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From 17 September – 17 October 1914, the belligerents had made reciprocal attempts to turn the northern flank of their opponent. Joffre ordered the French Second Army to move to the north of the French Sixth Army, by moving from eastern France from 2–9 September and Falkenhayn ordered the German 6th Army to move from the German-French border to the northern flank on 17 September. By the next day French attacks north of the Aisne, led to Falkenhayn ordering the 6th Army to repulse French forces to secure the flank. When the French Second Army advanced, it met a German attack rather than an open flank on 24 September and by 29 September, the Second Army had been reinforced to eight corps but was still opposed by German forces near Lille, rather than advancing around the German northern flank. The German 6th Army had also found that on arrival in the north, that it was forced to oppose the French attack, rather than advance around the flank; the secondary objective of protecting the northern flank of the German armies in France had become the main task. By 6 October, the French needed British reinforcements to withstand German attacks around Lille. The BEF had begun to move from the Aisne to Flanders on 5 October and with reinforcements from England, assembled on the left flank of the Tenth Army, which had been formed from the left flank units of the Second Army on 4 October. In October 1914 French and British artillery commanders met to discuss means for supporting infantry attacks, the British practice having been to keep the artillery silent until targets were identified, the French artillery fired a rafale, which ceased as the infantry began the assault. A moving barrage of fire was proposed as a combination of both methods and became a standard practice, when guns and ammunition were accumulated in sufficient quantity. Falkenhayn issued memoranda on 7 and 25 January 1915, defining a model of defensive warfare to be used on the Western Front, to enable ground to be held with the fewest possible troops. By reducing demand for manpower in the west, a larger number of divisions could be sent to the Eastern Front. The front line was to be fortified, to enable its defence with small numbers of troops indefinitely; areas captured were to be recovered by counter-attacks. A second trench was to be dug behind the front line, to shelter the trench garrison and to have easy access to the front line, through covered communication trenches. Should counter-attacks fail to recover the front trench, a rearward line was to be connected to the remaining parts of the front line, limiting the loss of ground to a bend (Ausbeulung) in the line, rather than a breakthrough. The building of the new defences took until the autumn of 1915 and confronted Franco-British offensives with an evolving system of field fortifications, which was able to absorb the increasing power and sophistication of attempted breakthrough attacks.

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>From 17 September ~ to secure the flank. ⇒1914年9月17日-10月17日に、双方とも相手の北側面に回り込むため互いにしのぎを削っていた。ジョフルはフランス第2方面軍に対して、9月2日-9日にフランス東部から移動することでフランス第6方面軍の北に移動するよう命令し、ファルケンハインはドイツ第6方面軍に対して9月17日にドイツ軍とフランス軍の境界の北側面に移動するよう命令した。翌日までにフランス軍はエーヌ北部を攻撃し、ファルケンハインはフランス軍団を撃退して側面を確保するよう第6方面軍に命じた。 >When the French Second Army ~ had become the main task. ⇒フランス第2方面軍が前進した9月24日、ドイツ軍の攻撃を受けて(方面軍の)側面開放はならず、9月29日までに第8軍団に強化を受けたが、依然リール周辺でドイツ軍の攻撃に晒されたフランス軍はドイツ軍の北部側面あたりへ進軍すべくもなかった。ドイツ第6方面軍はまた、北部への到着時には、側面あたりを進軍することも適わず、むしろフランス軍の攻撃に対抗することを余儀なくされることを知った。フランス内でのドイツ方面軍は、北側面を守るという二次的な目的が主要任務になった。 ※この段落は構文がむずかしく、半ば推測で訳しました。誤訳の節はどうぞ悪しからず。 >By 6 October, the French ~ Second Army on 4 October. In October 1914 French and British artillery commanders met to discuss means for supporting infantry attacks, the British practice having been to keep the artillery silent until targets were identified, the French artillery fired a rafale*, which ceased as the infantry began the assault. A moving barrage ~ in sufficient quantity. ⇒10月6日ごろ、フランス軍はリール周辺でドイツ軍からの攻撃に耐えるために英国軍の増援を必要としていた。BEF(英国遠征隊)は10月5日にエーヌからフランドルへの移動を開始し、10月4日に第2方面軍の左側面部隊から形成されていた第10方面軍の左側面隊として組み入れられた。1914年10月に、仏英砲兵隊の司令官らは歩兵隊の攻撃を支援するための手段を討議するために会談し、英国軍は目標が特定されるまで砲兵の実演を沈黙させ、フランス軍の砲兵隊が一斉射撃*して、歩兵隊の攻撃が始まると同時に打ち止めをすることになった。両方の方法の組み合わせとして移動集中砲火が提案され、十分な量の銃砲や弾薬が蓄積された場合には、それを標準的なやり方とすることになった。 *rafale(フランス語からの借用語):「一連の速射、一斉射撃、疾風射撃」。 >Falkenhayn issued memoranda ~ recovered by counter-attacks. ⇒ファルケンハインは1915年1月7日と25日に覚書を発布して、可能な限り少ない部隊で地面を確保できるようにするために西部戦線で使用される防衛戦のモデルを定義した。(すなわち)西部での人的資源の需要を減らすことによって、より多くの師団を東部前線に送ることができるだろう。最前線は、少数部隊による無期限の防御を可能にする程度に強化されるべきである。攻略された地域は、反撃によって回復されることがあり得るからである。 >A second trench was ~ attempted breakthrough attacks. ⇒第2塹壕は、最前線の後ろに掘られ、塹壕守備隊を保護し、連絡用の覆面塹壕(通路)を通って簡単に最前線にアクセスできるようにすることとされた。反撃によって前線塹壕の回復に失敗した場合、後方戦線を前線の残りの部分に接続し、戦線内の湾曲部で突破を防いで地面の損失を制限することにしていた。新しい防御の構築は1915年の秋までかかり、進化し続ける野戦強化システムで仏英軍の攻撃に対峙し、それによって試行される突破攻撃の能力増強や洗練化を吸収できるはずである。

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    A sequence of Allied offensives began with attacks by American and French armies on 26 September from Rheims to the Meuse, two British armies at Cambrai on 27 September, British, Belgian and French armies in Flanders on 28 September and on 29 September the British Fourth Army (including the US II Corps) attacked the Hindenburg Line from Holnon north to Vendhuille while the French First Army attacked the area from St. Quentin to the south. The British Third Army attacked further north and crossed the Canal du Nord at Masnières. In nine days British, French and US forces crossed the Canal du Nord, broke through the Hindenburg Line and took 36,000 prisoners and 380 guns. German troops were short of food, had worn out clothes and boots and the retreat back to the Hindenburg Line had terminally undermined their morale. The Allies had attacked with overwhelming material superiority, using combined-arms tactics, with a unified operational method and achieved a high tempo. On 4 October, the German government requested an armistice and on 8 October. the German armies were ordered to retire from the rest of the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line).