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During the battle the Ottoman defenders suffered between 82 and 402 killed, between 1,337 and 1,364 wounded, and between 242 and 247 missing. About 200 Ottoman prisoners were captured. Unit Casualties 52nd (Lowland) Division 1,874 53rd (Welsh) Division 584 54th (East Anglian) Division 2,870 Anzac Mounted Division 105 Imperial Mounted Division 547 Imperial Camel Brigade 345 Total 6,325 Between 17 and 20 April, EEF lost 6,444 casualties. The infantry suffered 5,328 casualties; 2,870 of these were from the 54th (East Anglian) Division and 1,828 from the 163rd Brigade alone. The 52nd (Lowland) Division suffered 1,874 casualties, the 53rd (Welsh) Division 584, the Imperial Camel Brigade 345 casualties, the Imperial Mounted Division 547 casualties, and the Anzac Mounted Division 105 casualties. Only one brigade in each of the 52nd (Lowland) and the 54th (East Anglian) Divisions was intact or had suffered only light casualties. The 74th Division had not been engaged. Official casualty figures include 509 killed, 4,359 wounded, and 1,534 missing; including 272 prisoners of war, while unofficially the figure was much higher at 17,000. A slightly lower figure of 14,000 has also been claimed. The 10th Light Horse Regiment, (3rd Light Horse Brigade, Imperial Mounted Division) lost 14 officers and almost half the regiment's other ranks killed or wounded. Three months later on 12 July, General Allenby reported "Units are, however, below strength, and 5,150 infantry and 400 yeomanry reinforcements are required now to complete the four divisions and mounted now in the line to full strength." The Gaza war cemetery bears silent witness to the casualties which were much more severe than the British public was told. Consequences The defeat of the EEF boosted the Ottoman Fourth Army's morale. Within weeks Kress von Kressenstein was reinforced by the 7th and the 54th Divisions, and by October 1917 the Eighth Army commanded by Kress von Keressenstein had been established with headquarters at Huleikat north of Huj. The EEF's strength, which could have supported an advance to Jerusalem, was now decimated. Murray and Dobell were relieved of their commands and sent back to England. The line secured during the battle by the EEF was consolidated and strengthened and trench warfare established from Sheikh Ailin on the Mediterranean coast to Sheikh Abbas and on to Tel el Jemmi. This line was to be held for six months, when plans for a fresh effort in the autumn were developed to capture Gaza and Jerusalem.

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>During the battle the Ottoman defenders suffered between 82 and 402 killed, between 1,337 and 1,364 wounded, and between 242 and 247 missing. About 200 Ottoman prisoners were captured. ⇒本戦の間にオスマントルコ軍守備隊は、死者82人~402人(かなり幅がありますが、~は「△人以上、○人以下」の意)、負傷者1,337人~1,364人、行方不明者242人~247人の犠牲を被った。そして、およそ200人のオスマントルコ軍囚人が捕えられた。 ※以下、行数節約のために、原文では改行マークを示す【「】を、訳文では比例記号【∝】でそれを示します(比例と関係があるわけではありませんが、便宜的に利用します)。 >Unit 「 Casualties 52nd (Lowland) Division 「 1,874 53rd (Welsh) Division 「 584 54th (East Anglian) Division 「 2,870 Anzac Mounted Division 「 105 Imperial Mounted Division 「 547 Imperial Camel Brigade 「 345 Total 「 6,325 ⇒部隊名 ∝ 犠牲者(英帝国軍側) 第52(ローランド)師団 ∝ 1,874人 第53(ウェールズ)師団 ∝ 584人 第54(東アングル)師団 ∝ 2,870人 アンザック騎馬師団 ∝ 105人 帝国騎馬師団 ∝ 547人 帝国ラクダ旅団 ∝ 345人 合計 ∝ 6,325人 >Between 17 and 20 April, EEF lost 6,444 casualties. The infantry suffered 5,328 casualties; 2,870 of these were from the 54th (East Anglian) Division and 1,828 from the 163rd Brigade alone. The 52nd (Lowland) Division suffered 1,874 casualties, the 53rd (Welsh) Division 584, the Imperial Camel Brigade 345 casualties, the Imperial Mounted Division 547 casualties, and the Anzac Mounted Division 105 casualties. Only one brigade in each of the 52nd (Lowland) and the 54th (East Anglian) Divisions was intact or had suffered only light casualties. The 74th Division had not been engaged. ⇒4月17日と20日の間で、EEFは6,444人の犠牲者を失った。歩兵連隊は、5,328人の犠牲者を被った。このうちの2,870人は第163旅団が、1,828人は第54(東アングル)師団がそれぞれ単独で被った。第52(ローランド)師団は1,874人、第53(ウェールズ)師団は584人、帝国ラクダ旅団は345人、帝国騎馬師団は547人、そして、アンザック騎馬師団は105人の犠牲者をそれぞれ被った。第52(ローランド)師団と第54(東アングル)師団の各々に所属する各1個旅団だけは、無傷もしくはわずかな犠牲を受けるだけで済んだ。第74師団は、交戦そのものに関わらなかった。 >Official casualty figures include 509 killed, 4,359 wounded, and 1,534 missing; including 272 prisoners of war, while unofficially the figure was much higher at 17,000. A slightly lower figure of 14,000 has also been claimed. The 10th Light Horse Regiment, (3rd Light Horse Brigade, Imperial Mounted Division) lost 14 officers and almost half the regiment's other ranks killed or wounded. Three months later on 12 July, General Allenby reported "Units are, however, below strength, and 5,150 infantry and 400 yeomanry reinforcements are required now to complete the four divisions and mounted now in the line to full strength." The Gaza war cemetery bears silent witness to the casualties which were much more severe than the British public was told. ⇒公式の数値は、捕虜になった者272人を含めて、死亡者509人、負傷者4,359人、行方不明者1,534人の犠牲を数えている。一方、非公式の数値はそれより非常に高い17,000人としている。14,000人をわずかに下回る数値が主張されたこともあった。第10軽騎馬連隊(第3軽騎馬旅団、帝国騎馬師団)は、死亡や負傷で14人の将校と連隊兵卒のほぼ半分を失った。3ヵ月後の7月12日に、「しかし、現在部隊は兵力不足に陥っており、4個師団を完結して十分な軍勢を戦線に配備するためには、歩兵連隊に5,150人、ヨーマンリー隊に400人の強化隊が要求されます」、とアレンビ将軍は報告した。ガザの戦争墓地は、英国の市民が聞かされたことよりずっと厳しい辛酸をなめた犠牲者の証言を、語ることなく、沈黙を守っている。 >Consequences >The defeat of the EEF boosted the Ottoman Fourth Army's morale. Within weeks Kress von Kressenstein was reinforced by the 7th and the 54th Divisions, and by October 1917 the Eighth Army commanded by Kress von Keressenstein had been established with headquarters at Huleikat north of Huj. The EEF's strength, which could have supported an advance to Jerusalem, was now decimated. Murray and Dobell were relieved of their commands and sent back to England. ⇒結果 ⇒EEFの敗北は、オスマントルコ第4方面軍の士気を押し上げた。数週間以内に、クレス・フォン・クレッセンシュタイン(麾下の軍隊)は、第7、第54師団によって補強されて、1917年10月までには、クレス・フォン・クレッセンシュタインによって指揮される第8方面軍は、フージ北のフレイカット本部を設立した。EEFの軍勢は、(以前は)エルサレムへの進軍を支持することもできたが、今やそれは壊滅した。マレイとドーベルは、それぞれの命令から解任されて、英国に送り返された。 >The line secured during the battle by the EEF was consolidated and strengthened and trench warfare established from Sheikh Ailin on the Mediterranean coast to Sheikh Abbas and on to Tel el Jemmi. This line was to be held for six months, when plans for a fresh effort in the autumn were developed to capture Gaza and Jerusalem. ⇒EEFによる戦いの間、確保された戦線が地固めされ、強化された。そして、塹壕戦(の備え)が、シャイフ・アッバスへの地中海沿岸、およびシェイフ・アイリンからテル・エル・ジェミまでの間で確立された。ガザとエルサレムを攻略するために、秋の新たな奮闘の計画が作成されたとき、この戦線は6ヵ月の間占有されることになった。

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  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    This was prompted by the arrival of the 6th Mounted Brigade and 22nd Mounted Brigade from the Salonika campaign. Instead of grouping the two new mounted brigades with the 5th Mounted Brigade to form a new Imperial Mounted Division, the 3rd Light Horse Brigade was transferred from the Anzac Mounted Division to the new division, and replaced by the 22nd Mounted Brigade. The Imperial Mounted Division, established 12 February 1917 at Ferry Post on the Suez Canal under the command of Major General Henry West Hodgson, was established with the 3rd Light Horse Brigade and 4th Light Horse Brigade (which was in the process of formation at Ferry Post and was scheduled to leave for the front on 18 March) along with the 5th and 6th Mounted Brigades. Within Dobell's Eastern Force, General Philip Chetwode commanded the Desert Column, which included the Anzac Mounted Division, the partly formed Imperial Mounted Division, and the 53rd (Welsh) Division of infantry.

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    The Imperial Mounted Division closed its headquarters at Deir el Belah and reopened at Tel el Jemmi. At 15:45 the 3rd Light Horse Brigade left Goz el Taire to take up an outpost line at Jemmi, while the 4th Light Horse, 5th and 6th Mounted Brigades were in the bivouac area by 22:00. The 5th Mounted Brigade moved out at 01:30 on 17 April with orders to capture Kh Erk. The Second Battle of Gaza began on April 17, 1917 and lasted three days. Operating as "Eastern Attack" commanded by W. E. B. Smith, the 52nd (Lowland) and 54th (East Anglian) Divisions were to capture a line from Sheikh Abbas, through Mansura to Kurd Hill on the Es Sire Ridge as quickly as possible, and entrench their new positions. These two divisions were deployed for the attack, the 54th (East Anglian) Division on the right and the 52nd (Lowland) Division on the left, while the 53rd (Welsh) Division advanced across the Wadi Ghuzzee, west of the Rafa-Gaza road to Tel el Ujul, to establish an outpost line in the sand dunes covering the 52nd (Lowland) Division's left flank, with the 74th (Yeomanry) Division in reserve. Two tanks attached to the 163rd (Norfolk & Suffolk) Brigade, 54th (East Anglian) Division, started their advance from Dumb-bell Hill at 04:30, but the leading tank was put out of action after being hit by three shells. The attack on Sheikh Abbas succeeded by 07:00 when the area was occupied and work began to fortify and entrench the position.

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    Between the first and second battles of Gaza, Desert Column, commanded by Lieutenant General Philip Chetwode, was reorganised into an exclusively mounted force comprising the Anzac Mounted Division commanded by Major General Henry Chauvel and the Imperial Mounted Division commanded by Major General Henry Hodgson, each with four brigades. Desert Column was to cover the infantry's right flank and attack Ottoman forces along the Gaza to Beersheba road as far as Hareira. The 1st and 4th Light Horse Brigades were ordered forward to join their divisions, to make up four brigades, in each. The Anzac Mounted Division consisted of the 1st and 2nd Light Horse, the New Zealand Mounted Rifle, and the 22nd Mounted Brigades. The Imperial Mounted Division consisted of the 3rd and the recently reformed 4th Light Horse with the 5th and 6th Mounted Brigades. The 4th Light Horse Brigade arrived at Khan Yunus on 11 April and after dumping baggage was preparing to move forward on 14 April, carrying the Light Mobile Scale of six emergency pack bags per squadron, three days rations, and 12 pounds (5,400 g) grain on each horse. On 1 April, a reconnaissance mission was carried out east of Wadi Ghuzze between Wadi esh Sheria and the sea by one battalion each from the 52nd (Lowland), 53rd (Welsh), and 54th (East Anglian) Divisions. The next day 1,000 Ottoman infantry advanced to the right bank of the Wadi Ghuzze.

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    However, artillery ammunition was limited and was to mainly target the Labyrinth group of Ottoman defences. The mounted divisions were to isolate Gaza by stopping the Gaza garrison retiring, or any reinforcements from Huj and Hareira areas, attempting to reinforce Gaza. They were to pursue any hostile force that showed signs of retiring, and if necessary support the main assault on Gaza, which was to be carried out by the 53rd (Welsh) Division. This division was to be reinforced if necessary by the 161st (Essex) Brigade of the 54th (East Anglian) Division. At 18:00 Murray, the commander in chief of the EEF, established his headquarters in the carriage of a railway train at El Arish. On 25 March, the Anzac Mounted Division moved out of their bivouacs in two columns. The first column, consisting of the New Zealand Mounted Rifles and the 22nd Mounted Yeomanry Brigades, marched up the beach from Bir Abu Shunnar at 02:30, to establish a line just south of the Wadi Ghuzzeh.

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    Gloucester Hussars Regiment (5th Mounted Brigade, Imperial Mounted Division) two 60-pdrs 15th Heavy Battery. Eastern Force units under the direct command of Dobell which remained at Rafa, were to protect the lines of communication, the Wadi el Arish crossing, and Khan Yunis, from an attack on the right flank. This force consisted of 8,000 men in the 52nd (Lowland) Division (Major General W.E.B. Smith) 155th (South Scottish) Brigade 156th (Scottish Rifles) Brigade 157th (Highland Light Infantry) Brigade Also under the direct command of Dobell were the 54th (East Anglian) Division (Major General S.W. Hare) (less one brigade in the Suez Canal Defences) 161st (Essex) Brigade 162nd (East Midland) Brigade 163rd (Norfolk & Suffolk) Brigade 54th Division (3 Brigades RFA 12 18–pdrs=24 guns) 4 of each battery only = 16 guns; 4 X 4.5-inch howitzers = 8 howitzer 74th (Yeomanry) Division 229th Brigade Imperial Camel Corps Brigade (Brigadier General S. Smith) 1st (Australian) Battalion 2nd (British) Battalion 3rd (Australian) Battalion 4th (Australian and New Zealand) Battalion

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    — Chauvel commanding Anzac Mounted Division, Account of Operations dated 4 April 1917 At 17:38 Dobell commanding Eastern Force, ordered the 54th (East Anglian) Division to move 2 miles (3.2 km) to the west to Burjabye Ridge, and informed Desert Column. An hour later, at 18:35 (25 minutes after Chetwode ordered Chauvel to withdraw), Dobell informed Desert Column and the 54th (East Anglian) Division "that he contemplated withdrawing the whole force across the Wadi Ghazze if Gaza did not shortly fall." There have been claims that the infantry were the first to retire and that, due to a communications breakdown, the 53rd (Welsh) Division made a complete and premature retirement. However, that infantry division had not been told of the movement of the 54th (East Anglian) Division and was still in position. It was not until just before 19:00 that Chetwode phoned Dallas, commander of the 53rd (Welsh) Division, to inform him of the withdrawal of the mounted troops, and the need for him to move his right to reestablish contact with the 54th (East Anglian) Division.

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  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

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    The Anzac Mounted Division returned to take up a position near El Dameita which it held until 16:00, while the 54th (East Anglian) Division remained near Sheikh Abbas engaging the advancing Ottoman units from Beersheba. Ali Muntar, which had been held by two battalions of the Essex Regiment (54th Division), was strongly attacked, and at 09:30 the British infantry were forced to withdraw, having suffered severe losses. They fell back to Green Hill where they were almost surrounded, but managed to withdraw to a line south of Ali Muntar halfway between that hill and Sheluf. After first advising Murray, at 16:30 Dobell issued orders for the withdrawal to the left bank of the Wadi Ghuzzeh of the 53rd (Welsh) and the 54th (East Anglian) Divisions under the command of Dallas. This retirement, which began at 19:00, was completed without interference from the Ottoman Army. An aerial reconnaissance on the morning of 28 March reported that no Ottoman units were within range of the British guns. No large scale attacks were launched by either side, but very active aircraft bombings and artillery duels continued for a time.

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    However, by 12:00 Chetwode commanding Desert Column, had not yet received any reports of Ottoman reinforcements moving towards Gaza, and he sent a message to Chauvel commanding the Anzac Mounted Division and Hodgson commanding the Imperial Mounted Division, to prepare to send a brigade each to assist the infantry attack on Gaza. The Imperial Camel Brigade crossed the Wadi Ghuzzeh at Tel el Jemmi south of the crossings at Um Jerrar, to reach El Mendur on the bank of the Wadi esh Sheria. Here they established an outpost line between the right of the 5th Mounted Brigade and the Wadi Ghuzzeh. The mobile sections of the field ambulances, followed by their immobile sections and ambulance camel transport, moved towards their outpost positions northeast and east of Gaza. With the wadi crossed and strongly defended by the EEF, divisional engineers quickly began to pump water from below the dry bed of the Wadi Ghuzzeh, which was eventually sufficient for all troops engaged. Water was pumped into long rows of temporary canvas troughs for the horses.