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On 18 April the II Corps was ordered by the Regency Council to stop near Kaniv in Ukraine; in a triangle between Potik, Kozyn and Stepantsi. Soon it begun to be surrounded by a nearby German units. On 6 May the commander of the 28th German Landwehr Brigade, General Zierold, subordinate of Marshal Hermann von Eichhorn, issued an ultimatum to the II Corps, demanding it lay down its arms and surrender. II Corps readied for battle, and surprised Zierold, who was unprepared for battle. Zierold backed down saying that the ultimatum was a miscommunication. Soon however Zierold received reinforcements, which convinced him he had enough strength to force the issue. On the night of the tenth of May to the eleventh of May 1918, II Corps was surrounded and attacked by German units. Polish units, initially surprised, formed on the village of Yemchykha and took defensive positions. The II Corps resisted for about a day, and both sides sustained heavy losses. By the evening of 11 May the Germans, who did not expect the Poles to put such a stiff resistance, proposed a ceasefire and negotiations. With supplies running low the Poles accepted the offer to negotiate, and eventually agreed to an honorable capitulation. The battle resulted in heavy losses for the Germans, estimated at about 1,500 dead and 273 wounded. Polish losses are estimated to be much smaller, at about few dozen killed and about 150 wounded. Half of the Polish survivors were arrested and sent to prisoner of war camps (number of prisoners is estimated at about 3,250; another estimate suggests 4,000 imprisoned, and 1,500-2,000 who escaped), but the others managed to escape. Those who escaped included the Polish commander Józef Haller de Hallenburg, who faked his death in the battle, and fled to France where he was later appointed commander of the new Polish unit, the Blue Army (or Haller's Army). In the Second Polish Republic, several units would adopt the name "of Kaniów" in honor of that battle: the 28th, 29th, 30th and 31st Infantry Regiments (of Kaniów Rifleman, Polish: Pułki Strzelców Kaniowskich") and 6th Uhlan Kaniów Regiment (6 Pułk Ułanów Kaniowskich). The Revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion was the armed actions of the Czechoslovak Legions in the Russian Civil War against Bolshevik authorities during May - August, 1918, in Volga, Siberia and Ural regions.

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>On 18 April the II Corps was ordered by the Regency Council to stop near Kaniv in Ukraine; in a triangle between Potik, Kozyn and Stepantsi. Soon it begun to be surrounded by a nearby German units. On 6 May the commander of the 28th German Landwehr Brigade, General Zierold, subordinate of Marshal Hermann von Eichhorn, issued an ultimatum to the II Corps, demanding it lay down its arms and surrender. II Corps readied for battle, and surprised Zierold, who was unprepared for battle. Zierold backed down saying that the ultimatum was a miscommunication. ⇒4月18日、「リージェンシー(摂政)評議会」によって、第II軍団はウクライナのカニウ付近のポチック、コジン、およびステパンツィの間の三角形内に駐留するよう命じられた。間もなくして、近くのドイツ軍部隊に囲まれ始めた。5月6日、ドイツ軍第28国防軍旅団の司令官、チェロルド将軍、ヘルマン・フォン・アイヒホルン副元帥が第II軍団に究極の警告を出し、武器を置いて降伏することを要求した。第II軍団は戦闘のために準備を整え、戦闘準備ができていなかったチェロルドを驚かせた。チェロルドは、究極の警告は誤ったコミュニケーションであると述べて、引き下がった。 >Soon however Zierold received reinforcements, which convinced him he had enough strength to force the issue. On the night of the tenth of May to the eleventh of May 1918, II Corps was surrounded and attacked by German units. Polish units, initially surprised, formed on the village of Yemchykha and took defensive positions. The II Corps resisted for about a day, and both sides sustained heavy losses. By the evening of 11 May the Germans, who did not expect the Poles to put such a stiff resistance, proposed a ceasefire and negotiations. ⇒その後すぐにチェロルドは援軍を受け入れたので、(当面する)問題点を強行する軍勢があると確信した。1918年5月10日から5月11日にかけての夜、第II軍団はドイツ軍部隊に包囲され攻撃された。最初は驚いたポーランド軍部隊だったが、エムチカの村で陣形を編成して防衛体制をとった。第II軍団はほぼ丸1日間抵抗して、両陣営とも大きな損失を被った。ポーランド軍がそのような厳しい抵抗を見せると予期しなかったドイツ軍は、5月11日の夕方ごろに停戦と交渉を提案した。 >With supplies running low the Poles accepted the offer to negotiate, and eventually agreed to an honorable capitulation. The battle resulted in heavy losses for the Germans, estimated at about 1,500 dead and 273 wounded. Polish losses are estimated to be much smaller, at about few dozen killed and about 150 wounded. Half of the Polish survivors were arrested and sent to prisoner of war camps (number of prisoners is estimated at about 3,250; another estimate suggests 4,000 imprisoned, and 1,500-2,000 who escaped), but the others managed to escape. ⇒物資供給が少なくなったため、ポーランド軍は交渉の申し出を受け入れ、最終的には名誉ある(条件付)降伏に同意した。死者1,500人、負傷者273人と推定されるドイツ軍にとって、この戦闘は大きな損失となった。ポーランド軍の損失は数十人の死亡、約150人の負傷で、はるかに小さいと推定される。(ただし)ポーランド軍の生存者の半数が逮捕され、捕虜収容所に送られた(囚人数は約3,250人と推定されるが、別の推定では4000人が投獄され、1,500-2,000人が逃亡したとされる)。 >Those who escaped included the Polish commander Józef Haller de Hallenburg, who faked his death in the battle, and fled to France where he was later appointed commander of the new Polish unit, the Blue Army (or Haller's Army). In the Second Polish Republic, several units would adopt the name "of Kaniów" in honor of that battle: the 28th, 29th, 30th and 31st Infantry Regiments (of Kaniów Rifleman, Polish: Pułki Strzelców Kaniowskich") and 6th Uhlan Kaniów Regiment (6 Pułk Ułanów Kaniowskich). ⇒この逃亡者の中に、戦闘で死亡したと偽ったポーランド軍指揮官ヨゼフ・ハレル・ド・ハレンブルクが含まれていた。彼は、フランスに逃げて、後に新しいポーランド軍部隊、ブルー方面軍(またはハーラー軍)の指揮官に任命された。第2次ポーランド共和国では、その戦闘を記念して、数個部隊が「カニョフの」名前を採択することになったようである。すなわちそれは、第28、第29、第30、第31歩兵連隊(「カニョフライフル連隊」、ポーランド語:PułkiStrzelcówKaniowskich)および「第6ウフラン・カニョフライフル連隊」(6PułkUłanówKaniowskich)である。 >The Revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion was the armed actions of the Czechoslovak Legions in the Russian Civil War against Bolshevik authorities during May - August, 1918, in Volga, Siberia and Ural regions. ⇒「チェコスロバキア軍団の反乱」は、ロシア内戦期間の1918年5月~8月、ボルガ、シベリア、ウラル地域に居留するボルシェビキ当局に対するチェコスロバキア軍団の武装行動であった。

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  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    The Battle of Kostiuchnówka was a World War I battle that took place July 4–6, 1916, near the village of Kostiuchnówka (Kostyukhnivka) and the Styr River in the Volhynia region of modern Ukraine, then part of the Russian Empire. It was a major clash between the Russian Army and the Polish Legions (part of the Austro-Hungarian Army) during the opening phase of the Brusilov Offensive. Polish forces, numbering 5,500–7,300, faced Russian forces numbering over half of the 46th Corps of 26,000. The Polish forces were eventually forced to retreat, but delayed the Russians long enough for the other Austro-Hungarian units in the area to retreat in an organized manner. Polish casualties were approximately 2,000 fatalities and wounded. The battle is considered one of the largest and most vicious of those involving the Polish Legions in World War I.

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    Facing the major Russian offensive, the II Brigade of the Polish Legions was deployed out of Kostiuchnówka, at Gruziatyn and Hołzula. The I Brigade held the lines advancing down the Polish Hill, Kostiuchnówka village; the III Brigade, positioned to its left, held the lines near the Optowa village; the Piłsudski's Redoubt was the most advanced Polish position, just about 50 metres (164 ft) facing head on the most advanced Russian redoubt, called the "Eagle's Nest". Further down the Polish Hill the Hungarian 128th Honvédség Brigade took positions opposite the Polish right flank, the Hungarian 11th Cavalry Division opposite the left flank. Two Polish fall-back lines were drawn beyond the first line of defense: one drawn through the Polish Forest and the Engineer's Forest, and the second one through the villages of Nowe Kukle, Nowy Jastków, the camp of Legionowo and Nowa Rarańcza. The Polish Legions at Kostiuchnówka numbered from 5,500[1] to 7,300 (6,500 infantry and 800 cavalry), with forty-nine machine guns, fifteen mortars and twenty-six artillery units. The Russian forces, composed of the most part of the 46th Corps (primarily the 110th and 77nd Infantry Division[clarification needed]), numbered 23,000 infantry, 3,000 cavalry and were backed up by a larger artillery force consisting of 120 units.