• 締切済み
  • 困ってます


英語の勉強をしています。 文章のチェックをしていただけませんか。 Three major infectious diseases (malaria, tuberculosis, HIV / AIDS) are still important, and response to malaria exclusion, drug-resistant tuberculosis, Tuberculosis Associated with HIV Infection etc. is major issue. Also, virus hepatitis is an important problem. Nearby half of the deaths are Non-Communicable Diseases(NCDs) but the proportion of infectious disease and perinatal and nutritional problems are still high compare with similar income level countries. The maternal mortality rate has declined from 100,000 births in 1990 to 431 in 2015, but there is still much room for improvement in pregnancy / delivery care and family planning. Changes in the child mortality rate at the same duration show that improvement rate is lower than in middle and low income countries, especially in neonatal. Main causes of infant mortality include low birth weight(19%), complications occurring in perinatal period (13.0%) along with acute respiratory infection (17.0%), diarrhea (11.0%). The problem at the period just before and after delivery is also considered to be large. Along with the decentralization by the 18th Constitutional amendment, development and implementation of the health plan also become a provincial governments responsibility. However, there are challenges such as structural fragmentation, inadequate specialist, deterioration of health facilities and equipment, not functioned referral system, gender insensitivity and so on. With this back ground, the organization decided to conduct a data collection survey on health sector focusing on maternal and child health for formulation of effective future assistance in Pakistan.


  • 英語
  • 回答数1
  • ありがとう数0


  • 回答No.1

Tuberculosis associated with HIV Infection etc. is a major issue. still high compared with provincial government's responsibility there are such problems as structural fragmentation (of what?) inadequate number/resource of specialists poorly functioning referral system among hospitals (?)



  • 英文チェック

    英語の勉強をしてます。 下の文章の英文法等をチェックしていただけますでしょうか。 In Pakistan, there are problems that combine Poverty, low levels of education, high fertility rate, etc., that is, there is the problem that symbolizes low-developed countries profile. In particular, the access to health service for Women such as reproductive health or pregnancy/delivery care still bad and urban rural gap is large entire health sector. Furthermore, in HDI(0.550, 2015) Pakistan is the 147th out of 188 countries, it is second lowest in Southern Asia countries(from East-South Asia to South-West Asia), only after the Afghanistan(0.479, rank169th)

  • 英文の和訳お願いします

    Advocates of slow food are concerned with eating food which promotes good health and is produced in such a way as to be environmentally responsible and humane regarding the treatment of animals raised for consumption. この英文の和訳をお願いします

  • 和訳をお願します

    Dr. Nicholas Day is a professor of global health at Oxford University, and he coordinates research on infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever in rural Southeast Asia. There is hope that malaria can someday be eradicated, but the disease is still very common. Unfortunately, it seems that malaria parasites in Cambodia are becoming resistant to the drug that was once thought to be the best chance of eradicating the disease. Two groups of malaria patients were used in a study directed by Dr. Day. One group was from Cambodia, and the other was located in Thailand. Each group was divided into two subgroups. One subgroup took artesunate; the other took an artesunate-mefloquine combination. The Cambodian subjects took longer to clear the parasite. In other words, the parasite found in the Cambodian subjects was able to resist both treatments better than the parasite that was present in the Thai subjects. Furthermore, six of the Cambodian subjects in the artesunate sub-group contracted the disease again, while only two of the Thai artesunate sub-group subjects fell ill with malaria after the first clearance of the parasite. The combined therapy was much more effective, with only one case of re-infection in each group. The largest lesson from the study is that eradication efforts ― developing improved drugs, controlling mosquito populations, and protecting people by using mosquito nets, among other actions ― must be accelerated, or the malaria parasites will become too strong to eliminate. よろしくお願いします^^;

  • この英文の訳を教えて下さい

    英文は nursing  Health care profession concerned with providing care to the sick and disabled and with promoting,maintaining,and restoring health.Nurses perform mamy different services,including research,education,andpatient consultation.They often coordinate their services with physicians and other health providers.  The need for nursing is uniuersal.The International Council of Nurses states that the function of nursing is fourfold-to promote health,prevent illness,restore health,and alleviate suffering-and that inherent in nursing is “the respect for life,dignity and the rights of man. It is unrestricted by considerations of nationality,race,creed,colour,age,sex,politics or social status. Nurses render health services to individuals,the family and the community and co-ordinate their services with those of related groups.” です。 訳がわからなくて困っています。 よかっから教えて下さい。 お願いします。

  • この英文を和訳してほしいです。

    Senescence, according to the dictionary, simply means the process or condition of "growing old". However, to biologists and psychologists it connotes "those manifestations in structure and function of a declining or deteriorating nature which take place during the period of life when the mortality rate of a population is accelerated". It also implies progressive and irreversible deterioration. Thus, the connotations are entirely negative. It ignores all the recovery, restoration, growth, development, and improvement of abilities that are possible as humans age. The assumption that senescence or deterioration is all there is to human aging is a negative from of ageism. On the other hand, to deny the senescence or declines in function that usually accompany aging is a positive from of ageism. Senility is defined as "the physical and mental infirmity of old age. It is not actually a medical or scientific term, but it is often used by doctors and laypeople alike to "explain" the behavior and condition of older people. Many of the reactive emotional responses of older people, such as depression, grief, and anxiety, are labeled senility and mistakenly considered to be irreversible and untreatable. This is another form of ageism. Actual brain damage from cerebral arteriosclerosis or Alzheimer's disease probably accounts for only about half of the mental disorders in old age. Only 5 to 10 percent of those over 65 have mental disorders severe enough to interfere with normal function.

  • 英文をうまく訳せず困っています。

    イギリスの移民の増加について書かれた英文を読んでいます。 その中でいくつかうまく訳せない部分がありましたのでどなたか日本語的に通る訳をしてくださいませんか?よろしくお願いします。 以下分からない部分を箇条書きにしました。 (1)There are major concerns about the stress this is placing on social services.("this is"がよくわかりません・・・) (2)There is also the question of government benefits being given to the immigrants: one out of every six Eastern Europeans living in Britain is collecting public aid.("one out of"をどう訳せばいいのでしょうか・・・。) (3)In London, more than one out of every five crimes, about one-third of all sex crimes and one-half of all frauds are committed by the foreign population.((2)と同じく"one out of"で悩んでいます。) (4)Yet despite these numbers, perhaps the largest concern that the native British have is the fear of losing their national identity in favor of cultural diversity.("in favor of"以下をどう組み込むと自然なんでしょうか・・・) (5)People have also suggested that the English flag, a red cross on a white background, should be done away with because some might associate them with the Crusades, and the Muslim Council of Britain demanded that Islamic law now be incorporated into British law in areas where there are Muslim populations.("and"の前と後ろをどうつなぐのか悩んでいます。) (6)We sometimes joke in Britain about how all the plumbers nowadays seem to be from Poland. And people have come from other Eastern European countries as well. For example, I do not think that there are any buses still running in Lithuania because there are so many Lithuanian bus drivers here in Birmingham.(どのあたりが面白いのかよくわかりません・・・何を言っているジョークなんでしょうか?) 以上6点です。よろしくお願いします。

  • 英文チェックをお願いします・

    以下の英文の添削をお願いできますでしょうか? I took part in volunteer work in Tohoku where I was searching for missing people from the horrible earthquake which happened a year and a half ago. There are still over 2800people who have not been found. I had to have a feeling of helplessness when I saw the horrible scars of the disaster, but it is a reality that there are still a lot of people who lost their family and have to continue to live in the scares. I think it is an important to find missing people as soon as possible so that the family of them will be able to take a step toward recovery. (原文) 1年半前に発生した地震による行方不明者を捜索するためのボランティア活動に参加してきました。今なお2800名以上の方々が行方不明となっています。 災害のすさまじい爪痕を見て、私は自分の無力さを感じざるを得ませんでした。でも、家族を失って、その爪痕の中で生活を続けている方々がいるのも現実なんですよね。 行方不明者のご家族の方々が復興の一歩を踏み出せるようにするためにも、一日も早く行方不明者を見つけることが重要だと感じています。

  • 英語長文

    Read the following and answer the questions in English using full sentences. とのことですが、英語の質問に英語で答えなければならないのかが分からなかったので、とりあえず分かる所を日本語で書いて見ました。2問程空欄で申し訳ないですが… 自分の解答に自信が無いので、回答者さんの解答もお聞きしたいと思います。もし良ければ英語での解答もお教え願います。 (1)Recently, there has been increasing public awareness in Japan of the developing world's problems with HIV/AIDS and the spread of diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria. In a forum held in Winterthur, Switzerland, Yoshiyuki Sato, managing director of Kenya Nut Co., a macadamia-nut processing company in Kenya, eastern Africa, presented a sustainable-action project to help people in developing countries who are suffering from such infectious diseases. Sato recently was interviewed about the need to encourage participation in the project around the world. The following is his answer to the question on how he became involved in the fight against infectious diseases in developing countries. (2)I am all too familiar with the problems caused by the spread of infectious diseases. In Kenya, some estimates show that as much as 30% of the adult population is infected with HIV. There are also many other kinds of infectious and parasitic diseases that people contract through contact with tainted blood or water. For every 10 workers I need, I have to hire 16 because some employees are always taking sick leave. In fact, the problem has had a very serious impact on my business. For the welfare of my employees, I have built a company clinic to give them access to inexpensive medical treatment. We also hold seminars on reproductive health and child care for families of employees. (3)However, there are limits to what a private company can do. Two years ago, I had the chance to meet members of a Swiss nongovernmental organization called the Double Incentive Project (DIP) Foundation, which has been working to introduce organic farming to one of the nut-growing communities in Kenya. Our company, the Swiss NGO and this community decided to team up for a project to supply roasted macadamia nuts to Swiss bakers. The bakers use the roasted nuts to produce a new brand of bread called “Bread of Solidarity.” We launched the bread in February, and it is now sold am over 2,000 bakeries in Switzerland. Some of the proceeds from the sales are put into a fund for building a tuberculosis treatment clinic in the community. (4)In October, I was invited to speak about the project at an international conference on infectious diseases held in Winterthur, Switzerland. At the end of the conference, five participants, including myself, decided to form a task force to promote the fight against diseases of poverty. Our objective is to present a model of cooperation between private organizations and NGOs in actionーnamely the Bread of Solidarity projectーand emphasize the importance of private-sector participation in the fight against infectious diseases. ・What was Sato's role at the forum held in Winterthur, Switzerland? →HIVやAIDS、結核やマラリアといった感染症に苦しむ発展途上国の人々を助ける(支援する)ための持続可能な活動プロジェクトを世界中に示すこと。 ・How do infectious and parasitic diseases spread among the people in Kenya? →人々が汚染された血液や水と接触することを通じて感染する。 ・What is the role of the DIP Foundation? →3段落に書いてあるのは分かりましたが、nut-growing communitiesの訳仕方に困りました。 ・What are some of the profits from the sales of “Bread of Solidarity” being used for? →コミュニティの中の結核治療クリニック設立のための資金に入れられる(寄付される)。 ・What was the aim in forming a task force to promote the fight against diseases of poverty? →一番最後に書いてあるのは分かったのですが、上手くまとめられませんでした。

  • 和訳のチェックをお願いします

    The following are the names, telephone numbers and addresses of all decedent’s maternal cousins, that is , the children of any deceased person named in question 21 : ( LIST THEM BY PARENT ) If any of these cousins are also deceased, please give their date of death. 故人の母方の従兄弟で質問21で亡くなっている人の子供達の、氏名、電話番号、住所を記載せよ。(親毎に記載) もし亡くなっている場合は亡くなった日付と場所を記載せよ。

  • 以下の英文はどう訳しますか?

    以下の英文はどう訳しますか? Much of this book is concerned with agricultural change, involving a certain amount of historical reconstruction. It is important to set doctrinal assumptions aside and, in particular, not to assume without evidence the existence of any process such as degradation or intensification. Change can take many forms, and the adoption of practices that are more intensive in use of capital or labor is only one form. Comparatively, it is useful to describe one system as more intensive than another, but the terms to intensify and intensification are used loosely in the literature. I introduce the theory of intensification in chapter 4 but discuss it in some depth only chapter 11. Elsewhere in the book, I avoid these terms as far as possible. Certain other themes are also of major significance. 長いのですが、よろしくおねがいいたします!!!!