラードは砲撃され、第一次世界大戦が始まった。 東ヨーロッパでの戦いは、オスカー・ポチオレクの指揮の下、1914年8月上旬に最初のオーストリア・ハンガリーのセルビア侵攻から始まった。 侵攻に割り当てられたオーストリア - ハンガリー軍の数は、戦争が宣言されたときに意図された308,000強の軍隊よりはるかに少なかった。 これは、オーストリア - ハンガリー第2軍の大部分がロシア戦線に移動し、侵攻の初期段階に関与した部隊の数が約200,000人に減少したためです。 一方、セルビア人は、動員が十分に行われれば、約45万人の男性をオーストリア・ハンガリー人に対抗するために集めることができた。 オーストリア・ハンガリー軍に直面する主な要素は、第1、第2、第3、そしてウジツェ軍で、総力は約18万人でした。 セルビア軍は、セルビアの将軍ラドミール・プトニクの首席補佐官および事実上の軍事指導者として、アレクサンダー王子によって指揮された。 PetarBojović、StepaStepanović、PavleJurišićŠturm、およびMilošBožanovićは、それぞれ第1、第2、第3、およびUžice軍を指揮しました。 セルビアの兵士たちが田舎を行進している、c。 1914年 バルカン戦争は終結したばかりでセルビアはまだ回復していた。 36,000人以上のセルビア人兵士が殺害され、55,000人が重傷を負った。 新たに獲得した領土からはほとんど新兵が獲得されておらず、セルビア軍はそれらをアルバニアの反乱者に対して駐屯させる必要性とブルガリアの攻撃の脅威によって引き伸ばされていた。 さらに複雑なことに、セルビア人は危険なほどに砲兵が不足しており、たった今弾薬を補充し始めたばかりでした。 彼らの供給問題はまたもっと基本的なものにも及んだ。 多くの兵士は標準問題のグレートコートとšajkačaとして知られている伝統的なセルビアの帽子以外のどんな制服も欠けていました。 ライフル銃も非常に不足していました。 完全な動員により、装備を全く持たない約5万人のセルビア人兵士が見られると推定された。 一方、オーストリア・ハンガリー人は現代のライフル銃を数多く持っており、セルビア人の2倍の機関銃と野戦砲を持っていました。 彼らはまた、より多くの軍需品を保有しているだけでなく、その背後にあるより優れた輸送および産業インフラも擁していました。 セルビア人は、多くの兵士がバルカン戦争のベテラン経験を積んでいて、オーストリア・ハンガリー人よりも熟練していたので、オーストリア・ハンガリー人よりもわずかに有利でした。 セルビア人の兵士たちもまた、やる気がありました。


  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    The Austro-Hungarians had ensured that Valjevo's defenses were fortified and had laid down artillery plans for the town's defense, but their lack of prior preparation meant that the hills surrounding the town were devoid of any significant defensive positions. The Serbs exploited this weakness by manoeuvring around the hills and encircling the Austro-Hungarians, suffering minimal casualties. The Serbian 3rd Army then broke through the defenses of the 6th Army at Mount Suvobor and stormed Valjevo. In Niš, the Bulgarian ambassador to Serbia reported: "The most improbable news from the battleground, sweet to the Serb ear, has been going around since this morning." He wrote that, in the last three to four days, the Serbian Army had captured one Austro-Hungarian General, 49 officers and more than 20,000 troops, as well as 40 cannon and "huge quantities of war matériel". By 9 December, the Austro-Hungarian counter-offensive around Belgrade lost its momentum and the Austro-Hungarians began to retreat back towards the city centre. One Austro-Hungarian soldier wrote: "We could not have imagined that the Serbs were on our heels, after all we had recently been victorious." On 10 December, the Serbian Army captured the lower reaches of the Drina, forcing the majority of surviving Austro-Hungarian troops to flee across the river. They did not stop until they had crossed the Sava and the Danube and entered the Banat. Very few Austro-Hungarian soldiers made it back into Bosnia. On 13 December, von Frank informed Potiorek that he considered it impossible for Austro-Hungarian forces to remain in Belgrade for much longer. As a result, Potiorek ordered the Austro-Hungarian forces in the city to withdraw. The Austro-Hungarians left Belgrade on 14 and 15 December and retreated back into Austria-Hungary under the cover of their river monitors on the Sava and the Danube. The Serbian Army re-entered Belgrade on 15 December and was in full control of the city by the end of the following day. The battle ended in a decisive Serbian victory. A directive issued by the Serbian Supreme Command on 16 December reported: "The recapture of Belgrade marks the successful end of a great and magnificent period in our operations. The enemy is beaten, dispersed, defeated and expelled from our territory once and for all.

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    Austria-Hungary's third invasion of Serbia commenced on 6 November 1914, with intense artillery fire strafing a series of Serbian border towns. On 7 November, the Austro-Hungarian 5th and 6th armies attacked across the Drina. Outnumbered and in desperate need of ammunition, the Serbian Army offered fierce resistance but was forced to retreat. The 3rd Army fell back against a road by the Jadar River in an effort to block the Austro-Hungarian advance towards Valjevo, while the 1st Army retreated southward into the Serbian interior and the Užice Army managed to prevent the Austro-Hungarians from crossing the Drina. On 8 November, the Austro-Hungarians attacked the Serbian 2nd Army near Cer Mountain and came within 1.6 kilometres (0.99 mi) of the Serbian frontline, entrenching themselves at the foot of the mountain. The 2nd Army was given orders to hold the Austro-Hungarians down for as long as possible and, if its position became untenable, retreat towards the right bank of the Dobrava River and position itself so as to block the approach to Valjevo. Elsewhere, the Austro-Hungarians drove a wedge between the 1st and 3rd Army and forced another Serbian retreat. Later that day, the Serbian Government held a joint session with the Serbian Supreme Command with regard to Serbia's worsening military position. Putnik stressed that it was critical for Serbia to hold the Kolubara and the towns within its vicinity and suggested that the Serbs make a separate peace with Austria-Hungary if this proved impossible. This notion was rejected by the Prime Minister of Serbia, Nikola Pašić, who urged further resistance to the Austro-Hungarians and threatened the resignation of his government if peace discussions began. The session ended with the Serbian Government and Supreme Command agreeing to fight on. Putnik reasoned that Austro-Hungarian supply lines would become overstretched as their forces pressed deeper into Serbia while the Serbs would continue to hold the railheads in the Serbian interior. On 10 November, he ordered a general retreat from the Jadar and withdrew the Serbian 2nd Army to Ub and positioned the 1st and 3rd armies north and west of Valjevo. Meanwhile, the Užice Army took up positions to defend the town from which it took its name. The Austro-Hungarians pressed after the Serbs, hoping to capture the Obrenovac–Valjevo railroad. Clashes ensued and the Serbian Army managed to prevent the Austro-Hungarians from taking the railroad for a time. It quickly became clear to Putnik that he had underestimated the Austro-Hungarians, who managed to bring their heavy artillery through the muddy Serbian country roads. They established firing positions on the Serbian side of the Drina and began targeting the Serbian Army, which suffered heavy casualties.

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    On 2 December, he ordered his forces to attack the Austro-Hungarians all along the front and informed his officers that the offensive was to have the specific purpose of improving Serbian morale. Determined to play his part, the aging Serbian king, Peter I, took a rifle and accompanied his troops to the front. The Serbian offensive caught the Austro-Hungarians by surprise, and at the time that the attack was launched they were holding a large military parade through the streets of Belgrade. The Austro-Hungarians now found themselves defending along an over-extended front as Potiorek had just begun strengthening his left flank, leaving the front line very lightly held. Potiorek knew that he could avoid a serious reversal on the battlefield by preventing the Serbian 1st Army from reaching the watershed of the Kolubara and Morava rivers, but the Serbs were confident. They discovered that the Austro-Hungarians had failed to adequately prepare for a Serbian counterattack, as their artillery was positioned well behind the front line. This meant that the Austro-Hungarian defenders would be unable to use their heavy guns to break up any Serbian advance. Rested and resupplied, the Serbs pushed forward towards Belgrade. By the night of 2 December, the Serbian 1st Army pushed several kilometres past Austro-Hungarian lines, taking a large number of prisoners and inflicting heavy casualties on the Austro-Hungarians. The 2nd and 3rd armies captured a number of important positions on high ground, while the Užice Army met fierce resistance but was ultimately able to push the Austro-Hungarians back. The offensive's initial success served to greatly enhance the morale of Serbian troops, just as Putnik had wanted. Significantly weakened, the Austro-Hungarians did not have time to recover before the offensive resumed the following morning and they were forced into retreat by the end of the day. On 6 December, the British ambassador to Serbia informed the British Government that the Serb offensive was "progressing brilliantly". That day, the Serbian Army had broken the Austro-Hungarians at their centre and on their right flank. Outmanoeuvred, the Austro-Hungarians were forced into a full retreat, abandoning their weapons and equipment as they went. Meanwhile, the Austro-Hungarians attempted to consolidate control around Belgrade. On 7 December, they attacked the right flank of the Serbian Army in the city's outskirts. On 8 December, the Austro-Hungarians fell back against Užice and Valjevo. The Serbs anticipated that their opponents would entrench themselves and attempt to block the Serbian Army's advance, but the Austro-Hungarians had failed to construct any defensive networks and, as such, were in no position to block the Serbian offensive.

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    16–26 November The Kolubara River in Valjevo. The Austro-Hungarians reached the Kolubara on 16 November and launched an assault against Serbian defensive positions there the following day. The Serbs managed to force the Austro-Hungarians back and over the course of the next five days, the two armies fought a series of battles under heavy rain and snowfall. Both sides suffered heavy casualties, with a large number of soldiers succumbing to frostbite and hypothermia. The Austro-Hungarian assault began at Lazarevac, a strategically located town just south of Belgrade whose capture would have given them access to the Mladenovac railway line and the ability to outflank the Serbian forces holding the road to Belgrade. Further south, the Austro-Hungarians attacked the Serbian 1st Army. During this assault, they made the mistake of attacking its stronger right flank and were met with determined Serbian resistance which prevented them from gaining any ground. Military historian David Jordan notes that had the Austro-Hungarians attacked the junction splitting the 1st and Užice armies, they might have been able to split the Serbs down the centre and gotten hold of an unimpeded passage to the Morava River. The Serbian 1st Army was quick to reinforce its left flank, realizing that any subsequent attack against it would be far less easy to repel. During the night of 18 November, the Austro-Hungarians moved into position to carry out a further assault, which began the following morning. The Austro-Hungarians' main goal was to break through the defenses of the Serbian 2nd Army, concentrated primarily around Lazarevac, and to drive the Serbian 1st Army back towards the town of Gornji Milanovac while simultaneously assaulting Serbian positions around the villages of Čovka and Vrače Brdo which threatened the Austro-Hungarian flank. The Austro-Hungarians gained a foothold at Vrače Brdo by the evening of 19 November, and seized higher ground from the Serbs further to the south. The Serbian 1st Army was forced to retreat the following day, giving the Austro-Hungarians the ability to advance down the main routes leading to Kragujevac. Potiorek believed it was possible that Putnik was trying to lure the Austro-Hungarians deeper into Serbia for the purpose of encircling them and then attacking their flanks, but correctly assessed that the Serbian Army was in no position to carry out such an attack.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Fall of Belgrade Serbian soldiers on the island of Ada Ciganlija, in Belgrade Although the Serbian Army had put up fierce resistance and inflicted heavy casualties on the Austro-Hungarians, Putnik became concerned that his lines were over-extended. He began contemplating another strategic withdrawal, one in which Belgrade would have to be evacuated. On the night of 26–27 November, the Austro-Hungarian 6th Army attacked all along the front and pushed deeper into the Serbian interior. Defending along an over-extended front, the Serbian Supreme Command decided to abandon Belgrade. The city was evacuated on 29/30 November. The Austro-Hungarians entered the city on 1 December, prompting yet more celebrations in Vienna. The Serbian people withdrew alongside their army and many retreated to Niš, where news of Belgrade's fall was greeted "impassively", as it had been "expected since the beginning of the war". Albin Kutschbach, a German agent in Niš, reported: "More refugees are arriving by the day, and despite many people being sent on south, there are certainly still 60,000 people here." Germany responded to the capture of Belgrade with delight and sent a congratulatory telegram to the Austro-Hungarian leadership. The Austro-Hungarians ascertained that their war with Serbia would soon be over and began preparing for the country's occupation. On 2 December, the anniversary of Franz Joseph's 66th year on the throne, Potiorek wrote that he was "laying town and fortress Belgrade at His Majesty's feet". It became increasingly clear to both Potiorek and Putnik that Austro-Hungarian supply lines were over-extended and so, on 1 December, Potiorek ordered the Austro-Hungarian 6th Army to stop and wait for the 5th Army to secure its supply lines east of the Valjevo railway, resulting in a short pause to all Austro-Hungarian military operations. Mišić exploited this brief respite by withdrawing the Serbian 1st Army a full 19 kilometres (12 mi) from the front line and ensured that his soldiers had an opportunity to rest. The Serbian Army then converged around Mount Rudnik, where it received long-promised supplies from its allies via the Niš–Salonika railroad. Putnik's confidence in the ability of his army to launch a counterattack was restored.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    The Austro-Hungarians made a renewed attack against the 1st Army on 21 November, forcing the Serbs back after a series of brutal engagements. The Austro-Hungarians then advanced towards Mount Maljen, aiming to drive the 1st Serbian Army from its positions there. The Serbs withdrew from the mountain after three days of heavy fighting; Potiorek decided not to pursue, allowing them to make an orderly withdrawal. The Austro-Hungarians had suffered heavy casualties and the intensity of the fighting caused them to lose cohesion. As they advanced deeper into Serbia, the terrain became increasingly difficult and exhausted the already tired Austro-Hungarian soldiers. While the Serbian 1st Army withdrew, the 2nd and 3rd armies fiercely resisted the Austro-Hungarian advance. This led Potiorek to reinforce his positions around Lazarevac, which he aimed to capture and use as a pivot from which to attack Kragujevac while his right flank pushed down the West Morava valley. Austro-Hungarian advances convinced Potiorek that his army had the upper hand. He envisaged that his forces would pursue the surviving soldiers from the Serbian 2nd and 3rd Armies and predicted that the Serbian 1st and Užice armies would be forced to manoeuvre towards Belgrade and Lazarevac, where they would be encircled and destroyed. Combat on the outskirts of Lazarevac intensified once again as a result, and the Serbian Army managed to repulse every Austro-Hungarian assault despite a lack of ammunition. The Serbs began to run out of shells and Stepanović asked the Serbian Supreme Command that the artillery of the 2nd Army be redirected to its rear, as he felt that its failure to contribute to the defense of Lazarevac frustrated his troops and was bad for morale. Putnik instructed Stepanović to keep the artillery of the 2nd Army on the front and told him that the Russians had sent artillery shells for its guns. Stepanović was skeptical, but kept the artillery on the front line as instructed. By 24 November, Potiorek was predicting that Serbia would be defeated within a matter of days and appointed Stjepan Sarkotić to be the country's governor once it was occupied. The Austro-Hungarians made further gains on 25 November, forcing the Serbian Army from Čovka and Vrače Brdo with an intense artillery bombardment. On 26 November, they attempted to cross the Kolubara at its junction with the Sava River and managed to do so in their initial attack. The Serbs soon counterattacked and forced the invaders back, inflicting 50 percent casualties on the Austro-Hungarians and causing their offensive to grind to a halt. On 27 November, the Serbian Army attacked Čovka and Vrače Brdo and succeeded in forcing the Austro-Hungarians out.

  • 日本語訳をお願い致します。

    Morale plummeted amongst the Serbs, who were already significantly demoralized due a lack of cold-weather clothing and ammunition and exhausted by the long retreat towards the Serbian interior. Putnik realized that his forces would need to regroup if they were to provide effective resistance. He ordered that Valjevo be abandoned and had the Serbian Army take up positions on the Kolubara. The retreat towards the river was long and excruciating, with the Serbs being forced to destroy all bridges and telephone lines so that they would not fall into Austro-Hungarian hands. The Serbian Army also abandoned most of its heavy equipment to speed up the withdrawal. Seeing that the situation was critical and that Serbian forces were lacking artillery, ammunition and supplies, Pašić sought the help of the Triple Entente. He sent a telegram to his envoys abroad, which read: "Urgent help is required. Beg and plead." France provided the Serbs with munitions and supplies. Representatives of Russia and the United Kingdom "expressed understanding", but those countries failed to deliver weapons and munitions. The Austro-Hungarians entered Valjevo on 15 November, prompting wild public celebrations in Vienna. Franz Joseph praised Potiorek for seizing the town; cities across the empire made Potiorek an honorary citizen and Sarajevo even named a street after him. Valjevo's capture led the Austro-Hungarians to believe that they were on the verge of defeating Serbia and that the Serbian Army was no longer a coherent fighting force, but the scorched earth tactics employed by the Serbs during their withdrawal complicated the Austro-Hungarian advance. Although the Austro-Hungarians were right in assuming that the Serbian Army was exhausted, its defensive positions along the Kolubara had been prepared months in advance. Putnik's carefully timed withdrawals had ensured that the losses of the Serbian Army were lighter than if it had stood and fought pitched battles with the Austro-Hungarians. Moreover, the geography of northwestern Serbia favoured defensive operations since the approaches to the Kolubara did not offer any cover to armies invading from the direction of Austria-Hungary and the river itself was surrounded by mountainous terrain. In October, the Serbs had fortified the Jeljak and Maljen mountain ranges in anticipation of an Austro-Hungarian attack. This gave them an advantage over the Austro-Hungarians as it placed them in control of all roads leading to Kragujevac. The Serbs also established a series of field fortifications blocking the approach to Niš. The extensive series of fortifications and the difficulty of the terrain which they faced left the Austro-Hungarians with no choice but to conduct operations in the gruelling Serbian countryside with almost no lines of communication.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    The Serbs beat back an Austro-Hungarian invasion in August, at the Battle of Cer. It marked the first Allied victory over the Central Powers in World War I. Potiorek was humiliated by the defeat and was determined to resume the assault against the Serbs. He was given permission in September to launch another invasion of Serbia provided that he "[did not] risk anything that might lead to a further fiasco." Under pressure from the Russians to launch their own offensive and keep as many Austro-Hungarian troops as possible away from the Eastern Front, the Serbs invaded Bosnia in September with the help of Chetnik irregulars but were repulsed after a month of fighting in what came to be known as the Battle of the Drina. Bojović was wounded during the battle and was replaced by Živojin Mišić as commander of the Serbian 1st Army. The Armeeoberkommando (AOK) acknowledged that an undefeated Serbia severed Austria-Hungary's connection to the Ottoman Empire and prevented the completion of the Berlin–Baghdad railway. The AOK also realized that the Austro-Hungarian army's inability to defeat Serbia would discourage neutral countries—such as Bulgaria, Romania and Greece—from joining the Central Powers and would tempt Italy to open up a third front against Austria-Hungary. Nevertheless, the AOK was hesitant to authorize a third invasion of Serbia. This changed in September 1914, when Austro-Hungarian troops discovered a map in an abandoned Semlin bookshop, titled The New Division of Europe. Originally printed in a Russian newspaper, the map was widely sold in Serbia and depicted the borders of Europe as they would appear following the war. Germany was to be divided into northern and southern confederations and Austria-Hungary was to be abolished, its eastern provinces given to Russia, Romania, the Czechs and the Hungarians, and its southern provinces divided between Serbia and Italy. Alarmed by the prospect of Austria-Hungary's disintegration, Emperor Franz Joseph personally authorized a third invasion of Serbia in early October 1914. Having just repelled the Serbian incursion into Bosnia, the Austro-Hungarian Army regrouped and positioned itself for one final invasion before winter set in. Potiorek was again placed in charge of Austro-Hungarian forces and was given command of the Austro-Hungarian 6th Army. The Austro-Hungarian 5th Army was commanded by Liborius Ritter von Frank. In total, the Austro-Hungarians had 450,000 troops at their disposal. The Serbian Army had 400,000 soldiers ready to face the Austro-Hungarian advance. Potiorek appeared confident. "Soldiers of the 5th and 6th armies," he said. "The goal of this war is nearly attained—the complete destruction of the enemy. The three-month campaign is almost over; we must only break the enemy's last resistance before the onset of winter."

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    Russian Southwestern Front, Commander-in-chief – Nikolai Ivanov 3rd Army. Commander Radko Dimitriev XI. Corps General Vladimir Sacharow (11. 32. Division) IX. Corps General Dmitry Shcherbachev (5., 42. Division) X. Corps General Zerpitzki (9., 31. Division) XXI. Corps General Shkinski (33., 44. Division) 8th Army. Commander Alexei Brusilov VIII. Corps General Dragomirow (14., 15. Division) XXIV. Corps General Zurikow (48., 49. Division) VII. Corps General Eck (13., 34. Division) Austro-Hungarian Forces[edit] Commander-in-chief – Conrad von Hötzendorf 4th Army. Commander - Archduke Joseph Ferdinand XI. Corps FML Ljubicic (11.,15., 30. Division) XIV. Corps FML. Joseph Roth (3., 8. and 13. Division) German 47. Reserve Division (General Alfred Besser) VI. Corps FML Arz von Straußenburg (39., 45. Division) Cavalry-Corps Herberstein (6., 10., 11. Cavalry-Division) 3rd Army. Commander - General of Infantry Svetozar Boroevic 38. Honved-Division General Sandor Szurmay IX. Corps General Rudolf Kralicek (10., 26. Division) III. Corps General Emil Colerus von Geldern (6., 22., 28. Division) VII. Corps Archduke Joseph of Austria (17., 20. Division) The Russian threat to Krakow was eliminated and the Russians were pushed back across the Carpathians. The Austrian-Hungary forces claimed the battle as a victory. The Battle of Kolubara (Serbian Cyrillic: Колубарска битка, German: Schlacht an der Kolubara) was a campaign fought between Austria-Hungary and Serbia in November and December 1914, during the Serbian Campaign of World War I. It commenced on 16 November, when the Austro-Hungarians under the command of Oskar Potiorek reached the Kolubara River during their third invasion of Serbia that year, having captured the strategic town of Valjevo and forced the Serbian Army to undertake a series of retreats. The Serbs withdrew from Belgrade on 29–30 November, and the city soon fell under Austro-Hungarian control. On 2 December, the Serbian Army launched a surprise counter-attack all along the front. Valjevo and Užice were retaken by the Serbs on 8 December and the Austro-Hungarians retreated to Belgrade, which 5th Army commander Liborius Ritter von Frank deemed to be untenable. The Austro-Hungarians abandoned the city between 14 and 15 December and retreated back into Austria-Hungary, allowing the Serbs to retake their capital the following day. Both the Austro-Hungarians and the Serbs suffered heavy casualties, with more than 20,000 dead on each side. The defeat humiliated Austria-Hungary, which had hoped to occupy Serbia by the end of 1914. On 22 December, Potiorek and von Frank were relieved of their respective commands, and the 5th and 6th armies were merged into a single 5th Army of 95,000 men. The Battle of Kolubara コルバラの戦い

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    The Serbs were exhausted and demoralized. In a telegram to Putnik dated 27 October 1914, Stepanović complained that the 2nd Army did not have enough shells to resist the Austro-Hungarians effectively and requested that he be removed from his command; Putnik denied the request, but ordered all units to resist the Austro-Hungarian advance for as long as possible before retreating. This strategy had worked in Putnik's favour during the summer months, but heavy rainfall in September and early October had reduced all of Serbia's roads to "muddy quagmires" that made movement of troops, guns and wagons extremely difficult. Potiorek recognized that the Serbian Army was in a difficult situation; he was certain that a third invasion would bring him the decisive victory that he so desperately wanted. In Vienna and Sarajevo, Austro-Hungarian officials began planning for the occupation and dismantling of Serbia. The country was to be plundered and its territory used to bribe the neutral Balkan states into joining the Central Powers, with the Romanians getting the region of Timočka Krajina and the Bulgarians getting Macedonia and southeastern Serbia. The Austro-Hungarians intended to annex everything west of the Morava River, as well as the cities of Scutari (Shkodër) and Durazzo (Durrës) in northern Albania. The Serbs living west of the Morava—or "the compact masses of the Serbian element", as the Austro-Hungarians called them—were to be expelled and replaced with Austrian settlers (colonisten), who would "change the psychology [of the region], making Serbia more Habsburg [and] less Serbian in outlook." Ludwig Thallóczy, section chief of the Austro-Hungarian Finance Ministry, wrote Potiorek in October, recommending "the West Europeanization of the Serbs with a strong hand" as soon as Serbia was occupied. Potiorek planned to launch a converging attack across northern and western Serbia; the 5th Army was to capture Valjevo and envelope the Kolubara River from the north, and the 6th Army was to secure the Jagodnja plateau and outflank Serbian units on the Kolubara from the south. The capture of the southeastern Serbian city of Niš was Potiorek's main objective; Niš had been Serbia's capital since July and was a crucial transportation hub for its military. It also acted as a clearing house for munitions produced at the arsenal in nearby Kragujevac. The city's capture would effectively cut Serbia in two and scatter the Serbian Army. All of the valleys of northwestern Serbia were swamped by constant rainfall. The mountains had been covered in snow since early October. Acknowledging the opportunity that such conditions presented, Putnik told his closest advisors: "All my strategy consists in placing the 'Serbian national mud' between the enemy's fighting line and his supplies." On 31 October, von Frank's 5th Army pushed down into the region between the Sava and Drina rivers while Potiorek's 6th Army drove west across the Drina and into the Jagodnja plateau.